Skip to main content
×
Home

Getting a GRiPP on everyday schistosomiasis: experience from Zimbabwe

  • FRANCISCA MUTAPI (a1)
Summary
SUMMARY

Schistosomiasis, commonly known as bilharzia, is a parasitic disease prevalent in Africa, Asia and South America. The majority of the cases occur in Sub-Saharan Africa where schistosomiasis is a major public health problem impacting on child health and development as well as adult health when infections become chronic. Control of schistosomiasis is by treatment of infected people with the antihelminthic drug praziquantel. Current schistosome control programmes advocated by the World Health Assembly in 2001 are aimed at regular school-based integrated deworming strategies in order to reduce development of severe morbidity, promote school health and to improve cognitive potential of children. Several countries in Africa have now embarked on national scale deworming programmes treating millions of children exposed to schistosomiasis in endemic areas without prior diagnosis of infection through mass drug administration programmes. Implementing such control programmes requires a concerted effort between scientists, policy makers, health practitioners and several other stake holders and of course a receptive community. This paper considers the contributions to global schistosome control efforts made by research conducted in Zimbabwe and the historical context and developments leading to the national schistosomiasis control programme in Zimbabwe giving an example of Getting Research into Policy and Practice.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Ashworth Laboratories, Institute of Immunology and Infection Research, Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Charlotte Auerbach Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3FL, UK. E-mail: f.mutapi@ed.ac.uk
References
Hide All
Anderson R. M. and May R. M. (1992). Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control. Oxford Science, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Armstrong J. C. (1952). Mating behaviour and development of schistosomes in the mouse. Journal of Parasitology 51, 605616.
Blackie W. (1932). A helminthological survey of southern rhodesia. London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Memoir Series 5, 191.
Bourke C. D., Nausch N., Rujeni N., Appleby L. J., Mitchell K. M., Midzi N., Mduluza T. and Mutapi F. (2013). Integrated analysis of innate, Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory cytokines identifies changes in immune polarisation following treatment of human schistosomiasis. Journal of Infectious Diseases 208, 159169.
Chandiwana S. K., Taylor P., Chimbari M., Ndhlovu P., Makura O., Bradley M. and Gondo P. (1988). Control of schistosomiasis transmission in newly established smallholder irrigation schemes. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 82, 874880.
Chandiwana S. K., Taylor P. and Matanhire D. (1991). Community control of schistosomiasis in Zimbabwe. Central African Journal of Medicine 37, 6977.
Chimbari M. (1991). Schistosomiasis Control Measures for Small Irrigation Schemes in Zimbabwe: Results from Three Years of Monitoring at Mushandike Irrigation Scheme. Hydraulics Research Ltd, Oxford.
Chimbari M., Ndlela B., Nyati Z., Thomson A., Chandiwana S. K. and Bolton P. (1992). Bilharzia in a small irrigation community: an assessment of water and toilet usage. Central African Journal of Medicine 38, 451458.
Chimbari M. J. (2012). Enhancing schistosomiasis control strategy for Zimbabwe: building on past experiences. Journal of Parasitology Research 2012, 353768.
Chimbari M. J. and Ndlela B. (2001). Successful control of schistosomiasis in large sugar irrigation estates of Zimbabwe. Central African Journal of Medicine 47, 169172.
Chimbari M. J., Ndamba J. and Madsen H. (1996). Food selection behaviour of potential biological agents to control intermediate host snails of schistosomiasis: Sargochromis codringtoni and Tilapia rendalli . Acta Tropica 61, 191199.
Chimbari M. J., Madsen H. and Ndamba J. (1997). Laboratory experiments on snail predation by Sargochromis codringtoni, a candidate for biological control of the snails that transmit schistosomiasis. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 91, 95102.
Christinet V., Lazdins-Helds J. K., Stothard J. R. and Reinhard-Rupp J. (2016). Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS): from case reports to a call for concerted action against this neglected gynaecological disease. International Journal of Parasitology. 395404.
Clarke V. D. V. (1966). The influence of acquired resistance in the epidemiology of Bilharziasis. Central African Journal of Medicine 12, 130.
Clarke V. D. V., Blair D. and Weber M. (1969). Field trial of Hycanthone (Etrenol Winthtop) in the treatment of urinary and intestinal Bilharziasis. Central African Journal of Medicine 15, 16.
de Laet M. and Mol A. (2000). The Zimbabwe bush pump: mechanics of a fluid technology. Social Studies of Science 30, 225263.
Duffin J. and Rene P. (1991). ‘Anti-moine; anti-biotique’: the public fortunes of the secret properties of antimony potassium tartrate (tartar emetic). Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 46, 440456.
Farley J. (1991). Bilharzia; a History of Tropical Imperial Medicine. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Fisher A. C. (1934). A study of schistosomiasis in the Stanleyville district of Congo. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 28, 277306.
Foster R., Teesdale C. and Poulton G. F. (1960). Trials with a new molluscicide. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 22, 543548.
Foster W. D. (1965). A History of Parasitology. E.S. Livingstone, Edinburgh.
Fulford A. C. J., Butterworth A. E., Ouma H. J. and Sturrock R. F. (1995). A statistical approach to schistosome population dynamics and estimation of the life- span of Schistosoma mansoni in man. Parasitology 110, 307316.
Gelfand M. (1948). The prognosis in schistosomiasis. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 51, 112119.
Gelfand M. (1950). Schistosomiasis in South Central Africa, 1st Edn. Post-Graduate Press by Juta & Co. Ltd, London, UK.
Gelfand M. (1963). The clinical features of intestinal schistosomiasis in Rhodesia. Central African Journal of Medicine 9, 319327.
Gelfand M. (1964). Chronic urinary schistosomiasis and its relationship to hypertensions. Central African Journal of Medicine 10, 18.
Gelfand M. (1966). Pulmonary schistosomiasis in the early ‘Katayama’ phase of the disease. Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 69, 143144.
Gelfand M. (1985). The more serious effects of schistosomiasis. Central African Journal of Medicine 31, 7982.
Gelfand M., Ross M. D., Blair D. M. and Weber M. C. (1971). Distribution and extent of schistosomiasis in female pelvic organs, with special reference to the genital tract, as determined at autopsy. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 20, 846849.
Hira P. R. (1970). Schistosomiasis at Lake Kariba, Zambia. I. Prevalence and potential intermediate snail hosts at Siavonga. Tropical and Geographical Medicine 22, 323334.
Hulse E. V. (1971). Joshua's curse and abandonment of ancient Jericho: schistosomiasis as a possible medical explanation. Medical History 15, 376386.
Jordan P., Webbe G. and Sturrock R. F. (1993). Human Schistosomiasis. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxford, UK.
King C. H. (2006). Long-term outcomes of school-based treatment for control of urinary schistosomiasis: a review of experience in Coast Province, Kenya. Memorias do Instituto do Oswaldo Cruz 101(Suppl. 1), 299306.
King C. H., Sutherland L. J. and Bertsch D. (2015). Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of chemical-based mollusciciding for control of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium transmission. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 9, e0004290.
Leiper R. T. and Atkinson E. L. (1915). Observations on the spread of Asiatic schistosomiasis. British Medical Journal 1, 201204.
Madhina D., Shiff C., Picquet M., Ernould J. C., Vercruysse J., Southgate V. R., Mbaye A., Sambou B., Niang M. and Rollinson D. (1996). Prevention of snail miracidia interactions using Phytolacca podecandra (Lherit) (Endod) as a miracidiacide: an alternative approach to the focal control of schistosomiasis. Tropical Medicine and International Health 1, 221226.
Matheson C. D., David R., Spigelman M., Donaghue D. and Helen D. (2014). Molecular confirmation of Schistosoma and family relationship in two ancient Egyptian mummies. Yearbook of Mummy Studies 2, 3947.
Midzi N., Mduluza T., Chimbari M. J., Tshuma C., Charimari L., Mhlanga G., Manangazira P., Munyati S. M., Phiri I., Mutambu S. L., Midzi S. S., Ncube A., Muranzi L. P., Rusakaniko S. and Mutapi F. (2014). Distribution of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminthiasis in Zimbabwe: towards a national plan of action for control and elimination. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8, e3014.
Ministry of Health, Southern Rhodesia (1922). Southern Rhodesia Report on Public Health 1921.
Ministry of Health, Sourthern Rhodesia (1924). Southern Rhodesia Report on Public Health 1923.
Mitchell K. M., Mutapi F., Mduluza T., Midzi N., Savill N. J. and Woolhouse M. E. (2014). Predicted impact of mass drug administration on the development of protective immunity against Schistosoma haematobium . PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 8, e3059.
Mutapi F., Hagan P., Ndhlovu P. and Woolhouse M. E. J. (1997). Comparison of humoral responses to Schistosoma haematobium in areas with high and low levels of infection. Parasite Immunology 19, 255263.
Mutapi F., Ndhlovu P. D., Hagan P., Spicer J. T., Mduluza T., Turner C. M., Chandiwana S. K. and Woolhouse M. E. (1998). Chemotherapy accelerates the development of acquired immune responses to Schistosoma haematobium infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases 178, 289293.
Mutapi F., Ndhlovu P. D., Hagan P. and Woolhouse M. E. (2000). Anti-schistosome antibody responses in children coinfected with malaria. Parasite Immunology 22, 207209.
Mutapi F., Rujeni N., Bourke C., Mitchell K., Appleby L., Nausch N., Midzi N. and Mduluza T. (2011). Schistosoma haematobium treatment in 1–5 year old children: safety and efficacy of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 5, e1143.
Ndhlovu P. D., Mduluza T., Kjetland E. F., Midzi N., Nyanga L., Gundersen S. G., Friis H. and Gomo E. (2007). Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and HIV in females living in a rural community of Zimbabwe: does age matter? Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 101, 433438.
Orpen R. (1915). Annual Report. Public Health Department, Salisbury.
Secor W. E. and Montgomery S. P. (2015). Something old, something new: is praziquantel enough for schistosomiasis control? Future Medicinal Chemistry 7, 681684.
Shiff C. (1970). The Role of molluscicides in bilharzia control. South African. Medical Journal 44, 167168.
Shiff C. J. (1964 a). Studies on Bulinus (Physopsis) bulinus in Rhodesia. I. The influence of temperature on the intrinsic rate of natural increase. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 58, 94105.
Shiff C. J. (1964 b). Studies on Bulinus (Physopsis) globosus in Rhodesia. II Factors influencing the relationship between age and growth. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 58, 105115.
Shiff C. J. and Kriel R. L. (1970). A water-soluble product of Bulinus (Physopsis) globosus attractive to Schistosoma haematobium miracidia. Journal of Parasitology 56, 281286.
Shiff C. J., Clarke Vde V., Evans A. C. and Barnish G. (1973). Molluscicide for the control of schistosomiasis in irrigation schemes: a study in Southern Rhodesia. Bulletin of the World Health Organisation 48, 299307.
Shiff C. J., Evans A., Yiannakis C. and Eardley M. (1975). Seasonal influence on the production of Schistosoma haemotobium and S. mansoni cercariae in Rhodesia. International Journal for Parasitology 5, 119123.
Shiff C. J., Coutts W. C., Yiannakis C. and Holmes R. W. (1979). Seasonal patterns in the transmission of Schistosoma haematobium in Rhodesia, and its control by winter application of molluscicide. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 73, 375380.
Soulsby E. L. J. (1986). Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesticated Animals, 7 Edn. Bailliere Tindall, London, UK.
Steinmann P., Keiser J., Bos R., Tanner M. and Utzinger J. (2006). Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk. Lancet Infectious Diseases 6, 411425.
Stelma F. F., Talla I., Polman K., Niang M., Sturrock R. F., Deelder A. M. and Gryseels B. (1993). Epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni infection in a recently exposed community. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 49, 701706.
Stothard J. R. and Gabrielli A. F. (2007). Schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool children: to treat or not to treat? Trends in Parasitology 23, 8386.
Stothard J. R., Sousa-Figueiredo J. C., Betson M., Bustinduy A. and Reinhard-Rupp J. (2013). Schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool children: let them now be treated! Trends in Parasitology 29, 197205.
Tchuem Tchuente L. A., Southgate V. R., Combes C. and Jourdane J. (1996). Mating behaviour in schistosomes: are paired worms always faithful? Parasitology Today 12, 231236.
Van Onselen C. (1976). Chibaro, African Mine Labour in Southern Rhodesia, 1900–1933. Pluto Press, London.
Wami W. M., Nausch N., Midzi N., Gwisai R., Mduluza T., Woolhouse M. and Mutapi F. (2015). Identifying and evaluating field indicators of urogenital schistosomiasis-related morbidity in preschool-aged children. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 9, e0003649.
Woolhouse M. E. and Chandiwana S. K. (1989). Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the population dynamics of Bulinus globosus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi and in the epidemiology of their infection with schistosomes. Parasitology 98, 2134.
Woolhouse M. E. and Chandiwana S. K. (1990 a). The epidemiology of schistosome infections of snails: taking the theory into the field. Parasitology Today 6, 6570.
Woolhouse M. E. and Chandiwana S. K. (1990 b). Population dynamics model for Bulinus globosus, intermediate host for Schistosoma haematobium, in river habitats. Acta Tropica 47, 151160.
Woolhouse M. E. and Chandiwana S. K. (1990 c). Temporal patterns in the epidemiology of schistosome infections of snails: a model for field data. Parasitology 100, 247253.
Woolhouse M. E. and Chandiwana S. K. (1992). A further model for temporal patterns in the epidemiology of schistosome infections of snails. Parasitology 104(Pt 3), 443449.
Woolhouse M. E., Chandiwana S. K. and Bradley M. (1990). On the distribution of schistosome infections among host snails. International Journal for Parasitology 20, 325327.
Woolhouse M. E., Taylor P., Matanhire D. and Chandiwana S. K. (1991). Acquired immunity and epidemiology of Schistosoma haematobium . Nature 351, 757759.
Woolhouse M. E. J. (1992). Immunoepidemiology of intestinal helminths: pattern and process. Parasitology Today 8, 192.
Woolhouse M. E. J. (1998). Patterns in parasite epidemiology: the peak shift. Parasitology Today 14, 428434.
World Health Organisation (2002). Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis and Soil-transmisted Helminthiasis. World Health Organisation, Geneva.
World health Organisation (2012). Report of a Meeting to Review the Results of Studies on the Treatment of Schistosomiasis in Pre-school-age Children. World Health Organisation, Geneva.
Zedong M. (2007). Farewell to the God of Plague. From The Poems of Mao Zedong. English version published in the Marxist Internet Archive, 2007.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Parasitology
  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 5
Total number of PDF views: 43 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 276 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 12th October 2016 - 17th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.