Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Doenhoff, M. J. and Chappell, L. H. 1992. Preface: Positive interactions between anti-infection drugs and the immune response: an emerging paradigm. Parasitology, Vol. 105, Issue. S1, p. S1.


Viruses, chemotherapy and immunity

  • M. J. Koziel (a1) and B. D. Walker (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 01 April 2009

An increasing number of antiviral agents are presently in various stages of development and testing, and an increasing number have recently been licensed for use in humans. These drugs have been used extensively to treat viral infections in immunocompromised individuals, and these studies indicate that for many antiviral agents the response to therapy is highly dependent on the integrity of the underlying host immune response. In particular, the response to zidovudine, acyclovir and ganciclovir in persons with HIV-1 infection is highly dependent upon CD4 number, which can be considered a surrogate marker for the state of host immune function in these subjects. Responses to interferons likewise can be shown to depend on the host immune response, with responses due to both direct antiviral effects of this agent as well as immunomodulatory effects mediated through interferon-induced upregulation of HLA molecule expression.

Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

T. P. Cooley , L. M. Kunches , C. A. Saunders , J. K. Ritter , C. J. Perkins , C. McLaren , R. P. McCaffrey & H. A. Liebman (1990b). Once-daily administration of 2′,3′-dideoxyinosine (ddI) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or AIDS-related complex. New England Journal of Medicine 322, 1340–5.

J. A. Englund , M. E. Zimmerman , E. M. Swierkosz , J. L. Goodman , D. R. Scholl & H. H. J. Balfour (1990). Herpes simplex virus resistant to acyclovir. A study in a tertiary care center. Annals of Internal Medicine 112, 416–22.

L. M. Evans , L. M. Itri , M. Campion , P. R. Wyler , S. E. Krown , J. E. Groopman , H. Goldswieg , P. A. Volberding , S. B. West & R. T. Mitsuyasu (1991). Interferon-alpha 2a in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Journal of Immunotherapy 10, 3950.

A. S. Fauci , S. M. Schnittman , G. Poli , S. Koenig & G. Pantaleo (1991). NIH conference. Immunopathogenic mechanisms in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Annals of Internal Medicine 114, 678–93.

H. E. Gendelman , J. M. Orenstein , M. A. Martin , C. Ferrua , R. Mitra , T. Phipps , L. A. Wahl , H. C. Lane , A. S. Fauci & D. S. Burke (1988). Efficient isolation and propagation of human immunodeficiency virus on recombinant colony-stimulating factor 1-treated monocytes. Journal of Experimental Medicine 167, 1428–41..

W. Heagy , C. Crumpacker , P. A. Lopez & R. W. Finberg (1991). Inhibition of immune functions by antiviral drugs. Journal of Clinical Investigation 87, 1916–24.

E. Joly ., L. Mucke & M. B. Oldstone (1991). Viral persistence in neurons explained by lack of major histocompatibility class I expression. Science 253, 1283–5.

J. O. Kahn , S. Lagakos , D. Richman , A. Cross , C. Pettinelli , S.-H. Liou , M. Brown , P. Volberding , C. Crumpacker , G. Beall , H. Sacks , T. C. Merigan , M. Beltangady , L. Smaldone , R. Dolin & The National Aids Clinical Trials Group (1992). A controlled trial comparing continued zidovudine with didanosine in human immunodeficiency virus infection. New England Journal of Medicine 327, 581–7.

B. A. Larder , G. Darby & D. D. Richman (1989). HIV with reduced sensitivity to zidovudine (AZT) isolated during prolonged therapy. Science 243, 1731–4.

R. D. Moore , J. Keruly , D. D. Richman , K. T. Creagh & R. E. Chaisson (1992). Natural history of advanced HIV disease in patients treated with zidovudine. The Zidovudine Epidemiology Study Group. AIDS 6, 671–7.

T. Moriyama , S. Guilhot , K. Klopchin , B. Moss , C. Pinkert , R. Palmiter , R. Brinster , O. Kanagawa & F. Chisari (1990). Immunobiology and pathogenesis of hepatocellular injury in transgenic mice. Science 248, 361–4.

A. G. Morris , Y. L. Lin & B. A. Askonas (1982). Immune interferon release when a cloned cytotoxic T-cell line meets its correct influenza-infected target cell. Nature 295, 150–2.

B. F. Polk , R. Fox , R. Brookmeyer , S. Kancharnaraksa , R. Kaslow , B. Visscher , C. Rinaldo & J. Phair (1987). Predictors of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome developing in a cohort of seropositive homosexual men. New England Journal of Medicine 316, 61–6.

G. V. J. Quinnan , N. Kirmani , A. H. Rook , J. F. Manischewitz , L. Jackson , G. Moreschi , G. W. Santos , R. Saral & W. H. Burns (1982). Cytotoxic t cells in cytomegalovirus infection: HLA-restricted T-lymphocyte and non-T-Iymphocyte cytotoxic responses correlate with recovery from cytomegalovirus infection in bone-marrow-transplant recipients. New England Journal of Medicine 307, 713.

M. H. st Clair , J. L. Martin , W. G. Tudor , M. C. Bach , C. L. Vavro , D. M. King , P. Kellam , S. D. Kemp & B. A. Larder (1991). Resistance to ddI and sensitivity to AZT induced by a mutation in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. Science 253, 1557–9.

P. A. Volberding , S. W. Lagakos , M. A. Koch , C. Pettinelli , M. W. Myers , D. K. Booth , H. H. J. Balfour , R. C. Reichman , J. A. Bartlett & M. S. Hirsch (1990). Zidovudine in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. A controlled trial in persons with fewer than 500 CD4-positive cells per cubic millimeter. New England Journal of Medicine 322, 941–9.

R. J. Whitley , C. A. Alford , M. S. Hirsch , R. T. Schooley , J. P. Luby , F. Y. Aoki , D. Hanley , A. J. Nahmias & S. J. Soong (1986). Vidarabine versus acyclovir therapy in herpes simplex encephalitis. New England Journal of Medicine 314, 144–9.

K. L. Yap , G. L. Ada & I. F. McKenzie (1978). Transfer of specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes protects mice inoculated with influenza virus. Nature 273, 238–9.

R. Yarchoan , D. J. Venzon , J. M. Pluda , J. Lietzau , K. M. Wyvill , A. A. Tsiatis , S. M. Steinberg & S. Broder (1991). CD4 count and the risk for death in patients infected with HIV receiving antiretroviral therapy. Annals of Internal Medicine 115, 184–9.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0031-1820
  • EISSN: 1469-8161
  • URL: /core/journals/parasitology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *