Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Isolation and characterization of viable Toxoplasma gondii isolates revealed possible high frequency of mixed infection in feral cats (Felis domesticus) from St Kitts, West Indies

  • J. P. DUBEY (a1), L. MOURA (a2), D. MAJUMDAR (a3), N. SUNDAR (a1), G. V. VELMURUGAN (a1), O. C. H. KWOK (a1), P. KELLY (a2), R. C. KRECEK (a2) (a4) and C. SU (a3)...
Abstract
SUMMARY

Cats are essential in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally resistant oocysts in nature. Samples of serum, feces, and tissues from feral cats from St Kitts, West Indies were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were assayed by the modified agglutination test, and found in 71 of 96 (73·9%) of cats with titres of 1:10 in six, 1: 20 in six,1:40 in seven,1: 80 in three, 1: 160 in 10, 1:320 in 13, 1:640 in nine, and 1:1,280 or higher in 17. Tissues of 10 cats were bio-assayed in mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from tissues of 7 cats; from hearts of 6, from tongue of 5, and brains of 3 cats. All 7 isolates were avirulent for mice. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in the feces of 51 cats. Genotyping of these 7 T. gondii isolates by 10 multi-locus PCR-RFLP markers, including SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and an apicoplast marker, Apico, revealed 4 genotypes, including clonal Type II, Type III and 2 unique genotypes. Five of the 7 cats had infection with 2 genotypes, indicating high frequency of mixed infection in the cat population on the St Kitts island.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Animal and Natural Resources Institute, Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Building 1001, Beltsville, MD 20705-2350, USA. Tel: +1 301 504 8128. Fax: +1 301 504 9222. E-mail: jitender.dubey@ars.usda.gov
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

J. P. Dubey (1998). Refinement of pepsin digestion method for isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from infected tissues. Veterinary Parasitology 74, 7577.

J. P. Dubey (2004). Toxoplasmosis – a waterborne zoonosis. Veterinary Parasitology 126, 5772.

J. P. Dubey and G. Desmonts (1987). Serological responses of equids fed Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Equine Veterinary Journal 19, 337339.

J. P. Dubey , D. H. Graham , C. R. Blackston , T. Lehmann , S. M. Gennari , A. M. A. Ragozo , S. M. Nishi , S. K. Shen , O. C. H. Kwok , D. E. Hill and P. Thulliez (2002). Biological and genetic characterisation of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from chickens (Gallus domesticus) from São Paulo, Brazil: Unexpected findings. International Journal for Parasitology 32, 99–105.

J. P. Dubey , D. E. Hill , J. L. Jones , A. W. Hightower , E. Kirkland , J. M. Roberts , P. L. Marcet , T. Lehmann , M. C. B. Vianna , K. Miska , C. Sreekumar , O. C. H. Kwok , S. K. Shen and H. R. Gamble (2005). Prevalence of viable Toxoplasma gondii in beef, chicken and pork from retail meat stores in the United States: risk assessment to consumers. Journal of Parasitology 91, 10821093.

J. P. Dubey , I. T. Navarro , C. Sreekumar , E. Dahl , R. L. Freire , H. H. Kawabata , M. C. B. Vianna , O. C. H. Kwok , S. K. Shen , P. Thulliez and T. Lehmann (2004). Toxoplasma gondii infections in cats from Paraná, Brazil: seroprevalence, tissue distribution, and biologic and genetic characterization of isolates. Journal of Parasitology 90, 721726.

J. P. Dubey , A. N. Patitucci , C. Su , N. Sundar , O. C. H. Kwok and S. K. Shen (2006 a). Characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Chile, South America. Veterinary Parasitology 140, 7682.

J. P. Dubey , N. Sundar , S. M. Gennari , A. H. H. Minervino , N. A. R. Farias , J. L. Ruas , T. R. B. dos Santos , G. T. Cavalcante , O. C. H. Kwok and C. Su (2007 b). Biologic and genetic comparison of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from the northern Pará state and the southern state Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil revealed highly diverse and distinct parasite populations. Veterinary Parasitology 143, 182188.

J. P. Dubey , X. Q. Zhu , N. Sundar , H. Zhang , O. C. H. Kwok and C. Su (2007 c). Genetic and biologic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates of cats from China. Veterinary Parasitology 145, 352356.

T. Lehmann , P. L. Marcet , D. H. Graham , E. R. Dahl and J. P. Dubey (2006). Globalization and the population structure of Toxoplasma gondii. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 103, 1142311428.

J. K. Levy , J. W. Ritchey , J. B. Rottman , M. G. Davidson , Y. H. Liang , H. L. Jordan , W. A. Tompkins and M. B. Tompkins (1998). Elevated interleukin-10-to-interleukin-12 ratio in feline immunodeficiency virus-infected cats predicts loss of type 1 immunity to Toxoplasma gondii. Journal of Infectious Diseases 178, 503511.

H. F. J. Pena , R. M. Soares , M. Amaku , J. P. Dubey and S. M. Gennari (2006). Toxoplasma gondii infection in cats from São Paulo state, Brazil: seroprevalence, oocyst shedding, isolation in mice, and biologic and molecular characterization. Research in Veterinary Science 81, 5867.

C. Su , X. Zhang and J. P. Dubey (2006). Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii by multilocus PCR-RFLP markers: a high resolution and simple method for identification of parasites. International Journal for Parasitology 36, 841848.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Parasitology
  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 10 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 91 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.