Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 293
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Bidegain, G. Powell, E.N. Klinck, J.M. Ben-Horin, T. and Hofmann, E.E. 2016. Microparasitic disease dynamics in benthic suspension feeders: Infective dose, non-focal hosts, and particle diffusion. Ecological Modelling, Vol. 328, p. 44.

    Born-Torrijos, Ana Poulin, Robert Pérez-del-Olmo, Ana Culurgioni, Jacopo Raga, Juan Antonio and Holzer, Astrid Sibylle 2016. An optimised multi-host trematode life cycle: fishery discards enhance trophic parasite transmission to scavenging birds. International Journal for Parasitology,

    Eads, David A. and Hoogland, John L. 2016. Factors that affect parasitism of black-tailed prairie dogs by fleas. Ecosphere, Vol. 7, Issue. 7, p. e01372.

    Eisenlord, Morgan E. Groner, Maya L. Yoshioka, Reyn M. Elliott, Joel Maynard, Jeffrey Fradkin, Steven Turner, Margaret Pyne, Katie Rivlin, Natalie van Hooidonk, Ruben and Harvell, C. Drew 2016. Ochre star mortality during the 2014 wasting disease epizootic: role of population size structure and temperature. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, Vol. 371, Issue. 1689, p. 20150212.

    Gargan, Patrick Karlsbakk, Egil Coyne, John Davies, Carys and Roche, William 2016. Sea lice (Lepeophtheirus salmonisandCaligus elongatus) infestation levels on sea trout (Salmo truttaL.) around the Irish Sea, an area without salmon aquaculture. ICES Journal of Marine Science: Journal du Conseil, p. fsw044.

    Paller, Vachel Gay V. Resurreccion, Dan Jacob B. de la Cruz, Christian Paul P. and Bandal, Modesto Z. 2016. Acanthocephalan Parasites (Acanthogyrus sp.) of Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) as Biosink of Lead (Pb) Contamination in a Philippine Freshwater Lake. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Vol. 96, Issue. 6, p. 810.

    Ugelvik, M S Mo, T Mennerat, A and Skorping, A 2016. Atlantic salmon infected with salmon lice are more susceptible to new lice infections. Journal of Fish Diseases,

    Wilber, Mark Q. Weinstein, Sara B. and Briggs, Cheryl J. 2016. Detecting and quantifying parasite-induced host mortality from intensity data: method comparisons and limitations. International Journal for Parasitology, Vol. 46, Issue. 1, p. 59.

    Behrmann-Godel, Jasminca and Brinker, Alexander 2015. Biology of Perch.

    Gharbi, Karim Matthews, Louise Bron, James Roberts, Ron Tinch, Alan and Stear, Michael 2015. The control of sea lice in Atlantic salmon by selective breeding. Journal of The Royal Society Interface, Vol. 12, Issue. 110, p. 20150574.

    Hopkins, Skylar R. Boyle, Lindsey J. Belden, Lisa K. and Wojdak, Jeremy M. 2015. Dispersal of a defensive symbiont depends on contact between hosts, host health, and host size. Oecologia, Vol. 179, Issue. 2, p. 307.

    Pfäffle, Miriam Littwin, Nina and Petney, Trevor 2015. Host preferences of immature Dermacentor reticulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in a forest habitat in Germany. Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, Vol. 6, Issue. 4, p. 508.

    Sarabeev, Volodimir 2015. Helminth species richness of introduced and native grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugilidae). Parasitology International, Vol. 64, Issue. 4, p. 6.

    Sponchiado, Jonas Melo, Geruza L. Landulfo, Gabriel A. Jacinavicius, Fernando C. Barros-Battesti, Darci M. and Cáceres, Nilton C. 2015. Interaction of ectoparasites (Mesostigmata, Phthiraptera and Siphonaptera) with small mammals in Cerrado fragments, western Brazil. Experimental and Applied Acarology, Vol. 66, Issue. 3, p. 369.

    Beck, Melissa A. Goater, Cameron P. Colwell, Douglas D. and van Paridon, Bradley J. 2014. Fluke abundance versus host age for an invasive trematode (Dicrocoelium dendriticum) of sympatric elk and beef cattle in southeastern Alberta, Canada. International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, Vol. 3, Issue. 3, p. 263.

    Boerlage, A.S. Graat, E.A.M. Verreth, J.A. and de Jong, M.C.M. 2014. Transmission of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (Heterophyidae) to common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is independent of density of fish and trematodes. Journal of Helminthology, Vol. 88, Issue. 02, p. 183.

    de Montaudouin, X Bazairi, H Mlik, KA and Gonzalez, P 2014. Bacciger bacciger (Trematoda: Fellodistomidae) infection effects on wedge clam Donax trunculus condition. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, Vol. 111, Issue. 3, p. 259.

    Estrada-Peña, Agustín and de la Fuente, José 2014. The ecology of ticks and epidemiology of tick-borne viral diseases. Antiviral Research, Vol. 108, p. 104.

    Kanarek, Gerard and Zaleśny, Grzegorz 2014. Extrinsic- and intrinsic-dependent variation in component communities and patterns of aggregations in helminth parasites of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) from N.E. Poland. Parasitology Research, Vol. 113, Issue. 3, p. 837.

    Kiffner, Christian Stanko, Michal Morand, Serge Khokhlova, Irina S. Shenbrot, Georgy I. Laudisoit, Anne Leirs, Herwig Hawlena, Hadas and Krasnov, Boris R. 2014. Variable effects of host characteristics on species richness of flea infracommunities in rodents from three continents. Parasitology Research, Vol. 113, Issue. 8, p. 2777.


Processes influencing the distribution of parasite numbers within host populations with special emphasis on parasite-induced host mortalities

  • R. M. Anderson (a1) and D. M. Gordon (a2)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 April 2009

The paper examines the factors which generate various patterns of dispersion in the distribution of parasites within their host populations. Particular emphasis is placed on the role played by chance elements in the growth and decay of parasite populations and on the influence of different types of demographic processes. It is argued that observed distributions are dynamic, rather than static, entities generated by opposing forces, some acting to create over-dispersion and others acting to generate under-dispersion. Monte Carlo simulation experiments, based on probability models of the growth and decay of host and parasite populations, are used to study the dynamics of parasite dispersion. Attention is specifically focused on the role played by parasite-induced host mortality. It is shown that, for certain types of host–parasite associations, convex curves of mean parasite abundance in relation to age (age-intensity curves), concomitant with a decline in the degree of dispersion in the older age classes of hosts, may be evidence of the induction of host mortality by parasite infection. Empirical evidence is examined in light of this prediction. In general, however, simulation studies highlight the technical difficulties inherent in establishing clear evidence of parasite-induced host mortality from ecological studies of hosts and parasites in their natural habitats.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

R. M. Anderson (1974). Population dynamics of the cestode Caryophyllaeus laliceps (Pallas, 1781) in the bream (Abramis brama L.). Journal of Animal Ecology 43, 305–21.

R. M. Anderson (1981). Epidemiology of infectious disease agents. In Modern Parasitology (ed. F. E. G. Cox ). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publishers.

R. M. Anderson , D. M. Gordon , M. J. Crawley & M. P. Hassell (1982). Variability in the abundance of animal and plant species. Nature, London 296, 245–8.

R. M. Anderson & R. M. May (1978). Regulation and stability of host–parasite population interactions: I. Regulatory processes. Journal of Animal Ecology 47, 219–48.

R. M. Anderson & R. M. May (1979). Population biology of infectious diseases: Part I. Nature, London 280, 361–7.

A. Campbell , R. A. Ward & M. B. Garrie (1980). Seasonal activity and frequency distributions of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting snowshoe hares in Nova Scotia, Canada. Journal of Medical Entomology 17, 22–9.

J. Henricson (1977). The abundance and distribution of Diphyllobothrium dentriticum (Nitzsch) and D. ditremum (Creplin) in the char Salvelinus alpinus. Journal of Fish Biology 11, 231–48.

C. R. Kennedy & R. Burrough (1977). The population biology of two species of eyefluke, Diplostomum gasterostei and Tylodelphys clavata in perch. Journal of Fish Biology 11, 619–33.

R. M. May & R. M. Anderson (1978). Regulation and stability of host–parasite population interactions. II. Destabilizing processes. Journal of Animal Ecology 47, 249–68.

R. M. May & R. M. Anderson (1979). Population biology of infectious diseases: Part II. Nature, London 280, 455–61.

S. E. Randolph (1975). Patterns of distribution of the tick Ixodes trianguliceps Birula on its hosts. Journal of Animal Ecology 44, 451–74.

L. C. Rutledge , R. A. Ward & R. M. Buckwalter (1973). Plasmodium spp: Dispersion of malarial oocyst populations in Anopheline and Culicine mosquitoes. Experimental Parasitology 34, 132–41.

L. R. Taylor (1961). Aggregation, variance and the mean. Nature, London 189, 732–5.

L. R. Taylor & R. A. J. Taylor (1977). Aggregation, migration and population dynamics. Nature, London 265, 415–21.

L. R. Taylor & I. P. Woiwood (1980). Temporal stability as a density-dependent species characteristic. Journal of Animal Ecology 49, 209–24.

L. R. Taylor , I. P. Woiwood & J. N. Perry (1978). The density dependence of spatial behaviour and the rarity of randomness. Journal of Animal Ecology 47, 383406.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *