Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Diurnal variation in egg excretion by Heterakis gallinarum

  • Gürbüz Daş (a1), Pål O. Westermark (a2) and Matthias Gauly (a3)
Abstract

Periodicity in nematode egg excretion may be of evolutionary origin as it can favour dispersal of the eggs in the environment. We investigated whether egg excretion by Heterakis gallinarum shows a repeatable pattern of periodicity. The faecal egg concentration and total number of eggs excreted within 4-h intervals were significantly affected by the sampling time within 1 day, but remained unaffected by the sampling day or interaction effects. By contrast, the total number of eggs excreted within 24 h did not differ among the 4 days of the study, collectively indicating repeatable egg excretion patterns. Both host feces and parasite egg excretion increased from night to late afternoon, followed by a decrease in the evening, resulting in higher egg excretion during daytime than the dark period. Feces excretion and worm fecundity showed overlapping diurnal rhythms with similarly timed phases, suggesting the existence of synchronicity between the host feces and nematode egg excretion patterns. We conclude that egg excretion by H. gallinarum is synchronized with host feces excretion and is higher during the daytime than during the dark period. This overlaps with the maximum activity of the day-active host and allows a maximal dispersal of the eggs in the environment.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Author for correspondence: Gürbüz Daş, E-mail: gdas@fbn-dummerstorf.de
References
Hide All
Anonymous (2014) Sunrise and sunset in Goettingen, Germany. Available at https://www.timeanddate.com/sun/germany/gottingen?month=5&year=2013 (Accessed 7 May 2018).
Clarke, PL (1979) Coccidial infection with Eimeria tenella and caecal defaecation in chicks. British Poultry Science 20, 317322.
Clench, HM and Mathias, JR (1995) The avian cecum: a review. The Wilson Bulletin 107, 93121.
Coelho, CD, Berto, BP, Neves, DM, Oliveira, VM, Flausino, W and Lopes, CW (2013) Oocyst shedding by green-winged-saltator (Saltator similis) in the diagnostic of coccidiosis and Isospora similisi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology 22, 6470.
Cringoli, G, Rinaldi, L, Maurelli, MP and Utzinger, J (2010) FLOTAC: new multivalent techniques for qualitative and quantitative copromicroscopic diagnosis of parasites in animals and humans. Nature Protocols 5, 503515.
Daş, G and Gauly, M (2014) Density related effects on lifetime fecundity of Heterakis gallinarum in chickens. Parasites & Vectors 7, 334.
Daş, G, Abel, H, Humburg, J, Schwarz, A, Rautenschlein, S, Breves, G and Gauly, M (2011 a) Non-starch polysaccharides alter interactions between Heterakis gallinarum and Histomonas meleagridis. Veterinary Parasitology 176, 208216.
Daş, G, Savas, T, Kaufmann, F, Idris, A, Abel, H and Gauly, M (2011 b) Precision, repeatability and representative ability of faecal egg counts in Heterakis gallinarum infected chickens. Veterinary Parasitology 183, 8794.
Daş, G, Abel, H, Rautenschlein, S, Humburg, J, Schwarz, A, Breves, G and Gauly, M (2011 c) Effects of dietary non-starch polysaccharides on establishment and fecundity of Heterakis gallinarum in grower layers. Veterinary Parasitology 178, 121128.
Daş, G, Abel, H, Savaş, T, Sohnrey, B and Gauly, M (2014) Egg production dynamics and fecundity of Heterakis gallinarum residing in different caecal environments induced by fibre-rich diets. Veterinary Parasitology 205, 606618.
Dolnik, OV, Metzger, BJ and Maarten, JJEL (2011) Keeping the clock set under the midnight sun: diurnal periodicity and synchrony of avian Isospora parasites cycle in the High Arctic. Parasitology 138, 10771081.
Ekesbo, I (2011) Farm Animal Behaviour: Characteristics for Assessment of Health and Welfare. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Engels, D, Sinzinkayo, E and Gryseels, B (1996) Day-to-day egg count fluctuation in Schistosoma mansoni infection and its operational implication. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 54, 379–324.
Giver, H, de Vlas, SJ, Johansen, MV, Christensen, NO and Nansen, P (2000) Schistosoma japonicum: day-to-day variation in excretion and hatchability of parasite eggs in the domestic pig, Suis suis. Experimental Parasitology 95, 818.
Katakam, KK, Thamsborg, SM, Kyvsgaard, NC, Dalsgaard, A and Mejer, H (2014) Development and survival of Ascaris suum eggs in deep litter of pigs. Parasitology 141, 16461656.
Kaufmann, J (1996) Parasitic Infections of Domestic Animals: A Diagnostic Manual. Berlin, Germany: Birkhäuser Verlag (pp. 423; pp. ref.357–358).
Kennedy, CR (1976) Reproduction and dispersal. In Kennedy, CR (ed.) Ecological Aspects of Parasitology. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: North-Holland Publishing Company, pp. 143160.
McDougald, LR (2005) Blackhead disease (Histomoniasis) in poultry: a critical review. Avian Diseases 49, 462476.
Misof, K (2004) Diurnal cycle of Isospora spp. oocyst shedding in Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula). Canadian Journal of Zoology 82, 764768.
Morin-Adeline, V, Vogelnest, L, Dhand, NK, Shiels, M, Angus, W and Šlapeta, J (2011) Afternoon shedding of a new species of Isospora (Apicomplexa) in the endangered Regent Honeyeater (Xanthomyza phrygia). Parasitology 138, 713724.
Nadler, SA, Carreno, RA, Mejía-Madrid, H, Ullberg, J, Pagan, C, Houston, R and Hugot, JP (2007) Molecular phylogeny of clade III nematodes reveals multiple origins of tissue parasitism. Parasitology 134, 14211442.
Oikawa, H and Kawaguchi, H (1974) Effect of coccidial infection on acetylcholine-induced contraction of the digestive tract in chickens. I. Eimeria tenella and E. acervulina infection. Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science 36, 433440.
Oju, JPE and Mpoame, M (2006) Periodic release of gastrointestinal helminth eggs in native chickens from Dschang in the western highlands of Cameroon. Veterinary Research Communications 30, 3943.
Platt, TR, Hussey, GL and Zelmer, DA (2013) Circadian egg production by Echinostoma caproni (Digenea: echinostomatidae) in ICR mice. Journal of Parasitology 99,179182.
SAS Institute Inc (2016) SAS OnlineDoc® Version 9.4, Cary, North Carolina, USA.
Thaben, PF and Westermark, PO (2016) Differential rhythmicity: detecting altered rhythmicity in biological data. Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) 32, 28002808.
Thapa, S, Thamsborg, S, Meyling, N, Dhakal, S and Mejer, H (2017) Survival and development of chicken ascarid eggs in temperate pastures. Parasitology 144, 12431252.
Villanоúa, D, Pérez-Rodriíguez, L, Gortázar, C, Höfle, U and Viñuela, J (2006) Avoiding bias in parasite excretion estimates: the effect of sampling time and type of faeces. Parasitology 133, 251259.
Wang, BJ, Gu, XB, Yang, GY, Wang, T, Lai, WM, Zhong, ZJ and Liu, GH (2016) Mitochondrial genomes of Heterakis gallinae and Heterakis beramporia support that they belong to the infraorder Ascaridomorpha. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 40, 228235.
Wongrak, K, Gauly, M and Das, G (2015) Diurnal fluctuations in nematode egg excretion in naturally and experimentally infected chickens. Veterinary Parasitology 208,195203.
Yazwinski, TA, Chapman, HD, Davis, RB, Letonja, T, Pote, L, Maes, L, Vercruysse, J and Jacobs, DE (2003) World Association for the advancement of veterinary parasitology (W.A.A.V.P.) guidelines for evaluating the effectiveness of anthelmintics in chickens and turkeys. Veterinary Parasitology 116, 159173.
Yu, JM, de Vlas, SJ, Yuan, HC and Gryseels, B (1998) Variations in fecal Schistosoma japonicum eggs counts. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 59, 370375.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Parasitology
  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
UNKNOWN
Supplementary materials

Daş et al. supplementary material
Figure S1

 Unknown (11.7 MB)
11.7 MB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed