Barriga, Paola A. Sternberg, Eleanore D. Lefèvre, Thierry de Roode, Jacobus C. and Altizer, Sonia 2016. Occurrence and host specificity of a neogregarine protozoan in four milkweed butterfly hosts (Danaus spp.). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, Vol. 140, p. 75.
Mongue, Andrew J. Tsai, Michelle V. Wayne, Marta L. and de Roode, Jacobus C. 2016. Inbreeding depression in monarch butterflies. Journal of Insect Conservation, Vol. 20, Issue. 3, p. 477.
Myers, Judith H. and Cory, Jenny S. 2016. Ecology and evolution of pathogens in natural populations of Lepidoptera. Evolutionary Applications, Vol. 9, Issue. 1, p. 231.
Satterfield, Dara A. Villablanca, Francis X. Maerz, John C. and Altizer, Sonia 2016. Migratory monarchs wintering in California experience low infection risk compared to monarchs breeding year-round on non-native milkweed. Integrative and Comparative Biology, Vol. 56, Issue. 2, p. 343.
Woestmann, Luisa and Saastamoinen, Marjo 2016. The importance of trans-generational effects in Lepidoptera. Current Zoology, Vol. 62, Issue. 5, p. 489.
Altizer, Sonia Hobson, Keith A. Davis, Andrew K. De Roode, Jacobus C. Wassenaar, Leonard I. and Breuker, Casper Johannes 2015. Do Healthy Monarchs Migrate Farther? Tracking Natal Origins of Parasitized vs. Uninfected Monarch Butterflies Overwintering in Mexico. PLOS ONE, Vol. 10, Issue. 11, p. e0141371.
Davis, Andrew K. and Holden, Michael T. 2015. Measuring Intraspecific Variation in Flight-Related Morphology of Monarch Butterflies (Danaus plexippus): Which Sex Has the Best Flying Gear?. Journal of Insects, Vol. 2015, p. 1.
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Preston, Mark D. Forister, Matthew L. Pitchford, Jonathan W. and Armsworth, Paul R. 2015. Impact of individual movement and changing resource availability on male–female encounter rates in an herbivorous insect. Ecological Complexity, Vol. 24, p. 1.
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Sternberg, Eleanore D. de Roode, Jacobus C. Hunter, Mark D. and Boots, Mike 2015. Trans-generational parasite protection associated with paternal diet. Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 84, Issue. 1, p. 310.
Choisy, Marc and de Roode, Jacobus C. 2014. The Ecology and Evolution of Animal Medication: Genetically Fixed Response versus Phenotypic Plasticity. The American Naturalist, Vol. 184, Issue. S1, p. S31.
Davis, Andrew K. 2014. Intraspecific variation in wing colour is related to larval energy reserves in monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus). Physiological Entomology, Vol. 39, Issue. 3, p. 247.
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Larcombe, Stephen Bichet, Coraline Cornet, Stéphane Faivre, Bruno and Sorci, Gabriele 2013. Food availability and competition do not modulate the costs of Plasmodium infection in dominant male canaries. Experimental Parasitology, Vol. 135, Issue. 4, p. 708.
Sander, Sarah Altizer, Sonia de Roode, Jacobus and Davis, Andrew 2013. Genetic Factors and Host Traits Predict Spore Morphology for a Butterfly Pathogen. Insects, Vol. 4, Issue. 3, p. 447.
Sternberg, Eleanore D. Li, Hui Wang, Rebecca Gowler, Camden and de Roode, Jacobus C. 2013. Patterns of Host-Parasite Adaptation in Three Populations of Monarch Butterflies Infected with a Naturally Occurring Protozoan Disease: Virulence, Resistance, and Tolerance. The American Naturalist, Vol. 182, Issue. 6, p. E235.
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Lefèvre, Thierry Chiang, Allen Kelavkar, Mangala Li, Hui Li, James de Castillejo, Carlos Lopez Fernandez Oliver, Lindsay Potini, Yamini Hunter, Mark D. and de Roode, Jacobus C. 2012. Behavioural resistance against a protozoan parasite in the monarch butterfly. Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 81, Issue. 1, p. 70.
Much evolutionary theory assumes that parasite virulence (i.e. parasite-induced host mortality) is determined by within-host parasite reproduction and by the specific parasite genotypes causing infection. However, many other factors could influence the level of virulence experienced by hosts. We studied the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha in its host, the monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus. We exposed monarch larvae to wild-isolated parasites and assessed the effects of within-host replication and parasite genotype on host fitness measures, including pre-adult development time and adult weight and longevity. Per capita replication rates of parasites were high, and infection resulted in high parasite loads. Of all host fitness traits, adult longevity showed the clearest relationship with infection status, and decreased continuously with increasing parasite loads. Parasite genotypes differed in their virulence, and these differences were maintained across ecologically relevant variables, including inoculation dose, host sex and host age at infection. Thus, virulence appears to be a robust genetic parasite trait in this system. Although parasite loads and genotypes had strong effects on virulence, inoculation dose, host sex and age at infection were also important. These results have implications for virulence evolution and emphasize the need for a detailed understanding of specific host-parasite systems for addressing theory.
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