Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

The ‘Tribal Politics’ of Field Research: A Reflection on Power and Partiality in 21st-Century Warzones

Abstract

Can fieldwork still be done in today’s most violent warzones? We contend that long-held methodological principles about power and impartiality do not hold in today’s conflict-ridden environments. Research of this kind can still be pursued, but only if the scholar’s place is reconceived as one of limited power and unavoidable partiality. We argue that those still able to do fieldwork in sites of increasing danger do so by virtue of building their own ‘tribes,’ forming and joining different social micro-systems to collect data and, in some cases, survive. Field research must, therefore, be recognized as its own form of foreign intervention. In considering the future of political science research in the most challenging war-torn settings, we examine the risks and opportunities that accompany ‘tribal politics’ of this kind and underline the importance of reflecting on our own positionality in the process of knowledge production.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The ‘Tribal Politics’ of Field Research: A Reflection on Power and Partiality in 21st-Century Warzones
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The ‘Tribal Politics’ of Field Research: A Reflection on Power and Partiality in 21st-Century Warzones
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The ‘Tribal Politics’ of Field Research: A Reflection on Power and Partiality in 21st-Century Warzones
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
References
Hide All
AbiewFrancis Kofi. 2012. “Humanitarian Action under Fire: Reflections on the Role of NGOs in Conflict and Post-Conflict Situations.” International Peacekeeping 19(2): 203–16.
AdamsJaqueline. 1998. “The Wrongs of Reciprocity: Fieldwork among Chilean Working-Class Women.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 27(2): 219–41.
AdamsLaura L. 1999. “The Mascot Researcher.” Journal of Composite Materials 33(10): 928–40.
AhramAriel. 2013. “Iraq in the Social Sciences: Testing the Limits of Research.” Journal of the Middle East and Africa 4: 251–66.
American Anthropological Association Commission on the Engagement of Anthropology with the US Security and Intelligence Communities (CEAUSSIC). 2009. “Final Report on The Army’s Human Terrain System Proof of Concept Program.”
AndersenTravis. 2016. “New Subpoena Issued to Boston College in Belfast Project Case.” The Boston Globe, April 25.
AndersonKenneth. 2004. “Humanitarian Inviolability in Crisis: The Meaning of Impartiality and Neutrality 2003-2004 Afghanistan and Iraq Conflicts.” Harvard 17 (41–74).
AutesserreSéverine. 2014. Peaceland: Conflict Resolution and the Everyday Politics of International Intervention. New York: Cambridge University Press.
BacevichAndrew. 2016. America’s War for the Greater Middle East: A Military History. New York: Random House.
BaldwinKate. 2016. “The Paradox of Chiefs.” In The Paradox of Traditional Chiefs in Democratic Africa, 319. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
BarakatSultan and EllisSue. 1996. “Researching under Fire: Issues for Consideration When Collecting Data and Information in War Circumstances, with Specific Reference to Relief and Reconstruction Projects.” Disasters 20(2): 149–56.
BarkeyKaren. 1994. Bandits and Bureaucrats: The Ottoman Route to State Centralization. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
BayartJean-François. 1993. The State in Africa: The Politics of the Belly. London; New York: Longman.
BinghamMolly and ConnorsSteve. 2013. “Reporting the Story: Thoughts for Reporting on Violent Groups in a Turbulent Environment.” In Research Methods in Conflict Settings: A View from Below, edited by MazuranaDyan, JacobsenKaren, and GaleLacey, 169220. New York: Cambridge University Press.
BorlandKatherine. 1998. “That’s Not What I Said: Interpretative Conflict in Oral Narrative Research.” In The Oral History Reader, edited by PerksRobert and ThomsonAlistair, 2nd ed., 310–21. London: Routledge.
BourgoisPhilippe. 1990. “Confronting Anthropological Ethics: Ethnographic Lessons from Central America.” Journal of Peace Research 27(1): 4354.
BrownStephen. 2009. “Dilemmas of Self-Representation and Conduct in the Field.” In Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations, edited by SriramChandra Lekha, KingJohn C., MertusJulie A., Martin-OrtegaOlga, and HermanJohanna, 213–26. New York and London: Routledge.
CampbellSusanna P. 2010. “Literature Review: Ethics of Research in Conflict and Post-Conflict Environments.” Program on States and Security, The Graduate Center, City University, New York.
CarapicoSheila. 2006. “No Easy Answers: The Ethics of Field Research in the Arab World.” PS: Political Science & Politics 39(3): 429–31.
CarpenterCharli. 2012. “‘You Talk of Terrible Things So Matter-of-Factly in This Language of Science’: Constructing Human Rights in the Academy.” Perspectives on Politics 10(2): 363–83.
CassellJoan. 1980. “Ethical Principles for Conducting Fieldwork.” American Anthropologist 82(1): 2841.
ChabalPatrick and DalozJean-Pascal. 1999. Africa Works: Disorder as Political Instrument. London: African International Institute.
ChakravartyAnuradha. 2012. “‘Partially Trusting’ Field Relationships Opportunities and Constraints of Fieldwork in Rwanda’s Postconflict Setting.” Field Methods 24(3): 251–71.
ChandlerDavid. 2006. “Back to the Future? The Limits of Neo-Wilsonian Ideals of Exporting Democracy.” Review of International Studies 32: 475–94.
ClarkJanine A. 2006. “Field Research Methods in the Middle East.” PS: Political Science & Politics 39(3): 417–24.
ClarkeKamari M. 2010. “Toward a Critically Engaged Ethnographic Practice.” Current Anthropology 51(S2): S301–S12.
CohenJeffrey H. 2000. “Problems in the Field: Participant Observation and the Assumption of Neutrality.” Field Methods 12(4): 316–33.
CohenNissim and ArieliTamar. 2011. “Field Research in Conflict Environments: Methodological Challenges and Snowball Sampling.” Journal of Peace Research 48(4): 423–35.
CorstangeDaniel. 2016. “Anti-American Behavior in the Middle East: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Lebanon.” Journal of Politics 78(1): 311–25.
DandoyArnaud and de MontclosMarc-Antoine Pérouse. 2013. “Humanitarian Workers in Peril? Deconstructing the Myth of the New and Growing Threat to Humanitarian Workers.” Global Crime 14(4): 341–58.
DanyCharlotte. 2014. “Beyond Principles vs. Politics: Humanitarian Aid in the European Union.” ARENA Working Paper II (November).
DeebLara and WinegarJessica. 2016. Anthropology's Politics: Disciplining the Middle East. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
De JuanAlexander and BankAndré. 2015. “The Ba‘athist Blackout? Selective Goods Provision and Political Violence in the Syrian Civil War.” Journal of Peace Research 52(1): 91104.
de TorrenteNicolas. 2004. “Humanitarian Action Under Attack: Reflections on the Iraq War.” Harvard Human Rights Journal 17(1): 139.
de WaalAlex. 2009. “Mission without End? Peacekeeping in the African Political Marketplace.” International Affairs 85(1): 99113.
DesposatoScott W. 2014. “Ethical Challenges and Some Solutions for Field Experiments:” 1–11.
DesposatoScott W., ed. 2016. Ethics and Experiments: Problems and Solutions for Social Scientists and Policy Professionals. New York and London: Routledge.
DillmanCaroline M. 1977. “Ethical Problems in Social Science Research Peculiar to Participant Observation.” Human Organization 36(4): 405–07.
DiphoornTessa. 2012. “The Emotionality of Participation: Various Modes of Participation in Ethnographic Fieldwork on Private Policing in Durban, South Africa.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 42(2): 201–25.
DoniniAntonio. 1995. “Beyond Neutrality: On the Compatibility of Military Intervention and Humanitarian Assistance.” The Fletcher Forum of World Affairs 19(2): 3145.
DriscollJesse. 2015. Warlords and Coalition Politics in Post-Soviet States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
EnglandKim V. L. 1994. “Getting Personal: Reflexivity, Positionality, and Feminist Research.” The Professional Geographer 46(1): 8089.
EnglebertPierre and TullDenis M.. 2008. “Postconflict Reconstruction in Africa: Flawed Ideas about Failed States.” International Security 32(4): 106–39.
Field Manual 3–24. 2014. “Insurgencies and Countering Insurgencies.” Washington, D.C.: Active Army, Army National Guard, and U.S. Army Reserve.
FineGary Alan. 1993. “Ten Lies of Ethnography: Moral Dilemmas of Field Research.” Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 22(3): 267–94.
FujiiLee Ann. 2010. “Shades of Truth and Lies: Interpreting Testimonies of War and Violence.” Journal of Peace Research 47(2): 231–41.
FujiiLee Ann. 2012. “Research Ethics 101: Dilemmas and Responsibilities.” PS: Political Science & Politics 45(4): 717–23.
GallaherCarolyn. 2009. “Researching Repellent Groups: Some Methodological Considerations on How to Represent Militants, Radicals, and Other Belligerents.” In Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations, edited by SriramChandra Lekha, KingJohn C., MertusJulie A., Martin-OrtegaOlga, and HermanJohanna, 127–46. New York: Routledge.
GantJim. 2009. “A Strategy for Success in Afghanistan: One Tribe at a Time.” Los Angeles: Nine Sisters Imports.
GeertzClifford. 1978. “The Bazaar Economy : Information and Search in Peasant Marketing.” The American Economic Review 68(2): 2832.
GergesFawaz A. 2009. The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
GerharzEva. 2009. “Ambivalent Positioning: Reflections on Ethnographic Research in Sri Lanka during the Ceasefire of 2002.” 361. Working Papers in Development Sociology and Social Anthropology. Bielefeld.
GezariVanessa M. 2015. The Tender Soldier: A True Story of War and Sacrifice. New York: Simon & Schuster.
GoffmanAlice. 2014. On the Run: Fugitive Life in an American City. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
GoodeJ. Paul. 2010. “Redefining Russia: Hybrid Regimes, Fieldwork, and Russian Politics.” Perspectives on Politics 8(4): 1055–75.
GoodhandJonathan. 2000. “Research in Conflict Zones: Ethics and Accountability.” Forced Migration 8(4): 1215.
HaarGemma Van Der, HeijmansAnnelies, and HilhorstDorothea. 2013. “Interactive Research and the Construction of Knowledge in Conflict-Affected Settings.” Disasters 37(1): 2035.
HaleCharles R. 2001. “What Is Activist Research?” Items and Issues: Social Science Research Council 2(1): 1315.
Hays-MitchellMaureen. 2001. “Danger, Fulfillment, and Responsibility in a Violence-Plagued Society.” Geographical Review 91(1–2): 311–21.
HechtTobias. 1998. At Home in the Street: Street Children of Northeast Brazil. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
HilhorstDorothea, HodgsonLucy, JansenBram, and MenaRodrigo. 2016. Security Guidelines for Field Researchers in Complex, Remote and Hazardous Places. The Hague: International Institute of Social Studies.
HughesGeraint and TripodiChristian. 2009. “Anatomy of a Surrogate: Historical Precedents and Implications for Contemporary Counter-Insurgency and Counter-Terrorism.” Small Wars & Insurgencies 20(1): 135.
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. 2001. “The Responsibility to Protect.” Ottawa.
IsaacJeffrey C. 2015. “For a More Public Political Science.” Perspectives on Politics 13(2): 269–83.
JarvieIan Charles. 1969. “The Problem of Ethical Integrity in Participant Observation.” Current Anthropology 10(5): 505–08.
JohnsonCarole Gaar. 1982. “Risks in the Publication of Fieldwork.” In The Ethics of Social Research: Fieldwork, Regulation, and Publication, edited by SieberJoan, 71–91. New York: Springer-Verlag.
KaldorMary. 1999. New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era. Cambridge: Polity Press.
KaldorMary. 2013. “In Defence of New Wars.” Stability: International Journal of Security and Development 2(1), 4: 116.
KilcullenDavid. 2005. “Countering Global Insurgency.” Journal of Strategic Studies 28(4): 597617.
KilcullenDavid. 2009. The Accidental Guerrilla: Fighting Small Wars in the Midst of a Big One. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kovats-BernatJ. Christopher. 2002. “Negotiating Dangerous Fields: Pragmatic Strategies for Fieldwork Mid Violence and Terror.” American Anthropologist 104(1): 208–22.
KrasnerStephen D. 1999. Sovereignty: Organized Hypocrisy. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
LawrenceT. E. 1937. Seven Pillars of Wisdom. Wordsworth Editions Ltd.
LederachJohn Paul. 1995. Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across Cultures. New York: Syracuse University Press.
LongAustin. 2008. “The Anbar Awakening.” Survival 50(2): 6794.
MalejacqRomain. 2011. “Meeting with a Warlord.” Afghanopoly. July 20. https://afghanopoly.wordpress.com/2011/07/20/meeting-with-a-warlord/.
MalejacqRomain. 2016. “Warlords, Intervention, and State Consolidation: A Typology of Political Orders in Weak and Failed States.” Security Studies 25(1): 85110.
MamdaniMahmood. 2009. Saviors and Survivors: Darfur, Politics, and the War on Terror. New York: Pantheon.
MamdaniMahmood. 2010. “Responsibility to Protect or Right to Punish?” Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 4(1): 5367.
MansfieldDavid. 2010. “Where Have All the Flowers Gone? Assessing the Sustainability of Current Reductions in Opium Production in Afghanistan.” Kabul: Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit.
MansfieldDavid. 2011. “Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Counter-Narcotics Efforts and Their Effects in Nangarhar and Helmand in the 2010–2011 Growing Season.” Kabul: Afghanistan Research and Evaluation Unit.
MansfieldDavid. 2015. “Effective Monitoring and Evaluation in Conflict-Affected Environments: Afghanistan Post-2014.” Washington DC: U.S. Institute of Peace.
Martin-OrtegaOlga and HermanJohanna. 2009. “There and Back: Surviving Field Research in Violent and Difficult Situations.” In Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations, edited by SriramChandra Lekha, KingJohn C., MertusJulie A., Martin-OrtegaOlga, and HermanJohanna, 227–41. New York: Routledge.
MartinMike. 2014. An Intimate War: An Oral History of the Helmand Conflict. London: C. Hurst & Co.
MazuranaDyan and GaleLacey Andrews. 2013. “Preparing for Research in Active Conflict Zones.” In Research Methods in Conflict Settings: A View from Below, edited by MazuranaDyan, JacobsenKaren, and GaleLacey, 277–92. New York: Cambridge University Press.
MazuranaDyan, JacobsenKaren, and GaleLacey, ed. 2013. Research Methods in Conflict Settings: A View from Below. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McCannMichael. 2016. “Labor Scholarship And/as Labor Activism.” Perspectives on Politics 14(2): 432–41.
MertusJulie A. 2009. “Maintenance of Personal Security: Ethical and Operational Issues.” In Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations, edited by SriramChandra Lekha, KingJohn C., MertusJulie A., Martin-OrtegaOlga, and HermanJohanna, 165–76. New York: Routledge.
MoserSarah. 2008. “Personality: A New Positionality?” Area 40(3) (September): 383–92.
MosserMichael W. 2010. “Puzzles versus Problems: The Alleged Disconnect between Academics and Military Practitioners.” Perspectives on Politics 8(4): 1077–86.
MukhopadhyayDipali. 2014. Warlords, Strongman Governors, and the State in Afghanistan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
NormanJulie M. 2009. “Got Trust? The Challenge of Gaining Access in Conflict Zones.” In Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations, edited by SriramChandra Lekha, KingJohn C., MertusJulie A., Martin-OrtegaOlga, and HermanJohanna, 7190. New York: Routledge.
O’BrienPaul. 2004. “Politicized Humanitarianism: A Response to Nicolas de Torrente.” Harvard Human Rights Journal 17(1): 3140.
OmariShazdeh. 2014. “International Journalists Killed at High Rate in 2014: Middle East Deadliest Region.” Committee to Protect Journalists.
