Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 11
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Adenowo, Abiola Fatimah Oyinloye, Babatunji Emmanuel Ogunyinka, Bolajoko Idiat and Kappo, Abidemi Paul 2015. Impact of human schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 19, Issue. 2, p. 196.

    Nalugwa, A. Olsen, A. Tukahebwa, M.E. and Nuwaha, F. 2015. Intestinal schistosomiasis among preschool children along the shores of Lake Victoria in Uganda. Acta Tropica, Vol. 142, p. 115.

    Walz, Yvonne Wegmann, Martin Dech, Stefan Raso, Giovanna and Utzinger, Jürg 2015. Risk profiling of schistosomiasis using remote sensing: approaches, challenges and outlook. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 8, Issue. 1,

    Poole, Helen Terlouw, Dianne J Naunje, Andrew Mzembe, Kondwani Stanton, Michelle Betson, Martha Lalloo, David G and Stothard, J 2014. Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes and snails. Parasites & Vectors, Vol. 7, Issue. 1, p. 153.

    Stothard, J Russell Bustinduy, Amaya and Montresor, Antonio 2014. Preventive chemotherapy for schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis by cotreatment with praziquantel and albendazole. Clinical Investigation, Vol. 4, Issue. 2, p. 163.

    Garba, Amadou Lamine, Mariama S. Djibo, Ali Tahirou, Almoustapha Aouami, Mahamadou Aboubacar Alfari, Aichatou Phillips, Anna E. Fenwick, Alan and Utzinger, Jürg 2013. Safety and efficacy of praziquantel syrup (Epiquantel®) against Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni in preschool-aged children in Niger. Acta Tropica, Vol. 128, Issue. 2, p. 318.

    Knopp, Stefanie Becker, Sören L Ingram, Katrin J Keiser, Jennifer and Utzinger, Jürg 2013. Diagnosis and treatment of schistosomiasis in children in the era of intensified control. Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy, Vol. 11, Issue. 11, p. 1237.

    Stothard, J. Russell Sousa-Figueiredo, José C. Betson, Martha Bustinduy, Amaya and Reinhard-Rupp, Jutta 2013. Schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool children: let them now be treated!. Trends in Parasitology, Vol. 29, Issue. 4, p. 197.

    Utzinger, Jürg Brattig, Norbert W. and Kristensen, Thomas K. 2013. Schistosomiasis research in Africa: how the CONTRAST alliance made it happen. Acta Tropica, Vol. 128, Issue. 2, p. 182.

    van Dam, Govert J. de Dood, Claudia J. Lewis, Melanie Deelder, André M. van Lieshout, Lisette Tanke, Hans J. van Rooyen, Louis H. and Corstjens, Paul L.A.M. 2013. A robust dry reagent lateral flow assay for diagnosis of active schistosomiasis by detection of Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen. Experimental Parasitology, Vol. 135, Issue. 2, p. 274.

    Geary, Timothy G. 2012. Are new anthelmintics needed to eliminate human helminthiases?. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases, Vol. 25, Issue. 6, p. 709.


Schistosomiasis in infants and pre-school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa: implication for control

  • DOI:
  • Published online: 08 February 2012

Until recently, the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa have focused primarily on infections in school-aged children and to a lesser extent on adults. Now there is growing evidence and reports of infection in infants and pre-school-aged children (⩽6 years old) in Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria and Uganda, with reported prevalence from 14% to 86%. In this review, we provide available information on the epidemiology, transmission and control of schistosomiasis in this age group, generally not considered or included in national schistosomiasis control programmes that are being implemented in several sub-Saharan African countries. Contrary to previous assumptions, we show that schistosomiasis infection starts from early childhood in many endemic communities and factors associated with exposure of infants and pre-school-aged children to infection are yet to be determined. The development of morbidity early in childhood may contribute to long-term clinical impact and severity of schistosomiasis before they receive treatment. Consistently, these issues are overlooked in most schistosomiasis control programmes. It is, therefore, necessary to review current policy of schistosomiasis control programmes in sub-Saharan Africa to consider the treatment of infant and pre-school-aged children and the health education to mothers.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Agriculture, PMB 2240, Abeokuta, 110001, Nigeria. Tel.: +234 802755 5689 (mobile). E-mail:;
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

M. Betson , J. C. Sousa-Figueiredo , C. Rowell , N. B. Kabatereine and J. R. Stothard (2010). Intestinal schistosomiasis in mothers and young children in Uganda: investigation of field-applicable markers of bowel morbidity. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 83, 10481055.

