Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Echinococcus species from red foxes, corsac foxes, and wolves in Mongolia


The small intestines of 420 wild canids (111 corsac foxes, 191 red foxes and 118 wolves) from Mongolia, were examined for adult worms of the genus Echinococcus. The Mongolian genotype of Echinococcus multilocularis was found in fifteen red foxes and four wolves, whereas two genotypes (G6/7 and G10) of Echinococcus canadensis were found in two and three wolves, respectively. No adult Echinococcus worms were found in the corsac foxes examined. The genotypes of E. multilocularis and E. canadensis are discussed in terms of host specificity and distribution in Mongolia. The importance of wolves in the completion of the life cycle of Echinococcus spp. is also discussed.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. Department of Parasitology, Asahikawa Medical University, Asahikawa, Hokkaido 078-8510, Japan. Tel.: +81 166 68 2686. Fax: +81 166 68 2429. E-mail:
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

A. M. Abdybekova and P. R. Torgerson (2012). Frequency distributions of helminths of wolves in Kazakhstan. Veterinary Parasitology 184, 348351.

M. Beiromvand , L. Akhlaghi , S. H. F. Massom , I. Mobedi , A. R. Meamar , H. Oormazdi , A. Motevalian and E. Razmjou (2011). Detection of Echinococcus multilocularis in carnivores in Razavi Khorasan Province, Iran using mitochondrial DNA. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 5, e1379.

S. Bretagne , B. Assouline , D. Vidaud , R. Houin and M. Vidaud (1996). Echinococcus multilocularis: microsatellite polymorphism in U1 snRNA genes. Experimental Parasitology 82, 324328.

I. Breyer , D. Georgieva , R. Kurdova and B. Gottstein (2004). Echinococcus granulosus strain typing in Bulgaria: the G1 genotype is predominant in intermediate and definitive wild hosts. Parasitology Research 93, 127130.

C. Budke , P. Deplazes and P. R. Torgerson (2006). Global socioeconomic impact of cystic echinococcosis. Emerging Infectious Diseases 12, 296303.

B. Combes , S. Comte , V. Raton , F. Raoul , F. Boué , G. Umhang , S. Favier , C. Dunoyer , N. Woronoff and P. Giraudoux (2012). Westward spread of Echinococcus multilocularis in foxes, France, 2005–2010. Emerging Infectious Diseases 18, 20592062.

P. S. Craig , C. M. Budke , P. M. Schantz , T. Li , J. Qiu , Y. Yang , E. Zeyhle , M. T. Rogan and A. Ito (2007). Human echinococcosis: a neglected disease? Tropical Medicine and Health 35, 283292.

J. R. Ebright , T. Altantsetseg and R. Oyungerel (2003). Emerging infectious diseases in Mongolia. Emerging Infectious Diseases 9, 15091515.

W. J. Foreyt , M. L. Drew , M. Atkinson and D. McCauley (2009). Echinococcus granulosus in gray wolves and ungulates in Idaho and Montana, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 45, 12081212.

E. Fuglei , A. Stien , N. G. Yoccoz , R. A. Ims , N. E. Eide , P. Prestrud , P. Deplazes and A. Oksanen (2008). Spatial distribution of Echinococcus multilocularis, Svalbard, Norway. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14, 7375.

A. Gurbadam , D. Nyamkhuu , G. Nyamkhuu , A. Tsendjav , O. Sergelen , B. Narantuya , Z. Batsukh , G. Battsetseg , B. Oyun-Erdene , B. Uranchimeg , D. Otgonbaatar , D. Temuulen , E. Bayarmaa , D. Abmed , S. Tsogtsaikhan , A. Usukhbayar , K. Smirmaul , J. Gereltuya and A. Ito (2010). Mongolian and Japanese joint conference on “Echinococcosis: diagnosis, treatment and prevention in Mongolia” June 4, 2009. Parasites and Vectors 3, 8.

V. Hirvelä-Koski , V. Haukisalmi , S-S Kilpelä , M Nylund and P. Koski (2003). Echinococcus granulosus in Finland. Veterinary Parasitology 111, 175192.

M. Hüttner , M. Nakao , T. Wassermann , L. Siefert , J. D. Boomker , A. Dinkel , Y. Sako , U. Mackenstedt , T. Romig and A. Ito (2008). Genetic characterization and phylogenetic position of Echinococcus felidis (Cestoda: Taeniidae) from the African lion. International Journal for Parasitology 38, 861868.

A. Ito , G. Agvaandaram , O. E. Bat-Ochir , B. Chuluunbaatar , N. Gonchingsenghe , T. Yanagida , Y. Sako , N. Myadagsuren , T. Dorjsuren , K. Nakaya , M. Nakao , Y. Ishikawa , A. Davaajav and N. Dulmaa (2010). Histopathological, serological and molecular confirmation of alveolar echinococcosis cases in Mongolia. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 82, 266269.

A. Ito , M. Okamoto , T. Li , T. Wandra , N. S. Dharmawan , K. I. Swastika , P. Dekumyoy , T. Kusolsuk , A. Davajav , A. Davaasuren , T. Dorjsuren , S. M. Mekonnen , Z. H. Negashi , T. Yanagida , Y. Sako , M. Nakao , K. Nakaya , A. J. Lavikainen , A. Nkouawa and T. Mohammadzadeh (2011 b). The first workshop on towards the control of cestode zoonoses in Asia and Africa. Parasites and Vectors 4, 114.

A. Jabbar , M. Narankhajid , M. J. Nolan , A. R. Jex , B. E. Campbell and R. B. Gasser (2011). A first insight into the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus from humans in Mongolia. Molecular and Cellular Probes 25, 4954.

E. J. Jenkins , A. S. Peregrine , J. E. Hill , C. Somers , K. Gesy , B. Barnes , B. Gottstein and L. Polley (2012). Detection of European strain of Echinococcus multilocularis in North America. Emerging Infectious Diseases 18, 10101012.

M. Kimura (1980). A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. Journal of Molecular Evolution 16, 111120.

S. V. Kongaev , T. Yanagida , G. M. Ingovatova , Y. N. Shoiknet , M. Nakao , Y. Sako , A. Y. Bondarev and A. Ito (2012). Molecular identification of human echinococcosis in the Altal region of Russia. Parasitology International 61, 711714.

J. Knapp , M. Nakao , T. Yanagida , M. Okamoto , U. Saarma , A. Lavikainen and A. Ito (2011). Phylogenetic relationships within Echinococcus and Taenia tapeworms (Cestoda: Taeniidae): an inference from nuclear protein-coding genes. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 61, 628638.

S. V. Konyaev , T. Yanagida , M. Nakao , G. M. Ingovatova , Y. N. Shoykhet , A. Y. Bondarev , V. A. Odnokurtsev , K. S. Loskutoba , G. I. Lukmanova , N. E. Dokuchaev , S. Spiridonov , M. V. Alshinecky , S. N. Tatyana , O. N. Andreyanov , S. A. Abramov , A. V. Krivopalov , S. V. Karpenko , N. V. Lopatina , T. A. Dupal , Y. Sako and A. Ito (2013). Genetic diversity of Echinococcus spp. in Russia. Parasitology 140, in press.

M. A. Larkin , G. Blackshields , N. P. Brown , R. Chenna , P. A. McGettigan , H. McWilliam , F. Valentin , I. M. Wallace , A. Wilm , R. Lopez , J. D. Thompson , T. J. Gibson and D. G. Higgins (2007). Clustal W and Clustal X version 2.0. Bioinformatics 23, 29472948.

W. Mamuti , H. Yamasaki , Y. Sako , M. Nakao , N. Xiao , K. Nakaya , N. Sato , D. A. Vuitton , R. Piarroux , M. W. Lightowlers , P. S. Craig and A. Ito (2004). An 8 kDa-subunit of Antigen B from Echinococcus multilocularis: molecular cloning, expression and serological evaluation. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 42, 10821088.

Y. Matoba , D. Yamada , M. Asano , Y. Oku , K. Kitaura , K. Yagi , F. Tenora and M. Asakawa (2006). Parasitic helminths from feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) on Hokkaido and Kyushu Islands, Japan. Helminthologia 43, 139146.

T. Mohammadzadeh , Y. Sako , S. M. Sadjjadi , B. Sarkari and A. Ito (2012). Comparison of the usefulness of hydatid cyst fluid, native antigen B and recombinant antigen B8/1 for serological diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 106, 371375.

E. Moks , I. Jõgisalu , U. Saarma , H. Talvik , T. Järvis and H. Valdmann (2006). Helminthological survey of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Estonia, with an emphasis on Echinococcus granulosus. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42, 359365.

M. Nakao , A. Lavikainen , T. Iwaki , V. Haukisalmi , S. Konyaev , Y. Oku , M. Okamoto and A. Ito (2013 a). Molecular phylogeny of the genus Taenia (Cestoda: Taeniidae): proposals for the resurrection of Hydatigera Lamarck, 1816 and the creation of a new genus Versteria. International Journal for Parasitology 43, 427437.

M. Nakao , N. Xiao , M. Okamoto , T. Yanagida , Y. Sako and A. Ito (2009). Geographic pattern of genetic variation in the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. Parasitology International 58, 384389.

M. Nakao , T. Yanagida , S. Konyaev , A. Lavikainen , V. A. Odnokurtsev , A. Vladimir , V. A. Zaikoy and A. Ito (2013 b). Mitochondrial phylogeny of the genus Echinococcus (Cestoda: Taeniidae) with emphasis on relationships among Echinococcus canadensis genotypes. Parasitology 140, in press.

R. L. Rausch and E. L. Schiller (1951). Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) in Alaska and the importance of rodent intermediate hosts. Science 113, 5758.

P. M. Schantz (2006). Progress in diagnosis, treatment and elimination of echinococcosis and cysticercosis. Parasitology International 55, S7S13.

R. Schneider , H. Aspöck and H. Auer (2013). Unexpected increase of alveolar echinococcosis, Austria, 2011. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19, 475477.

A. Schweiger , R. W. Ammann , D. Candinas , P. A. Clavien , J. Eckert , B. Gottstein , N. Halkic , B. Muellhaupt , B. M. Prinz , J. Reichen , P. E. Tarr , P. R. Torgerson and P. Deplazes (2007). Human alveolar echinococcosis after fox population increase, Switzerland. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13, 878882.

R. Sobrino , L. M. Gozalez , J. Vicente , D. Fernández de Luco , T. Garate and C. Gontázar (2006). Echinococcus granulosus (Cestoda, Taeniidae) in the Iberian wolf. Parasitology Research 99, 753756.

R. C. A. Thompson (2008). The taxonomy, phylogeny and transmission of Echinococcus. Experimental Parasitology 119, 439446.

R. C. A. Thompson and D. P. McManus (2002). Towards a taxonomic revision of the genus Echinococcus. Trends in Parasitology 18, 452457.

P. R. Torgerson (2013). The emergence of echinococcosis in central Asia. Parasitology 140, in press.

P. R. Torgerson and C. Budke (2003). Echinococcosis – an international public health challenge. Research in Veterinary Science 74, 191202.

P. R. Torgerson , B. Oguijahan , A. E. Muminov , R. R. Karaeva , O. T. Kuttbaev , M. Aminjianov and B. Shaikenov (2006). Present situation of cystic echinococcosis in Central Asia. Parasitology International 55, S253S258.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *