Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Characterization of a Gyrodactylus salaris variant: infection biology, morphology and molecular genetics

  • T. LINDENSTRØM (a1), C. M. COLLINS (a2), J. BRESCIANI (a3), C. O. CUNNINGHAM (a2) and K. BUCHMANN (a1)...
Abstract

A laboratory population of a Danish Gyrodactylus salaris variant founded by 1 single specimen was established and infection studies performed. Rainbow trout as well as Atlantic salmon of 3 different stocks were infected both in cohabitation systems and as single-parasite infections on isolated hosts. Both infection systems revealed that this particular morphotype exhibits low virulence towards Atlantic salmon. Thus, in isolated hosts, the parasites could either not establish or only reproduce to a limited degree on salmon. Rainbow trout, in contrast, proved to be rather susceptible to infection with this G. salaris variant and abundances on this host species always attained significantly higher values in cohabitation systems compared to salmon. Detailed morphological examination confirmed the very high resemblance to G. salaris (sensu stricto), as the range of variation in sclerite characters of the morphotype is almost fully covered by the total range of variation reported for reference G. salaris. Morphological similarities to the closely related congeneric species G. bohemicus were noted. Molecular studies, however, showed that the morphotype most likely represents a G. salaris variant, as it differed only slightly from G. salaris sensu Malmberg, 1957, which is also known to inhabit Danish watercourses. The genomic target region investigated does not allow us to rule out the possibility that it represents a variant form of G. thymalli. Sequences of the ribosomal RNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealed that single individuals contained 2 different ITS sequences, one identical to reference sequence of G. salaris while the other differed at 3 positions. This can be interpreted as an example of a hybrid or, more likely, as intra-individual variation of ITS within single individuals. As one of the nucleotide changes in the variant ITS affects an Hae III restriction site, the current G. salaris variant can be distinguished from G. salaris sensu Malmberg by RFLP diagnosis.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Department of Veterinary Microbiology, Laboratory of Fish Diseases, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University (RVAU), Stigbøjlen 4, DK-1870 Frederiksberg C., Denmark. Tel: +45 35282703. Fax: +45 35382711. E-mail: thl@kvl.dk
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

AGATSUMA, T., ARAKAWA, Y., IWAGAMI, M., HONZAKO, Y., CAHYANINGSIH, U., KANG, SHIN-YONG & HONG, SUNG-JONG (2000). Molecular evidence of natural hybridisation between Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica. Parasitology International49, 231238.

APPLEBY, C. & MO, T. A. (1997). Population dynamics of Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea) infecting Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, parr in the River Batnfjordselva, Norway. Journal of Parasitology83, 2330.

BAKKE, T. A., HARRIS, P. D. & CABLE, J. (2002). Host specificity dynamics: observation on gyrodactylid monogeneans. International Journal for Parasitology32, 281308.

BAKKE, T. A., HARRIS, P. D., JANSEN, P. A. & HANSEN, L. P. (1992a). Host specificity and dispersal in gyrodactylid monogeneans, with particular reference to Gyrodactylus salaris (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms13, 6374.

BAKKE, T. A., HARRIS, P. D. & JANSEN, P. A. (1992b). The susceptibility of Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill) to Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg (Platyhelminthes; Monogenea) under experimental conditions. Journal of Fish Biology41, 499507.

BAKKE, T. A., JANSEN, P. A. & HANSEN, L. P. (1990). Differences in the host resistance of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., stocks to the monogenean Gyrodactylus salaris Malmber, 1957. Journal of Fish Biology37, 577587.

BAKKE, T. A., JANSEN, P. A. & HANSEN, L. P. (1991b). Experimental transmission of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) from the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to the European eel (Anguilla anguilla). Canadian Journal of Zoology69, 733737.

BAKKE, T. A., JANSEN, P. A. & KENNEDY, C. R. (1991a). The host specificity of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea): susceptibility of Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) under experimental conditions. Journal of Fish Biology39, 4557.

BAKKE, T. A., JANSEN, P. A. & HARRIS, P. D. (1996). Differences in susceptibility of anadromous and resident stocks of Arctic char to infections of Gyrodactylus salaris under experimental conditions. Journal of Fish Biology49, 341351.

BAKKE, T. A. & MacKENZIE, K. (1993). Comparative susceptibility of native Scottish and Norwegian stocks of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., to Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg: Laboratory experiments. Fisheries Research17, 6985.

BAKKE, T. A., SOLENG, A. & HARRIS, P. D. (1999). The susceptibility of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.)×brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) hybrids to Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg and Gyrodactylus derjavini Mikailov. Parasitology119, 467481.

BUCHMANN, K. & BRESCIANI, J. (1997). Parasitic diseases in pond-reared rainbow trout. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms28, 125138.

BUCHMANN, K. & BRESCIANI, J. (1998). Microenvironment of Gyrodactylus derjavini on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: association between mucous cells density in skin and site selection. Parasitology Research84, 1724.

BUCHMANN, K. & ULDAL, A. (1997). Gyrodactylus derjavini infections in four salmonids: comparative host susceptibility and site selection of parasites. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms28, 1322.

BUSH, A. O., LAFFERTY, K. D., LOTZ, J. M. & SHOSTAK, A. W. (1997). Parasitology meets ecology on its own terms: Margolis et al. revisited. Journal of Parasitology83, 575583.

CUNNINGHAM, C. O. (1997). Species variation within the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of Gyrodactylus (Monogenea) ribosomal RNA genes. Journal of Parasitology83, 215219.

CUNNINGHAM, C. O., ALIESKY, H. & COLLINS, C. M. (2000). Sequence and secondary structure variation in the Gyrodactylus (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) ribosomal RNA gene array. Journal of Parasitology86, 567576.

CUNNINGHAM, C. O., McGILLIVRAY, D. M., MacKENZIE, K. & MELVIN, W. T. (1995). Discrimination between Gyrodactylus salaris, G. derjavini, and G. truttae (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) using restriction fragment length polymorphisms and an oligonucleotide probe within the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Parasitology111, 8794.

CUNNINGHAM, C. O., MO, T. A., COLLINS, C. M., BUCHMANN, K., THIERY, R., BLANC, G. & LAUTRAITE, A. (2001). Redescription of Gyrodactylus teuchis Lautraite, Blanc, Thiery, Daniel & Vigneulle, 1999 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae), a species identified by ribosomal RNA sequence. Systematic Parasitology48, 141150.

HARRIS, P. D., CABLE, J., TINSLEY, R. C. & LAZARUS, C. M. (1999). Combined ribosomal DNA and morphological analysis of individual gyrodactylid monogeneans. Journal of Parasitology85, 188191.

HARRIS, P. D., JANSEN, P. A. & BAKKE, T. A. (1994). The population age structure and reproductive biology of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg (Monogenea). Parasitology108, 167173.

HUDSON, E. B. & HILL, B. J. (1993). EC Directive 91/67/EEC and its relevance to diseases in wild salmonids. Fisheries Research17, 229236.

JANSEN, P. A. & BAKKE, T. A. (1991). Temperature-dependent reproduction and survival of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Parasitology102, 105112.

JANSEN, P. A. & BAKKE, T. A. (1995). Susceptibility of brown trout to Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea) under experimental conditions. Journal of Fish Biology46, 415422.

JENSEN, A. & JOHNSEN, B. O. (1992). Site specificity of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 (Monogenea) on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in the River Lakselva, northern Norway. Canadian Journal of Zoology70, 264267.

JOHNSEN, B. O. & JENSEN, A. (1991). The Gyrodactylus story in Norway. Aquaculture98, 289302.

KAY, J. W., SHINN, A. P. & SOMMERVILLE, C. (1999). Towards an automated system for the identification of notifiable pathogens: Using Gyrodactylus salaris as an example. Parasitology Today15, 201206.

MATEJUSOVÁ, I., GELNAR, M., McBEATH, A. J. A., COLLINS, C. M. & CUNNINGHAM, C. O. (2001). Molecular markers for gyrodactylids (Gyrodactylidae: Monogenea) from five fish families (Teleostei). International Journal for Parasitology31, 738745.

McHUGH, E. S., SHINN, A. P. & KAY, J. W. (2000). Discrimination of the notifiable pathogen Gyrodactylus salaris (Monogenea) using statistical classifiers applied to morphometric data. Parasitology121, 315323.

MO, T. A. (1991). Variations of opisthaptoral hard parts of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792) in a fish farm, with comments on the spreading of the parasite in south-eastern Norway. Systematic Parasitology20, 19.

MO, T. A. (1992). Seasonal variations in the prevalence and infection intensity of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) on Atlantic salmon parr, Salmo salar L., in the River Batnfjordselva, Norway. Journal of Fish Biology41, 697707.

MO, T. A. (1993). Seasonal variations of the opisthaptoral hard parts of Gyrodactylus derjavini Mikailov, 1975 (Monogenea: Gyrodactylidae) on brown trout Salmo trutta L. and Atlantic salmon S. salar L. parr in the River Sandvikselva, Norway. Systematic Parasitology26, 225231.

SÁNCHEZ, J. G., SPEARE, D. J., MARKHAM, R. J. F. & JONES, S. R. M. (2001). Isolation of a Loma salmonae variant: biological characteristics and host range. Journal of Fish Biology59, 427441.

SHINN, A. P., GIBSON, D. I. & SOMMERVILLE, C. (1997). Argentophillic structures as a diagnostic criterion for the discrimination of species of the genus Gyrodactylus von Nordmann (Monogenea). Systematic Parasitology37, 4757.

SOLENG, A. & BAKKE, T. A. (2001). The susceptibility of grayling (Thymallus thymallus) to experimental infections with the monogenean Gyrodactylus salaris. International Journal for Parasitology31, 793797.

SOLENG, A., BAKKE, T. A. & HANSEN, L. P. (1998). Potential for dispersal of Gyrodactylus salaris (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) by sea-running stages of the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): field and laboratory studies. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences55, 507514.

STERUD, E., MO, T. A., COLLINS, C. M. & CUNNINGHAM, C. O. (2002). The use of host specificity, pathogenicity and molecular markers to differentiate between Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 and G. thymalli Žitňan, 1960 (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae). Parasitology124, 203214.

STÅHL, G. (1983). Differences in the amount and distribution of genetic variation between natural populations and hatchery stocks of the Atlantic salmon. Aquaculture33, 2332.

VAN HERWERDEN, L., BLAIR, D. & AGATSUMA, T. (1999). Intra- and interindividual variation in ITS1 of Paragonimus westermani (Trematoda: Digenea) and related species: Implications for phylogenetic studies. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution12, 6773.

ZIĘTARA, M. S., HUYSE, T., LUMME, J. & VOLCKAERT, F. A. (2002). Deep divergence among subgenera of Gyrodactylus inferred from rDNA ITS region. Parasitology124, 3952.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Parasitology
  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 12 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 83 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 27th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.