K. M. Bosompem , I. A. Bentum , J. Otchere , W. K. Anyan , C. A. Brown , Y. Osada , S. Takeo , S. Kojima and N. Ohta (2004). Infant schistosomiasis in Ghana: a survey in an irrigation community. Tropical Medicine and International Health 9, 917922.

A. Dabo , H. M. Badawi , B. Bary and O. K. Doumbo (2011). Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool-aged children in Sahelian rural communities in Mali. Parasites & Vectors 4, 21.

U. F. Ekpo , L. D. Akintunde , A. S. Oluwole , S. O. Sam-Wobo and C. F. Mafiana (2010). Urinary schistosomiasis among preschool children in a rural community near Abeokuta, Nigeria. Parasites & Vectors 3, 58.

A. Garba , N. Barkiré , A. Djibo , M. S. Lamine , B. Sofo , A. N. Gouvras , E. Bosqué-Oliva , J. P. Webster , J. R. Stothard , J. Utzinger and A. Fenwick (2010). Schistosomiasis in infants and preschool-aged children infection in a single Schistosoma haematobium and a mixed S. haematobium-S. mansoni foci of Niger. Acta Tropica 115, 212219.

B. Gryseels , K. Polman , J. Clerinx and L. Kestens (2006). Human schistosomiasis. Lancet 368, 11061118.

A. Hall , C. Nokes , S. T. Wen , S. Adjei , C. Kihamia , L. Mwanri , E. Bobrow , J. de Graft-Johnson and D. Bundy (1999). Alternatives to bodyweight for estimating the dose of praziquantel needed to treat schistosomiasis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 93, 653658.

P. J. Hotez and A. Kamath (2009). Neglected tropical diseases in sub-Saharan Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 3, e412.

P. J. Hotez , D. H. Molyneux , A. Fenwick , J. Kumaresan , S. E. Sachs , J. D. Sachs and L. Savioli (2007 a). Control of neglected tropical diseases. New England Journal of Medicine 357, 10181027.

P. Hotez , S. Raff , A. Fenwick , F. Richards Jr. and D. H. Molyneux (2007 b). Recent progress in integrated neglected tropical disease control. Trends in Parasitology 23, 511514.

E. T. Idowu , M. A. Mafe , B. Appelt , B. Adewale , A. K. Adeneye , O. P. Akinwale , O. U. Manafa and D. O. Akande (2007). Height as a substitute for weight for estimating praziquantel dosage. World Health & Population 9, 1926.

M. V. Johansen , M. Sacko , B. J. Vennervald and N. B. Kabatereine (2007). Leave children untreated and sustain inequity. Trends in Parasitology 23, 568569.

E. F. Kjetland , G. Poggensee , G. Helling-Giese , J. Richter , A. Sjaastad , L. Chitsulo , N. Kumwenda , S. G. Gundersen , I. Krantz and H. Feldmeier (1996). Female genital schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium. Clinical and parasitological findings in women in rural Malawi. Acta Tropica 62, 239255.

C. Lengeler , H. Mshinda , D. Morona and D. de Savigny (1993). Urinary schistosomiasis: testing with urine filtration and reagent sticks for haematuria provides a comparable estimate. Acta Tropica 53, 3950.

M. A. Mafe (1997). The diagnostic potential of three indirect tests for urinary schistosomiasis in Nigeria. Acta Tropica 68, 277284.

C. F. Mafiana , U. F. Ekpo and D. A. Ojo (2003). Urinary schistosomiasis in preschool children in settelments around Oyan reservoir in Ogun State Nigeria: implications for control. Tropical Medicine and International Health 8, 7882.

C. D. Mathers , M. Ezzati and A. D. Lopez (2007). Measuring the burden of neglected tropical diseases: the global burden of disease framework. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 1, e114.

N. Midzi , A. E. Butterworth , T. Mduluza , S. Munyati , A. M. Deelder and G. D. van Dam (2009). Use of circulating cathodic antigen strips for the diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 103, 4551.

A. Montresor , D. Engels , L. Chitsulo , D. A. Bundy , S. Brooker and L. Savioli (2001). Development and validation of a ‘tablet pole’ for the administration of praziquantel in sub-Saharan Africa. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 95, 542544.

A. Montresor , P. Odermatt , S. Muth , F. Iwata , Y. A. Raja'a , A. M. Assis , A. Zulkifli , N. B. Kabatereine , A. Fenwick , S. Al-Awaidy , H. Allen , D. Engels and L. Savioli (2005). The WHO dose pole for the administration of praziquantel is also accurate in non-African populations. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 99, 7881.

A. Montresor , R. Stoltzfus and M. Albonico (2002). Is the exclusion of children under 24 months from anthelmintic treatment justifiable? Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 96, 197199.

M. A. Moran (2005). Breakthrough in R&D for neglected diseases: new ways to get the drugs we need. PLoS Medicine 2, e302.

M. Moran , J. Guzman , A. Ropars , A. McDonald , N. Jameson , J. Omune , S. Ryan and L. Wu (2009). Neglected disease research and development: how much are we really spending? PLoS Medicine 6, e1000030.

K. E. Mott , H. Dixon , E. Osei-Tutu and E. C. England (1983). Relation between intensity of Schistosoma haematobium infection and clinical haematobium and proteinuria. Lancet 321, 10051008.

F. Mutapi , N. Rujeni , C. Bourke , K. Mitchell , L. Appleby , N. Nausch , N. Midzi and T. Mduluza (2011). Schistosoma haematobium treatment in 1–5 year old children: safety and efficacy of the antihelminthic drug praziquantel. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 5, e1143.

S. E. Odogwu , N. K. Ramamurthy , N. B. Kabatereine , F. Kazibwe , E. Tukahebwa , J. P. Webster , A. Fenwick and J. R. Stothard (2006). Schistosoma mansoni in infants (aged<3 years) along the Ugandan shoreline of Lake Victoria. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 100, 315326.

E. Robinson , D. Picon , H. J. Sturrock , A. Sabasio , M. Lado , J. Kolaczinski and S. Brooker (2009). The performance of haematuria reagent strips for the rapid mapping of urinary schistosomiasis: field experience from Southern Sudan. Tropical Medicine and International Health 14, 14841487.

P. Steinmann , J. Keiser , R. Bos , M. Tanner and J. Utzinger (2006). Schistosomiasis and water resources development: systematic review, meta-analysis, and estimates of people at risk. Lancet Infectious Diseases 6, 411425.

J. C. Sousa-Figueiredo , M. G. Basáñez , A. F. Mgeni , I. S. Khamis , D. Rollinson and J. R. Stothard (2008). A parasitological survey, in rural Zanzibar, of pre-school children and their mothers for urinary schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiases and malaria, with observations on the prevalence of anaemia. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 102, 679692.

J. C. Sousa-Figueiredo , M. Day , M. Betson , N. B. Kabatereine and J. R. Stothard (2010 b). An inclusive dose pole for treatment of schistosomiasis in infants and preschool children with praziquantel. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 104, 740742.

J. C. Sousa-Figueiredo , J. Pleasant , M. Day , M. Betson , D. Rollinson , A. Montresor , F. Kazibwe , N. B. Kabatereine and J. R. Stothard (2010 a). Treatment of intestinal schistosomiasis in Ugandan preschool children: best diagnosis, treatment efficacy and side-effects, and an extended praziquantel dosing pole. International Health 2, 103113.

J. F. Stothard and A. F. Gabrielli (2007 a). Schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool children: to treat or not to treat? Trends in Parasitology 23, 8386.

J. R. Stothard and A. F. Gabrielli (2007 b). Response to Johansen et al.: Leave children untreated and sustain inequity. Trends in Parasitology 23, 569570.

J. R. Stothard , J. C. Sousa-Figuereido , M. Betson , M. Adriko , M. Arinaitwe , C. Rowell , F. Besiyge and N. B. Kabatereine (2011 b). Schistosoma mansoni infections in young children: when are schistosome antigens in urine, eggs in stool and antibodies to eggs first detectable? PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 5, e938.

U. S. Ugbomoiko , V. Dalumo , L. Ariza , F. S. M. Bezerra and J. Heukelbach (2009 a). A simple approach improving the performance of urine reagent strips for rapid diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis in Nigerian schoolchildren. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 104, 456461.

M. J. van der Werf , S. J. de Vlas , S. Brooker , C. W. N. Looman , N. J. D. Nagelkerke , J. D. F. Habbema and D. Engels (2003). Quantification of clinical morbidity associated with schistosome infection in sub-Saharan Africa. Acta Tropica 86, 125139.

J. R. Verani , B. Abudho , S. P. Montgomery , P. N. M. Mwinzi , H. L. Shane , S. E. Butler , D. M. S. Karanja and W. E. Secor (2011). Schistosomiasis among young children in Usoma, Kenya. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 84, 787791.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *