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Henrichs, Brian Oosthuizen, Marinda C. Troskie, Milana Gorsich, Erin Gondhalekar, Carmen Beechler, Brianna R. Ezenwa, Vanessa O. Jolles, Anna E. and Fenton, Andy 2016. Within guild co-infections influence parasite community membership: a longitudinal study in African Buffalo. Journal of Animal Ecology, Vol. 85, Issue. 4, p. 1025.
Alić, Amer Hodžić, Adnan Kadrić, Mirsad Beširović, Hajrudin and Prašović, Senad 2015. Pearsonema plica (Capillaria plica) infection and associated urinary bladder pathology in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Parasitology Research, Vol. 114, Issue. 5, p. 1933.
Buhnerkempe, Michael G. Roberts, Mick G. Dobson, Andrew P. Heesterbeek, Hans Hudson, Peter J. and Lloyd-Smith, James O. 2015. Eight challenges in modelling disease ecology in multi-host, multi-agent systems. Epidemics, Vol. 10, p. 26.
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WILCOX, JUSTIN J. S. LANE-DEGRAAF, KELLY E. FUENTES, AGUSTIN and HOLLOCHER, HOPE 2015. Comparative community-level associations of helminth infections and microparasite shedding in wild long-tailed macaques in Bali, Indonesia. Parasitology, Vol. 142, Issue. 03, p. 480.
Cattadori, Isabella M. Wagner, Benjamin R. Wodzinski, Laura A. Pathak, Ashutosh K. Poole, Adam and Boag, Brian 2014. Infections do not predict shedding in co-infections with two helminths from a natural system. Ecology, Vol. 95, Issue. 6, p. 1684.
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ALLEN, L. J. S. BROWN, V. L. JONSSON, C. B. KLEIN, S. L. LAVERTY, S. M. MAGWEDERE, K. OWEN, J. C. and VAN DEN DRIESSCHE, P. 2012. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF VIRAL ZOONOSES IN WILDLIFE. Natural Resource Modeling, Vol. 25, Issue. 1, p. 5.
Hosts are typically simultaneously co-infected by a variety of microparasites (e.g. viruses and bacteria) and macroparasites (e.g. parasitic helminths). However, the population dynamical consequences of such co-infections and the implications for the effectiveness of imposed control programmes have yet to be fully realised. Mathematical models may provide an important framework for exploring such issues and have proved invaluable in helping to understand the factors affecting the epidemiology of single parasitic infections. Here the first population dynamic model of microparasite-macroparasite co-infection is presented and used to explore how co-infection alters the predictions of the existing single-species models. It is shown that incorporating an additional parasite species into existing models can greatly stabilise them, due to the combined density-dependent impacts on the host population, but co-infection can also restrict the region of parameter space where each species could persist alone. Overall it is concluded that the dynamic feedback between host, microparasite and macroparasite means that it is difficult to appreciate the factors affecting parasite persistence and predict the effectiveness of control by just studying one component in isolation.
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