Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 19
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Araújo, Adauto Reinhard, Karl and Ferreira, Luiz Fernando 2015. Fossil Parasites.

    Bajdek, Piotr Qvarnström, Martin Owocki, Krzysztof Sulej, Tomasz Sennikov, Andrey G. Golubev, Valeriy K. and Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz 2015. Microbiota and food residues including possible evidence of pre-mammalian hair in Upper Permian coprolites from Russia. Lethaia, p. n/a.

    De Baets, Kenneth and Littlewood, D. Timothy J. 2015. Fossil Parasites.

    De Baets, Kenneth Dentzien-Dias, Paula Upeniece, Ieva Verneau, Olivier and Donoghue, Philip C.J. 2015. Fossil Parasites.

    Leung, Tommy L. F. 2015. Fossils of parasites: what can the fossil record tell us about the evolution of parasitism?. Biological Reviews, p. n/a.

    Mitchell, Piers D. 2015. Fossil Parasites.

    Poinar, George O. 2015. Fossil Parasites.

    Weinstock, Joel V. 2015. Do We Need Worms to Promote Immune Health?. Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology, Vol. 49, Issue. 2, p. 227.

    Poinar, George 2014. Evolutionary History of Terrestrial Pathogens and Endoparasites as Revealed in Fossils and Subfossils. Advances in Biology, Vol. 2014, p. 1.

    Sianto, Luciana de Souza, Mônica Vieira Chame, Marcia da Luz, Maria de Fátima Guidon, Niéde Pessis, Anne-Marie and Araújo, Adauto 2014. Helminths in feline coprolites up to 9000years in the Brazilian Northeast. Parasitology International, Vol. 63, Issue. 6, p. 851.

    McCONNELL, Shannon M. and ZAVADA, Michael S. 2013. The occurrence of an abdominal fauna in an articulated tapir (Tapirus polkensis) from the Late Miocene Gray Fossil Site, northeastern Tennessee. Integrative Zoology, Vol. 8, Issue. 1, p. 74.

    Leles, Daniela Gardner, Scott L Reinhard, Karl Iñiguez, Alena and Araujo, Adauto 2012. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 5, Issue. 1, p. 42.

    Richardson, Dennis J. Guillén, Sonia Beckett, Ronald Kyle, Wesley Conlogue, Gerald and Harper-Beckett, Katherine 2012. Archaeohelminthology of the Chiribaya Shepherd, Canis familiaris (700–1476 a.d.) from Southern Peru. Comparative Parasitology, Vol. 79, Issue. 1, p. 133.

    Trama, Ashley M Holzknecht, Zoie E Thomas, Anitra D Su, Kuei-Ying Lee, Sean M Foltz, Emily E Perkins, Sarah E Lin, Shu S and Parker, William 2012. Lymphocyte phenotypes in wild-caught rats suggest potential mechanisms underlying increased immune sensitivity in post-industrial environments. Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Vol. 9, Issue. 2, p. 163.

    Laurin, Michel Everett, Mary Lou and Parker, William 2011. The Cecal Appendix: One More Immune Component With a Function Disturbed By Post-Industrial Culture. The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology, Vol. 294, Issue. 4, p. 567.

    ZAPALSKI, MIKOŁAJ K. and HUBERT, BENOÎT L. M. 2011. First fossil record of parasitism in Devonian calcareous sponges (stromatoporoids). Parasitology, Vol. 138, Issue. 01, p. 132.

    Petit, Gilles 2010. Skin nodules in fossil fishes from Monte Bolca (Eocene, Northern Italy). Geodiversitas, Vol. 32, Issue. 1, p. 157.

    CHIN, KAREN HARTMAN, JOSEPH H. and ROTH, BARRY 2009. Opportunistic exploitation of dinosaur dung: fossil snails in coprolites from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana. Lethaia, Vol. 42, Issue. 2, p. 185.

    Weinstock, Joel V. and Elliott, David E. 2009. Helminths and the IBD hygiene hypothesis. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, Vol. 15, Issue. 1, p. 128.


Evidence of intestinal parasites of dinosaurs

  • G. POINAR (a1) and A. J. BOUCOT (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 April 2006

Protozoan cysts and helminth eggs preserved in a coprolite from the Early Cretaceous Bernissart Iguanodon shaft in Belgium demonstrate that representatives of 3 phyla parasitized dinosaurs by that period. These fossil parasite stages are described and their possible effect on dinosaurs discussed. These findings represent the earliest fossil records of protozoan and helminth parasites of terrestrial vertebrates.

Corresponding author
Tel: +541 737 5366. Fax: +541 737 0501. E-mail:
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *