Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Characterization of the mitochondrial genome of Diphyllobothrium latum (Cestoda: Pseudophyllidea) – implications for the phylogeny of eucestodes

  • J.-K. PARK (a1), K.-H. KIM (a1) (a2), S. KANG (a1), H. K. JEON (a1), J.-H. KIM (a3), D. T. J. LITTLEWOOD (a4) and K. S. EOM (a1)...

The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome was determined for the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum. This genome is 13 608 bp in length and encodes 12 protein-coding genes (but lacks the atp8), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) and 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, corresponding to the gene complement found thus far in other flatworm mitochondrial (mt) DNAs. The gene arrangement of this pseudophyllidean cestode is the same as the 6 cyclophyllidean cestodes characterized to date, with only minor variation in structure among these other genomes; the relative position of trnS2 and trnL1 is switched in Hymenolepis diminuta. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated amino acid sequences for 12 protein-coding genes of all complete cestode mtDNAs confirmed taxonomic and previous phylogenetic assessments, with D. latum being a sister taxon to the cyclophyllideans. High nodal support and phylogenetic congruence between different methods suggest that mt genomes may be of utility in resolving ordinal relationships within the cestodes. All species of Diphyllobothrium infect fish-eating vertebrates, and D. latum commonly infects humans through the ingestion of raw, poorly cooked or pickled fish. The complete mitochondrial genome provides a wealth of genetic markers which could be useful for identifying different life-cycle stages and for investigating their population genetics, ecology and epidemiology.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Department of Parasitology, College of Medicine, Chungbuk National University Cheongju, Chungbuk 361-763, Republic of Korea. Tel: 82 43 261 2843. Fax: 82 43 272 1603. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. Adachi and M. Hasegawa (1996). Model of amino acid substitution in proteins encoded by mitochondrial DNA. Journal of Molecular Evolution 42, 459468. doi: 10.1007/PL00013324

K. I. Anderson and D. I. Gibson (1989). A key to 3 species of larval Diphyllobothrium Cobbold, 1858 (Cestoda, Pseudophyllidea) occurring in European and North-American freshwater fishes. Systematic Parasitology 13, 39.

R. W. Ashford and W. Crewe (2003). The Parasites of Homo sapiens – an Annotaed Checklist of the Protozoa, Helminths and Arthropods for which we are Home, 2nd Edn. Taylor and Francis, London.

J. L. Boore (1999). Animal mitochondrial genomes. Nucleic Acids Research 27, 17671780.

J. L. Boore and W. M. Brown (2000). Mitochondrial genomes of Galathealinum, Helobdella, and Platynereis: sequences and gene arrangement comparisons indicate that Pogonophora is not a phylum and Annelida and Arthropoda are not sister taxa. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17, 87106.

J. Brabec , R. Kuchta and T. Scholz (2006). Paraphyly of the Pseudophyllidea (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda): circumscription of monophyletic clades based on phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal RNA. International Journal for Parasitology 36, 15351541.

W. M. Brown , E. M. Prager , A. Wang and A. C. Wilson (1982). Mitochondrial DNA sequences of primates: tempo and mode of evolution. Journal of Molecular Evolution 18, 225239.

J. N. Caira and D. T. J. Littlewood (2001). Diversity of Platyhelminthes. In Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Vol. 5 (ed. S. A. Levin ), pp. 863899. Academic Press, New York.

J. Castresana (2000). Selection of conserved blocks from multiple alignments for their use in phylogenetic analysis. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17, 540552.

M. Hardman and L. M. Hardman (2006). Comparison of the phylogenetic performance of neodermatan mitochondrial protein-coding genes. Zoologica Scripta 35, 655665.

J. T. Herbeck and J. Novembre (2003). Codon usage patterns in cytochrome oxidase I across multiple insect orders. Journal of Molecular Evolution 56, 691701. doi: 10.1007/s00239-002-2437-7

E. P. Hoberg , J. Mariaux , J.-L. Justine , D. R. Brooks and P. J. Weekes (1997). Phylogeny of the orders of the Eucestoda (Cercomeromorphae) based on comparative morphology: historical perspectives and a new working hypothesis. Journal of Parasitology 83, 11281147.

E. P. Hoberg , S. L. Gardner and R. A. Campbell (1999). Systematics of the Eucestoda: advances toward a new phylogenetic paradigm, and observation on the early diversification of tapeworms and vertebrates. Systematic Parasitology 42, 112.

M. Hu , N. B. Chilton and R. B. Gasser (2004). The mitochondrial genomics of parasitic nematodes of socio-economic importance: recent progress, and implications for population genetics and systematics. Advances in Parasitology 56, 133212.

M. Hu and R. B. Gasser (2006). Mitochondrial genomes of parasitic nematodes – progress and perspectives. Trends in Parasitology 22, 7884. doi: 10.1016/

J. P. Huelsenbeck and F. Ronquist (2001). MrBayes: Bayesian inference of phylogeny. Bioinformatics 17, 754755. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/17.8.754

H. K. Jeon , K. H. Lee , K. H. Kim , U. W. Hwang and K. S. Eom (2005). Complete sequence and structure of the mitochondrial genome of the human tapeworm, Taenia asiatica (Platyhelminthes; Cestoda). Parasitology 130, 717726. doi: 10.1017/S0031182004007164

K.-H. Kim , K. S. Eom and J.-K. Park (2006). The complete mitochondrial genome of Anisakis simplex (Ascaridida: Nematoda) and phylogenetic implications. International Journal for Parasitology 36, 319328. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2005.10.004

D. V. Lavrov , W. M. Brown and J. L. Boore (2004). Phylogenetic position of the Pentastomida and (pan)crustacean relationships. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B 271, 537544. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2003.2631

D. V. Lavrov and B. F. Lang (2005). Poriferan mtDNA and animal phylogeny based on mitochondrial gene arrangements. Systematic Biology 54, 651659. doi: 10.1080/10635150500221044

T. H. Le , D. Blair , T. Agatsuma , P.-F. Humair , N. J. H. Campbell , M. Iwagami , D. T. J. Littlewood , B. Peacock , D. A. Johnston , J. Bartley , D. Rollinson , E. A. Herniou , D. S. Zarlenga and D. P. Mcmanus (2000). Phylogenies inferred from mitochondrial gene orders – a cautionary tale from the parasitic flatworms. Molecular Biology and Evolution 17, 11231125.

T. H. Le , P.-F. Humair , D. Blair , T. Agatsuma , D. T. J. Littlewood and D. P. McManus (2001). Mitochondrial gene content, arrangement and composition compared in African and Asian schistosomes. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 117, 6171. doi: 10.1016/S0166-6851(01)00330-9

T. H. Le , D. Blair and D. P. McManus (2002 a). Mitochondrial genomes of parasitic flateworms. Trends in Parasitology 18, 206213. doi: 10.1016/S1471-4922(02)02252-3

T. H. Le , M. S. Pearson , D. Blair , N. Dai , L. H. Zhang and D. P. McManus (2002 b). Complete mitochondrial genomes confirm the distinctiveness of the horse-dog and sheep-dog strains of Echinococcus granulosus. Parasitology 124, 97112. doi: 10.1017/S0031182001008976

T. H. Le , N. van De , D. Blair , P. Sithithaworn and D. P. McManus (2006). Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini: development of a mitochondrial-based multiplex PCR for their identification and discrimination. Experimental Parasitology 112, 109114. doi: 10.1016/j.exppara.2005.09.012

S.-H. Lee , J.-Y. Chai , S.-T. Hong , W.-M. Sohn , S. Huh , E.-H. Cheong and S.-B. Kang (1989). Seven cases of Diphyllobothrium latum infection. Korean Journal of Parasitology 27, 213216.

D. T. J. Littlewood , A. E. Lockyer , B. L. Webster , D. A. Johnston and T. H. Le (2006). The complete mitochondrial genomes of Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma spindale and the evolutionary history of mitochondrial genome changes among parasitic flatworms. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 39, 452467. doi: 10.1016/j.ympev.2005.12.012

C. N. L. Macpherson (2005). Human behaviour and the epidemiology of parasitic zoonoses. International Journal for Parasitology 35, 13191331. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2005.06.004

J. Mariaux (1996). Cestode systematics: Any progress? International Journal for Parasitology 26, 231243. doi: 10.1016/0020-7519(95)00129-8

J. Mariaux (1998). A molecular phylogeny of the Eucestoda. Journal of Parasitology 84, 114124.

H. Miyadera , A. Kokaze , T. Kuramochi , K. Kita , R. Machinami , O. Noya , B. A. de Noya , M. Okamoto and S. Kojima (2001). Phylogenetic identification of Sparganum proliferum as a pseudophyllidean cestode by the sequence analyses on mitochondrial COI and nuclear sdhB genes. Parasitology International 50, 93104. doi: 10.1016/S1383-5769(01)00071-X

M. Nakao , N. Yokoyama , Y. Sako , M. Fukunaga and A. Ito (2002). The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis (Cyclophyllidea: Taeniidae). Mitochondrion 1, 497509. doi: 10.1016/S1567-7249(02)00040-5

M. Nakao , Y. Sako and A. Ito (2003). The mitochondrial genome of the tape worm Taenia solium: a finding of the abbreviated stop codon U. Journal of Parasitology 89, 633635. doi: 10.1645/0022-3395(2003)089[0633:TMGOTT]2.0.CO;2

J.-K. Park , K.-H. Kim , S. Kang , W. Kim , K. S. Eom and D. T. J. Littlewood (2007). A common origin of complex life cycles in parasitic flatworms: evidence from the complete mitochondrial genome of Microcotyle sebastis (Monogenea: Platyhelminthes). BMC Evolutionary Biology 7:11. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-7-11

D. P. Olson , D. T. J. Littlewood , R. A. Bray and J. Mariaux (2001). Interrelationships and evolution of the tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 19, 443467. doi: 10.1006/mpev.2001.0930

R. L. Rausch and D. K. Hilliard (1970). Studies on the helminth fauna of Alaska. XLIX. The occurrence of Diphyllobothrium latum (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidae) in Alaska, with notes on the species. Canadian Journal of Zoology 48, 12011219.

C. Saccone , C. Gissi , A. Reyes , A. Larizza , E. Sbisà and G. Pesole (2002). Mitochodrial DNA in metazoa: degree of freedom in a frozen event. Gene 286, 312.

J. L. Sampaio , V. P. de Andrade , C. Lucas Mda , L. Fung , S. M. Gagliardi , S. R. Santos , C. M. Mendes , M. B. Eduardo and T. Dick (2005). Diphyllobothriasis, Brazil. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11, 15981600.

F. L. N. Santos and L. B. de Faro (2005). The first confirmed case of Diphyllobothrium latum in Brazil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 100, 585586. doi: 10.1590/S0074-02762005000600013

H. A. Schmidt , K. Strimmer , M. Vingron and A. von Haeseler (2002). TREE-PUZZLE: maximum likelihood phylogenetic analysis using quartets and parallel computing. Bioinformatics 18, 502504. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/18.3.502

A. Scouras and M. J. Smith (2001). A novel mitochondrial gene order in the crinoid echinoderm Florometra serratissima. Molecular Biology and Evolution 18, 6173.

K. Strimmer and A. von Haeseler (1997). Likelihood mapping: a simple method to visualize phylogenetic content in a sequence alignment. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 94, 68156819.

J. D. Thompson , T. J. Gibson , F. Plewniak , F. Jeanmougin and D. G. Higgins (1997). The ClustalX windows interface: flexible strategies for multiple sequence alignment aided by quality analysis tools. Nucleic Acids Research 25, 48764882. doi: 10.1093/nar/25.24.4876

M. von Nickisch-Rosenegk , W. M. Brown and J. L. Boore (2001). Complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta: gene arrangements indicate that platyhelminths are Eutrochozoans. Molecular Biology and Evolution 18, 721830.

H. Yera , C. Estran , P. Delaunay , M. Gari-Toussaint , J. Dupouy-Camet and P. Marty (2006). Putative Diphyllobothrium nihonkaiense acquired from a Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) eaten in France; genomic identification and case report. Parasitology International 55, 4549. doi: 10.1016/j.parint.2005.09.004

S. K. Wyman , R. K. Jansen and J. L. Boore (2004). Automatic annotation of organellar genomes with DOGMA. Bioinformatics 20, 32523255. doi: 10.1093/bioinformatics/bth352

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 9 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 121 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.