Feng, Yun Li, Yuanyuan Fu, Shihong Li, Xiaolong Song, Jingdong Zhang, Hailin Yang, Weihong Zhang, Yuzhen Pan, Hong and Liang, Guodong 2017. Isolation of Kaeng Khoi virus (KKV) from Eucampsipoda sundaica bat flies in China. Virus Research, Vol. 238, p. 94.
Obame-Nkoghe, Judicaël Leroy, Eric-Maurice and Paupy, Christophe 2017. Diversity and role of cave-dwelling hematophagous insects in pathogen transmission in the Afrotropical region. Emerging Microbes & Infections, Vol. 6, Issue. 4, p. e20.
McKee, Clifton D. Kosoy, Michael Y. Bai, Ying Osikowicz, Lynn M. Franka, Richard Gilbert, Amy T. Boonmar, Sumalee Rupprecht, Charles E. Peruski, Leonard F. and Markotter, Wanda 2017. Diversity and phylogenetic relationships among Bartonella strains from Thai bats. PLOS ONE, Vol. 12, Issue. 7, p. e0181696.
Chomel, Bruno B. Obregón-Morales, Cirani Olave-Leyva, José Ignacio Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia Stuckey, Matthew J. Moreno-Sandoval, Hayde Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro Salas-Rojas, Mónica and Galvez-Romero, Guillermo 2017. Bartonella Infection in Hematophagous, Insectivorous, and Phytophagous Bat Populations of Central Mexico and the Yucatan Peninsula. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 97, Issue. 2, p. 413.
Ehounoud, C.B. Fenollar, F. Dahmani, M. N’Guessan, J.D. Raoult, D. and Mediannikov, O. 2017. Bacterial arthropod-borne diseases in West Africa. Acta Tropica, Vol. 171, p. 124.
Han, Hui-Ju Wen, Hong-ling Zhao, Li Liu, Jian-wei Luo, Li-Mei Zhou, Chuan-Min Qin, Xiang-Rong Zhu, Ye-Lei Zheng, Xue-Xing Yu, Xue-Jie and Munderloh, Ulrike Gertrud 2017. Novel Bartonella Species in Insectivorous Bats, Northern China. PLOS ONE, Vol. 12, Issue. 1, p. e0167915.
Peel, Alison J. Baker, Kate S. Hayman, David T. S. Suu-Ire, Richard Breed, Andrew C. Gembu, Guy-Crispin Lembo, Tiziana Fernández-Loras, Andrés Sargan, David R. Fooks, Anthony R. Cunningham, Andrew A. and Wood, James L. N. 2016. Bat trait, genetic and pathogen data from large-scale investigations of African fruit bats, Eidolon helvum. Scientific Data, Vol. 3, p. 160049.
Mannerings, Alexandra O. Osikowicz, Lynn M. Restif, Olivier Nyarko, Edward Suu-Ire, Richard Cunningham, Andrew A. Wood, James L.N. and Kosoy, Michael Y. 2016. Exposure to Bat-AssociatedBartonellaspp. among Humans and Other Animals, Ghana. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 22, Issue. 5, p. 922.
Reeves, Will K. Beck, Jason Orlova, Maria V. Daly, Jennifer L. Pippin, Kristi Revan, Floyd and Loftis, Amanda D. 2016. Ecology of Bats, Their Ectoparasites, and Associated Pathogens on Saint Kitts Island. Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 53, Issue. 5, p. 1218.
McKee, Clifton D. Hayman, David T.S. Kosoy, Michael Y. and Webb, Colleen T. 2016. Phylogenetic and geographic patterns of bartonella host shifts among bat species. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, Vol. 44, p. 382.
Dietrich, Muriel Tjale, Mabotse A. Weyer, Jacqueline Kearney, Teresa Seamark, Ernest C. J. Nel, Louis H. Monadjem, Ara Markotter, Wanda and Fenton, Brock 2016. Diversity of Bartonella and Rickettsia spp. in Bats and Their Blood-Feeding Ectoparasites from South Africa and Swaziland. PLOS ONE, Vol. 11, Issue. 3, p. e0152077.
Shapiro, Julie Teresa Barbier, Eder and Monadjem, Ara 2016. First Record of Streblidae,Raymondia alulataSpeiser, 1908 (Diptera: Streblidae), in Swaziland and a Review of the GenusRaymondiaand Their Hosts in Africa. Acta Chiropterologica, Vol. 18, Issue. 1, p. 249.
Brook, Cara E. Bai, Ying Dobson, Andrew P. Osikowicz, Lynn M. Ranaivoson, Hafaliana C. Zhu, Qiyun Kosoy, Michael Y. Dittmar, Katharina and Vinetz, Joseph M. 2015. Bartonella spp. in Fruit Bats and Blood-Feeding Ectoparasites in Madagascar. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol. 9, Issue. 2, p. e0003532.
Judson, S. D. Frank, H. K. and Hadly, E. A. 2015. Bartonellae are Prevalent and Diverse in Costa Rican Bats and Bat Flies. Zoonoses and Public Health, Vol. 62, Issue. 8, p. 609.
Anh, Pham Hong Van Cuong, Nguyen Son, Nguyen Truong Tue, Ngo Tri Kosoy, Michael Woolhouse, Mark E.J. Baker, Stephen Bryant, Juliet E. Thwaites, Guy Carrique-Mas, Juan J. and Rabaa, Maia A. 2015. Diversity ofBartonellaspp. in Bats, Southern Vietnam. Emerging Infectious Diseases, Vol. 21, Issue. 7, p. 1266.
van Schaik, J. Dekeukeleire, D. and Kerth, G. 2015. Host and parasite life history interplay to yield divergent population genetic structures in two ectoparasites living on the same bat species. Molecular Ecology, Vol. 24, Issue. 10, p. 2324.
Bai, Ying Hayman, David T. S. McKee, Clifton D. Kosoy, Michael Y. and Walker, David H 2015. Classification of Bartonella Strains Associated with Straw-Colored Fruit Bats (Eidolon helvum) across Africa Using a Multi-locus Sequence Typing Platform. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol. 9, Issue. 1, p. e0003478.
Halliday, Jo E. B. Knobel, Darryn L. Agwanda, Bernard Bai, Ying Breiman, Robert F. Cleaveland, Sarah Njenga, M. Kariuki Kosoy, Michael and Fuehrer, Hans-Peter 2015. Prevalence and Diversity of Small Mammal-Associated Bartonella Species in Rural and Urban Kenya. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol. 9, Issue. 3, p. e0003608.
Olival, Kevin J. Dittmar, Katharina Bai, Ying Rostal, Melinda K. Lei, Bonnie R. Daszak, Peter and Kosoy, Michael 2015. Bartonella spp. in a Puerto Rican Bat Community. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, Vol. 51, Issue. 1, p. 274.
Bat flies are obligate ectoparasites of bats and it has been hypothesized that they may be involved in the transmission of Bartonella species between bats. A survey was conducted to identify whether Cyclopodia greefi greefi (Diptera: Nycteribiidae) collected from Ghana and 2 islands in the Gulf of Guinea harbour Bartonella. In total, 137 adult flies removed from Eidolon helvum, the straw-coloured fruit bat, were screened for the presence of Bartonella by culture and PCR analysis. Bartonella DNA was detected in 91 (66·4%) of the specimens examined and 1 strain of a Bartonella sp., initially identified in E. helvum blood from Kenya, was obtained from a bat fly collected in Ghana. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to report the identification and isolation of Bartonella in bat flies from western Africa.
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