Constant, S., Pfeiffer, C., Woodard, A., Pasqualini, T. and Bottomly, K. (1995). Extent of T cell receptor ligation can determine the functional differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells. Journal of Experimental Medicine 182, 1591–1596.
Daneshvar, H., Coombs, G. H., Hagan, P., Phillips, R. S. (2003 a). Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania major: attenuation of wild-type parasites and vaccination with the attenuated lines. Journal of Infectious Diseases 187, 1662–1668.
Daneshvar, H., Hagan, P. and Phillips, R. S. (2003 b). Leishmania mexicana H-line attenuated under pressure of gentamicin, potentiates a Th1 response and control of cutaneous leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. Parasite Immunology 25, 589–596.
Heinzel, F. P., Rerko, R. M., Ahmed, F. and Pearlman, E. (1995). Endogenous IL-12 is required for control of Th2 cytokine responses capable of exacerbating leishmaniasis in normally resistant mice. Journal of Immunology 155, 730–739.
Kopf, M., Brombacher, F., Köhler, G., Kienzle, G., Widmann, K. H., Lefrang, K., Humborg, C., Ledermann, B. and Solbach, W. (1996). IL-4-deficient Balb/c mice resist infection with Leishmania major. Journal of Exprimental Medicine 184, 1127–1136.
Kropf, P., Etges, R., Schopf, L., Chung, C., Sypek, J. and Muller, I. (1997). Characterization of T cell-mediated responses in nonhealing and healing Leishmania major infections in the absence of endogenous IL-4. Journal of Immunology 159, 3434–3443.
Laskay, T., Diefenbach, A., Rollinghoff, M. and Solbach, W. (1995). Early parasite containment is decisive for resistance of Leishmania major infection. European Journal of Immunology 25, 2220–2231.
Liew, F. Y. and O'Donnell, C. A. (1993). Immunology of leishmaniasis. Advances in Parasitology 32, 161–259.
Mottram, J. C., Souza, A. E., Hutchison, J. E., Cater, R., Frame, M. J. and Coombs, G. H. (1996). Evidence from disruption of the lmcp gene array of Leishmania mexicana that cysteine proteinases are virulence factors. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 93, 6008–6013.
Nacy, C. A., Fortier, A. H., Meltzer, M. S., Buchmeier, N. A. and Schreiber, R. D. (1985). Macrophage activation to kill Leishmania major: activation of macrophages for intracellular destruction of amastigotes can be induced by both recombinant interferon-gamma and non-interferon lymphokines. Journal of Immunology 135, 3505–3511.
Naderer, T., Ellis, M. A., Fleur Sernee, M. D. P., Curtis, J., Handman, E. and McConville, M. J. (2005). Virulence of Leishmania major in macrophages and mice requires the gluconeogenic enzyme fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA 103, 5502–5507.
Oswald, I. P., Gazzinelli, R. T., Sher, A. and James, S. L. (1992). IL-10 synergizes with IL-4 and transforming transforming growth factor-beta to inhibit macrophage cytotoxic activity. Journal of Immunology 148, 3578–3582.
Pearson, R. D. and Sousa, A. Q. (1996). Clinical spectrum of leishmaniasis. Clinical Infectious Disease 22, 1–13.
Reiner, S. L. and Locksley, R. M. (1995). The regulation of immunity to Leishmania major. Annual Review of Immunology 13, 151–177.
Sadick, M. D., Heinzel, F. P., Holaday, B. J., Pu, R. T., Dawkins, R. S. and Locksley, R. M. (1990). Cure of murine leishmaniasis with anti-interleukin 4 monoclonal antibody. Evidence for a T cell-dependent, interferon-γ-independent mechanism. Journal of Experimental Medicine 171, 115–127.
Satoskar, A., Brombacher, F., Dai, W. J., McInnes, I., Liew, F. Y., Alexander, J. and Walker, W. (1997). SCID mice reconstituted with IL-4 deficient lymphocytes, but not immunocompetent lymphocytes, are resistant to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Journal of Immunology 159, 5005–5013.
Scharton-Kersten, T. and Scott, P. (1995). The role of the innate immune response in Th1 cell development following Leishmania major infection. Journal of Leukocyte Biology 57, 515–522.
Scott, P., Natovitz, P., Coffman, R. L., Pearce, E. and Sher, A. (1988). Immunoregulation of cutaneous leishmaniasis T cell lines that transfer protective immunity or exacerbation belong to different T helper subsets and respond to distinct parasite antigens. Journal of Experimental Medicine 168, 1675–1843.
Scott, P. (1991). IFN-γ modulates the early development of Th1 and Th2 responses in murine model of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Journal of Immunology 147, 3149–3155.
Sjölander, A., Baldwin, T. M., Curtis, J. M. and Handman, E. (1998). Induction of a Th1 immune response and simultaneous lack of activation of a Th2 response are required for generation of immunity to leishmaniasis. Journal of Immunology 160, 3949–3957.
Snapper, C. M. and Paul, W. E. (1987). B cell stimulatory factor-1 (interleukin 4) prepares resting murine B cells to secrete IgG1 upon subsequent stimulation with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Journal of Immunology 139, 10–17.
Spath, G. F. and Beverley, S. M. (2001). A lipophosphoglycan-independent method for isolation of infective Leishmania metacyclic promastigotes by density gradient centrifugation. Experimental Parasitology 99, 97–103.
World Health Organization (1999). Tropical Disease Research Progress 1997–98. UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR). WHO. Geneva, Switzerland.