Skip to main content
×
×
Home

The possible role of Rickettsia-like organisms in trypanosomiasis epidemiology

  • R. D. Baker (a1), I. Maudlin (a2), P. J. M. Milligan (a3), D. H. Molyneux (a3) and S. C. Welburn (a2)...
Summary

A simple model of human and animal trypanosomiasis is proposed in which the Ross equation for disease transmission is supplemented by a differential equation describing the inheritance of susceptibility in the vector. The model predicts an equilibrium state of balanced polymorphism for the fraction, θ, of susceptible tsetse and the occurrence of periodic epidemics at roughly the observed intervals. A loss of infectivity to tsetse of mechanically transmitted strains of trypano some would seem to be a good evolutionary strategy for the trypanosome. The main implication for disease control is that measures initially reducing trypanosomiasis incidence could trigger off subsequent epidemics. Since θ leads incidence, monitoring θ could give several years advance warning of major epidemics.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Anderson, R. M. & May, R. M. (1981). Population dynamics of directly transmitted microparasites of invertebrates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B 291, 451524.
Apted, F. I. C. (1970). The epidemiology of Rhodesian sleeping sickness. In The African Trypanosomiases (ed. Mulligan, H. W. & Potts, W. H.), pp. 645660. London: Allen & Unwin/MOD.
Ashcroft, M. T. (1960). A comparison between a syringe-passaged and tsetse-fly-transmitted line of a strain of Trypanosoma rhodesiense. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 54, 4453.
Bursell, E. (1981). Digestion in haematophageous arthropods. Parasitology 82, 107–10.
Duggan, A. J. (1962). A survey of sleeping sickness in Northern Nigeria from the earliest times to the present day. Transactions of the Royal Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 56, 439–80.
Fine, P. E. M. (1975). Vectors and vertical transmission–epidemiologic perspective. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 266, 173–94.
Ford, J. (1971). The Role of the Trypanosomiases in African Ecology. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Golder, T. & Patel, N. (1980). Some effects of trypanosome development on the saliva and salivary glands of the tsetse fly, Glossina morsitans. European Journal of Cell Biology 22, 511.
Golder, T. K., Otieno, L. H., Patel, N. Y. & Onyango, P. (1982). Increased sensitivity to endosulfan of trypanosoma-infected Glossina morsitans. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 76, 483–4.
Golder, T. K., Otieno, L. H., Patel, N. Y. & Onyango, P. (1984). Increased sensitivity to a natural pyrethrum extract of trypanosoma-infected Glossina morsitans. Acta Tropica 41, 77–9.
Hecker, H. & Moloo, S. K. (1980). Influence of Trypanosoma (trypanozoon) brucei infection on the fine-structure of midgut cells of Glossina morsitans morsitans. Parasitology 82, 106–7.
Kendall, M. G. & Stuart, A. (1977). The Advanced Theory of Statistics, vol. 3, 4th Edn.London: Griffin.
Kilama, W. L. & Craig, G. A. (1969). Monofactorial inheritance of susceptibility to Plasmodium gallinaceum in Aedes aegypti. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 63, 419–32.
Kilama, W. L., Mtera, K. N. M. & Paul, R. K. (1981). Epidemiology of human trypanosomiasis in Tanzania. The 17th Meeting of ISCTRC, OAU/STRC, Nairobi, pp. 187–93.
McGreevy, P. B., McClelland, G. A. H. & Lavoipierre, M. M. (1974). Inheritance of susceptibility to Dirofolia immitis infection in Aedes egypti. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 68, 97109.
Maudlin, I. & Dukes, P. (1985). Extrachromosomal inheritance of susceptibility to trypanosome infection in tsetse flies. I. Selection of susceptible and refractory lines of Glossina morsitans morsitans. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 79, 317–24.
Maudlin, I., Dukes, P., Luckins, A. G. & Hudson, K. M. (1986). Extrachromosomal inheritance of susceptibility to trypanosome infection in tsetse flies. II. Susceptibility of selected lines of Glossina morsitans morsitans to different stocks and species of trypanosomes. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 80, 97105.
Maudlin, I. & Ellis, D. S. (1985). Association between intracellular rickettsial-like infections of midgut cells and susceptibility to Trypanosome infection in Glossina spp. Zeitschrift für Parasitenkunde 71, 683–7.
Maudlin, I., Welburn, . C., Gibson, W. C. & Mehlitz, D. (1987). The distribution of rickettsia-like organisms and trypanosome infections in different tsetse populations. In Liberia Annual Report 1987, Liberia Research Unit of the Tropical Institute, Hamburg, pp. 7475.
Milligan, P. J. M. & Baker, R. D. (1988). A model of tsetse-transmitted animal trypanosomiasis. Parasitology 96, 211–39.
Moloo, S. K. & Shaw, M. K. (1989). Rickettsial infections of midgut cells are not associated with susceptibility of Glossina morsitans centralis to Trypanosoma congolense infection. Acta Tropica 46, 223–7.
Molyneux, D. H., Lavin, D. R. & Elce, B. (1979). A possible relationship between Salivarian trypanosomes and Glossina labrum mechano-receptors. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parsitology 73, 287–90.
Morris, K. R. S. (1960 a). Studies on the epidemiology of sleeping sickness in East Africa. III. The endemic area of Lakes Edward and George in Uganda. Transactions of the Royal Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 54, 212–24.
Morris, K. R. S. (1960 b). Studies on the epidemiology of sleeping sickness in East Africa. II. Sleeping sickness in Kenya. Transactions of the Royal Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 54, 7186.
Morris, K. R. S. (1962). The epidemiology of sleeping sickness in East Africa. V. Epidemics on the Albert Nile. Transactions of the Royal Society for Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 56, 316–38.
Newland, D. E. (1984). An Introduction to Random Vibrations and Spectral Analysis, 2nd Edn.London: Longman.
Nitcheman, S. (1988). Comparison des longévités des glossines (Glossina morsitans morsitans Westwood, 1850) infectées par les trypanosomes (Trypanosoma nannomonas congolense Broden 1904) et des glossines saines. Annales de parasitologie humaine et comparde 63, 163–4.
Rodriguez, P. H. & Craig, G. B. (1973). Susceptibility to Brugia pahangi in geographic strains of Aedes egypti. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 22, 5361.
Ryan, L. (1984). The effect of trypanosome infection on a natural population of Glossina longipalpis Wiedemann (Diptera: Glossinidae) in Ivory Coast. Acta Tropica 41, 355–9.
Scott, D. (1970). The epidemiology of Gambian sleeping sickness. In The African Trypanosomiases, (ed. Mulligan, H. W. & Potts, W. H.) Allen & London: Unwin/MOD.
Trpis, M., Duhrkopf, R. E. & Parker, K. L. (1981). Non-Mendelian inheritance of mosquito susceptibility to infection with Brugia malayia and Brugia pahangi. Science 211, 1435–7.
Welburn, S. C. & Gibson, W. C. (1989). Cloning of a repetitive DNA from the rickettsia-like organsims of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). Parasitology 98, 81–4.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Parasitology
  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords