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Taxa-specific activity loss and mortality patterns in freshwater trematode cercariae under subarctic conditions

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  11 November 2021

Ana Born-Torrijos
Affiliation:
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
Gabrielle S. van Beest
Affiliation:
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic Cavanilles Institute for Biodiversity and Evolutionary Biology, Science Park, University of Valencia, P.O. Box 22085, 46071 Valencia, Spain
Tereza Vyhlídalová
Affiliation:
Faculty of Science, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice, Branišovská 31, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
Rune Knudsen
Affiliation:
Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N9037 Tromsø, Norway
Roar Kristoffersen
Affiliation:
Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N9037 Tromsø, Norway
Per-Arne Amundsen
Affiliation:
Department of Arctic and Marine Biology, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N9037 Tromsø, Norway
David W. Thieltges
Affiliation:
Department of Coastal Systems, NIOZ Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research, P.O. Box 59, 1790, AB Den Burg, Texel, The Netherlands
Miroslava Soldánová*
Affiliation:
Institute of Parasitology, Biology Centre, Czech Academy of Sciences, 37005 České Budějovice, Czech Republic
*
Author for correspondence: Miroslava Soldánová, E-mail: soldanova@paru.cas.cz

Abstract

Cercarial activity and survival are crucial traits for the transmission of trematodes. Temperature is particularly important, as faster depletion of limited cercarial energy reserves occurs at high temperatures. Seasonal climate conditions in high latitude regions may be challenging to complete trematode life cycle during the 6-month ice-free period, but temperature effects on the activity and survival of freshwater cercariae have not been previously identified. After experimentally simulating natural subarctic conditions during warmer and colder months (13 and 6°C), a statistical approach identifying changes in the tendency of cercarial activity loss and mortality data was used to detect differences in three trematode genera, represented by four taxa (Diplostomum spp., Apatemon spp., small- and large-sized Plagiorchis spp.). A strong temperature-dependent response was identified in both activity loss and mortality in all taxa, with Diplostomum spp. cercariae showing the most gradual changes compared to other taxa. Furthermore, whilst activity loss and mortality dynamics could not be divided into ‘fish- vs invertebrate-infecting cercariae’ groups, the detected taxa-specific responses in relation to life-history traits indicate the swimming behaviour of cercariae and energy allocation among larvae individuals as the main drivers. Cercariae exploit the short transmission window that allows a stable continuance of trematodes’ life cycles in high-latitude freshwater ecosystems.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Author(s), 2021. Published by Cambridge University Press

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Taxa-specific activity loss and mortality patterns in freshwater trematode cercariae under subarctic conditions
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