OttawayMarina. 2003. “Promoting Democracy after Conflict: The Difficult Choices.” International Studies Perspectives 4(3): 314–22.
PaluckElizabeth Levy. 2009. “Methods and Ethics with Research Teams and NGOs: Comparing Experiences across the Border of Rwanda and Democratic Republic of Congo.” In Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations, edited by SriramChandra Lekha, KingJohn C., MertusJulie A., Martin-OrtegaOlga, and HermanJohanna, 3856. New York: Routledge.
ParisRoland. 2004. At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict. New York: Cambridge University Press.
PeritoreN. Patrick. 1990. “Reflections on Dangerous Fieldwork.” The American Sociologist 21(4): 359–72.
PetersenRoger D. 2011. Western Intervention in the Balkans: The Strategic Use of Emotions in Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
PriceMichael, RubinsteinRobert A., and PriceDavid H.. 2012. “‘Material Support’: US Anti-Terrorism Law Threatens Human Rights and Academic Freedom.” Anthropology Today 28(1): 35.
RabinowPaul. 1977. Reflections on Fieldwork in Morocco. Berkeley: University of California Press.
RadschCourtney. 2009. “From Cell Phones to Coffee: Issues of Access in Egypt and Lebanon.” In Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations, edited by SriramChandra Lekha, KingJohn C., MertusJulie A., Martin-OrtegaOlga, and HermanJohanna, 91107. New York: Routledge.
RevkinMara. 2016. “ISIS’ Social Contract: What the Islamic State Offers Civilians.” Foreign Affairs, January 10.
RichmondOliver P. 2006. “The Problem of Peace: Understanding the ‘Liberal Peace.’” Conflict, Security & Development 6(3): 291314.
RobbenAntonius C. G. M. 1995. “The Politics of Truth and Emotion among Victims and Perpetrators of Violence.” In Fieldwork under Fire: Contemporary Studies of Violence and Survival, edited by NordstromCarolyn and RobbenAntonius C. G. M., 81103. Berkeley; Los Angeles: University of California Press.
RomanoDavid. 2006. “Conducting Research in the Middle East’s Conflict Zones.” PS: Political Science & Politics 39(3): 439–41.
RossAmy. 2009. “Impact on Research of Security-Seeking Behaviour.” In Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations. edited by SriramChandra Lekha, KingJohn C., MertusJulie A., Martin-OrtegaOlga, and HermanJohanna, 177–88. New York: Routledge.
SalzmanPhilip Carl. 2002. “On Reflexivity.” American Anthropologist 104(3): 805–13.
SchuesslerJennifer. 2015. “Alice Goffman’s Heralded Book on Crime Is Disputed.” New York Times, June 5.
SchwedlerJillian. 2006. “The Third Gender: Western Female Researchers in the Middle East.” PS: Political Science & Politics 39(3): 425–28.
ShapiroJacob and WeidmannNils B.. 2015. “Is the Phone Mightier than the Sword? Cell Phones and Insurgent Violence in Iraq.” International Organization 69(2): 247–74.
SirnateVasundhara. 2014. “Positionality, Personal Insecurity, and Female Empathy in Security Studies Research.” PS: Political Science & Politics 47(2): 398401.
SlukaJeffrey A. 1991. “Reflections on Managing Danger in Fieldwork: Dangerous Anthropology in Belfast.” In Fieldwork under Fire: Contemporary Studies of Violence and Survival, edited by NordstromC. and RobbenA. C. G. M., 276–94. Berkeley; Los Angeles: University of California Press.
SmithLinda Thuhiwai. 1999. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples. London: Zed Books.
SriramChandra Lekha. 2009. “Maintenance of Standards of Protection during Writeup and Publication.” In Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations, edited by SriramChandra Lekha, KingJohn C., MertusJulie A., Martin-OrtegaOlga, and HermanJohanna, 5768. New York: Routledge.
SriramChandra Lekha, KingJohn C., MertusJulie A., Martin-OrtegaOlga, and HermanJohanna. 2009. Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations. New York: Routledge.
SternJessica and BergerJ. M.. 2016. ISIS: The State of Terror. London: William Collins.
SuhrkeAstri. 2007. “Reconstruction as Modernisation: The ‘post-Conflict’ Project in Afghanistan.” Third World Quarterly 28(7): 12911308.
SultanaFarhana. 2007. “Reflexivity, Positionality and Participatory Ethics: Negotiating Fieldwork Dilemmas in International Research.” ACME: An International E-Journal for Critical Geographies 6(3): 374–85.
TapperRichard. 1983. “Introduction.” In The Conflict of Tribe and State in Iran and Afghanistan, edited by TapperRichard, 182. London: Croom Helm.
TapperRichard. 1990. “Anthropologists, Historians, and Tribespeople on Tribe and State Formation in the Middle East.” In Tribes and State Formation in the Middle East, edited by KhouryPhilip S. and KostinerJoseph, 4873. Berkeley: University of California Press.
TeeleDawn Langan. 2014. “Reflections on the Ethics of Field Experiments.” In Field Experiments and Their Critics: Essays on the Uses and Abuses of Experimentation in the Social Sciences, edited by TeeleDawn Langan, 115–40. New Haven: Yale University Press.
TesslerMark and JamalAmaney. 2006. “Political Attitude Research in the Arab World: Emerging Opportunities.” PS: Political Science & Politics 39(3): 433–37.
ThompsonMarshall. 2009. “Research, Identities, and Praxis: The Tensions of Integrating Identity into the Field Experience.” PS: Political Science & Politics 42(2): 325–28.
ThomsonSusan M. 2009. “Why Develop Guidelines on Ethics in Post-War Field Research?” Ottawa.
TillyCharles. 2005. Trust and Rule. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Townsend-BellErica. 2009. “Being True and Being You: Race, Gender, Class, and the Fieldwork Experience.” PS: Political Science & Politics 42(2): 311–14.
TriggerDavid, ForseyMartin, and MeurkCarla. 2012. “Revelatory Moments in Fieldwork.” Qualitative Research 12(5): 513–27.
United Nations Secretary General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change. 2004. “A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility.” New York.
VlassenrootKoen. 2006. “War and Social Research: The Limits of Empirical Methodologies in War-Torn Environments.” Civilisations 54(1–2): 191–98.
VolokhEugene. 2015. “Prof. Alice Goffman, ‘On the Run,’ and Driving a Gang Member Around, Looking for a Mutual Friend’s Killer.” Washington Post, June 2.
WaxMurray L. 1977. “On Fieldworkers and Those Exposed to Fieldwork: Federal Regulations and Moral Issues.” Human Organization (36): 321–28.
WedeenLisa. 2010. “Refletions on Ethnographic Work in Political Science.” Annual Review of Political Science 13(1): 255–72.
WoodElisabeth Jean. 2006. “The Ethical Challenges of Field Research in Conflict Zones.” Qualitative Sociology 29(3): 373–86.
YanowDvora and Schwartz-SheaPeregrine. 2008. “Reforming Institutional Review Board Policy: Issues in Implementation and Field Research.” PS: Political Science & Politics 41(3): 483–94.
YanowDvora and Schwartz-SheaPeregrine. 2015. “Wherefore ‘Interpretive:’ An Introduction.” In Interpretation and Method: Empirical Research Methods and the Interpretive Turn, 2nd ed., xiii–xxxi. Oxon and New York: Routledge.
ZaharMarie-Joëlle. 2009. “Fieldwork, Objectivity and the Academic Enterprise.” In Surviving Field Research: Working in Violent and Difficult Situations, edited by SriramChandra Lekha, KingJohn C., MertusJulie A., Martin-OrtegaOlga, and HermanJohanna, 191212. New York: Routledge.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Perspectives on Politics
  • ISSN: 1537-5927
  • EISSN: 1541-0986
  • URL: /core/journals/perspectives-on-politics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 43
Total number of PDF views: 534 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 1895 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 28th December 2016 - 24th October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.