Skip to main content Accesibility Help

Emotions and the Microfoundations of the Arab Uprisings

  • Wendy Pearlman (a1)

In any political setting, a few people will defy political authority. The main challenge for theories of rebellion is to explain when and why others join en masse. Scholarship on social movements typically develops answers to this puzzle on the basis of either of two microfoundations. Explanations that conceptualize individuals as utility-maximizers contend that they protest as a means to other ends. Explanations that see individuals as driven by values and beliefs suggest that people protest for the inherent benefit of voicing dissent. Both perspectives generate compelling explanations. Yet how do purposeful individuals act when utilitarian calculations and cherished values recommend contrary courses of action? Why might an actor prioritize one or the other at different points in time? Taking on these questions, I argue for an approach to microfoundations that focuses on emotions. Emotions such as fear, sadness, and shame promote pessimistic assessments, risk aversion, and a low sense of control. Such dispiriting emotions encourage individuals to prioritize security and resign to political circumstances, even when they contradict values of dignity. By contrast, anger, joy, and pride promote optimistic assessments, risk acceptance, and feelings of personal efficacy. Such emboldening emotions encourage prioritization of dignity and increase willingness to engage in resistance, even when it jeopardizes security. When instrumentality and values offer different answers to the question of whether to resign or rebel, therefore, emotions can shift individuals toward one or the other. I ground this argument in findings from the neurosciences and illustrate it with evidence from the 2011 uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt and the absence of an uprising in Algeria.

Hide All
Achy, Lachen. 2012. “Will Algeria Sidestep the Arab Spring?” Carnegie Endowment. May 31 (Arabic),
Adjami, Fouad. 2011a. “How the Arabs Turned Shame into Liberty.” New York Times, February 26,
Adjami, Fouad. 2011b. “The Sorrows of Egypt.” In The New Arab Revolt. New York: Council on Foreign Relations.
Aita, Samir. 2011. “Syrians Want Freedom and Signity.” Le Monde Diplomatique English, July 5,
Alexander, Christopher. 2010. Tunisia: Stability and Reform in the Modern Maghreb. London: Routledge.
Alexander, Christopher. 2011. “Tunisia's Protest Wave and What It Means for Ben Ali.” Foreign Policy online, January 3,
Al-Jazeera. 2012a. “Algerian Elections … Fear and the Desire for Change.” May 8 (Arabic),
Al-Jazeera. 2012b. “Is Algeria Immune to the ‘Arab Spring’?” May 14,
Al-Jazeera. 2012c. “Algeria: The Revolution That Never Was.” May 17,
Al-Souaf, Mohammed Hamid. 2011. “Death by Fire: An Expression of Civil Disobedience by the Arab People.” Annabaa Online, January 22 (Arabic),
Aminzade, Ronald R., and McAdam, Doug. 2001. “Emotions and Contentious Politics.” In Silence and Voice in the Study of Contentious Politics, ed. Aminzade, Ronald R., Goldstone, Jack A., McAdam, Doug, Perry, Elizabeth J., Sewell, William H. Jr., Tarrow, Sidney, and Tilly, Charles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Anis. 2012. “Dorénavant, on n'a plus peur.” Anis Ibn Baddouda around the world. December 31,
“Asmaa Mahfouz.” 2011. YouTube,
Avramenko, Richard. 2011. Courage: The Politics of Life and Limb. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
BBC. 2011a. “Tunisia Protests: Fresh Clashes in Tunis.” January 12,
BBC. 2011b. “Profile: Egypt's Wael Ghonim.” February 8,
BBC. 2011c. “Algeria: A Hunger for Stability?” June 2,
BBC. 2012. “Three Faces of the New Tunisia.” December 17,
BBC Worldwide Monitoring 2010. “More Riots Reported in Tunisia as Islamist Leader Calls on Youth to ‘Soldier On.’” December 28.
Bamyeh, Mohammed. 2012. “The Tunisian Revolution: Initial Reflections.” In The Dawn of the Arab Uprisings, ed. Haddad, Bassam, Bsheer, Rosie, and Abu-Rish, Ziad. New York: Pluto.
Barbalet, Jack. 1998. Emotions, Social Theory, and Social Structure. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bargh, J. A. 1984. “Automatic and Conscious Processing of Social Iinformation.” In Handbook of Social Cognition, vol. 3, ed. Wyer, R. S. and Srull, T. K.. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Barkaoui, Miloud. 2012. “Winds of Change: The Arab Spring and the ‘Algerian Exception.’” In Algeria and the Arab Spring: A Roundtable. Conference at the University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom, March 16,
Beinin, Joel. 2005. “Popular Social Movements and the Future of Egyptian Politics.” Middle East Report Online, March 10,
Bellin, Eva. 1995. “Civil Society in Formation: Tunisia.” In Civil Society in the Middle East, ed. Norton, Augustus Richard. vol. 1. Leiden: EJ Brill.
Bellin, Eva. 2002. Stalled Democracy: Capital, Labor, and the Paradox of State-Sponsored Development. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Bellin, Eva. 2004. “The Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Exceptionalism in Comparative Perspective.” Comparative Politics 36(2): 139–57.
Benakcha, Narrimane. 2012. “The Algerian Barrier: An Arab Spring Survivor.” Columbia Journal of International Affairs, March 7,
Biedermann, Ferry. 2011. “No Arab Spring for Algeria, Only Scars of the Past.” The National, May 12,
Blaydes, Lisa. 2011. Elections and Distributive Politics in Mubarak's Egypt. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Bouzid, Boumedien. 2012. “Change and the Barrier of ‘Shared Fear.’” Al-Khabr. May 4 (Arabic),
Brader, Ted. 2005. “Striking a Responsive Chord: How Political Ads Motivate and Persuade Voters by Appealing to Emotions.” American Journal of Political Science 49(2): 388405.
Brader, Ted. 2006. Campaigning for Hearts and Minds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Bradley, John R. 2009. Inside Egypt: The Land of the Pharaohs on the Brink of a Revolution. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Brown, Nathan J. [forthcoming]. “Abbe Sieyes, Guttenberg, and Habermas: Constitutional Revolutions in Egypt and the Arab World.” In On the Brink: The Arab Uprisings, ed. Lynch, Marc and Anderson, Lisa. New York: Columbia University Press.
Brownlee, Jason. 2007a. Authoritarianism in an Age of Democratization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brownlee, Jason. 2007b. “Hereditary Succession in Modern Autocracies.” World Politics 59: 595628.
Brynen, Rex, Moore, Pete W., Salloukh, Bassel F., and Zahar, Marie-Joëlle. 2012. Beyond the Arab Spring: Authoritarianism & Democratization in the Arab World. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Chikhi, Lamine, and Lowe, Christian. 2012. “Is an Arab Spring in the Air for Algeria?” Reuters, February 15,
Collier, David, Brady, Henry E., and Seawright, Jason. 2004. “Sources of Leverage in Causal Inference: Toward an Alternative View of Methodology.” In Rethinking Social Inquiry: Diverse Tools, Shared Standards, ed. Brady, Henry and Collier, David. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield.
Crawford, Neta C. 2000. “The Passion of World Politics: Propositions on Emotions and Emotional Relationships.” International Security 24(4): 116–36.
Damasio, Antonio R. 1994. Descartes' Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons.
Daragahi, Borzou. 2011. “Tunisia's Uprising Was Three Years in the Making.” Los Angeles Times, January 27,
DeNardo, James. 1985. Power in Numbers: The Political Strategy of Protest and Rebellion. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
de Sousa, Ronald. 1987. The Rationality of Emotion. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Diab, Mohammaed Abdel Hakim. 2012. “Egypt: The Revolution That Liberated the Citizens from Fear Is Threatened by Anxiety.” Al Quds, June 29 (Arabic),\29qpt699.htm&arc=data\2012\06\06-29\29qpt699.htm
Diab, Shabib. 2011. “Arab Popular Movements: A Phenomenon in the Process of Transformation.” Al-Akhbar, March 31 (Arabic),
Diani, Mario, and McAdam, Doug, eds. 2003. Social Movements and Networks: Relational Approaches to Collective Action. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Drogin, Bob. 2011. “Mubarak Speech Turns Elation in Tahrir Square to Anger.” Los Angeles Times, February 10,
Druckman, James, and McDermott, Rose. 2008. “Emotion and the Framing of Risky Choice.” Political Behavior 30: 297321.
Einwohner, Rachel L. 2003. “Opportunity, Honor, and Action in the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising of 1943.” American Journal of Sociology 109(3): 650–75.
El-Amrani, Issander. 2011. “Why Tunis, Why Cairo?London Review of Books 33(4): 36.
El-Ghobashy, Mona. 2011. “The Praxis of the Egyptian Revolution.” Middle East Report 258/41(1): 213.
El-Naggar, Mona. 2011. “The Legacy of 18 Days in Tahrir Square.” New York Times, February 19,
El-Shobaki, Amr. 2011. “Egypt Is Not Tunisia.” Egypt Independent, January 17,
Elster, Jon. 1999. Alchemies of the Mind: Rationality and the Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Entelis, John P. 2011. “Algeria: Democracy Denied, and revived?Journal of North African Studies 16(4): 653–78.
Financial Times. 2011. “In pictures: Protests in Tunisia.” January 14,
Flam, Helena. 1990. “Emotional ‘Man’: 1. The Emotional ‘Man’ and the Problem of Collective Action.” International Sociology 5(1): 3956.
Flam, Helena. 2004. “Anger in Repressive Regimes: A Footnote to Domination and the Arts of Resistance by James Scott.” European Journal of Social Theory 7(2): 171–88.
Flam, Helena. 2005. “Emotions' Map: A Research Agenda.” In Emotions and Social Movements, ed. Flam, Helena and King, Debra. London: Routledge.
Flam, Helena, and King, Debra, eds. 2005. Emotions and Social Movements. London: Routledge.
Frank, Robert H. 1988. Passions within Reason: The Strategic Role of the Emotions. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
Frijda, Nico H. 1986. The Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Frontline. 2011. “Revolution in Cairo.” PBS,
Gamson, William A. 1975. Strategy of Social Protest. Homewood, IL: Dorsey.
Gamson, William A. 1992. Talking Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
George, Alexander, and Bennett, Andrew. 2005. Case Studies and Theory Development in the Social Sciences. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Goertz, Garry, and Mahoney, James. 2011. A Tale of Two Cultures: Contrasting Qualitative and Quantitative Paradigms. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Goldstein, Eric. 2011. “A Middle-Class Revolution.” Foreign Policy online. January 18,
Goldstein, Eric. 2012. “Before the Arab Spring, the Unseen Thaw.” In World Report 2012. New York: Human Rights Watch.
Goodwin, Jeff. 2011. “Why We Were Surprised (Again) by the Arab Spring.” Swiss Political Science Review 17(4): 452–56.
Goodwin, Jeff, Jasper, James M., and Polletta, Francesca, eds. 2001. “Passionate Politics: Emotions and Social Movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Goodwin, Jeff, Jasper, James M., and Polletta, Francesca 2004. “The Emotional Dimensions of Social Movements.” In The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, ed. Snow, David A., Soule, Sarah A., and Kriesi, Hanspeter. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.
Gould, Deborah B. 2009. Moving Politics: Emotion and ActUp's Fight against AIDS. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hamouchene, Hamza. 2012. “Algeria and the Arab Spring.” In Algeria and the Arab Spring: A Roundtable. Conference at the University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom, March 16,
Havel, Vaclav. 1985. “The Power of the Powerless.” In The Power of the Powerless: Citizens Against the State in Central Eastern Europe, ed. Havel, Vaclavet al.Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Helm, Bennett W. 1994. “The Significance of Emotions.” American Philosophical Quarterly 31(4): 319–31.
Human Rights Watch. 2011. “Tunisia: Hold Police Accountable for Shootings.” January 29,
Husayb, Khayr ad-Deen. 2012. “The Arab Spring: Analytical Tools for the Causes of Success and Failure.” Al-Quds, March 23 (Arabic),\2012\03\03-23\23qpt480.htm
Idle, Nadia, and Nunns, Alex, eds. 2011. Tweets from Tahrir. New York: OR Books.
International Crisis Group. 2011a. “Popular Protests in North Africa and the Middle East I: Egypt Victorious?Middle East/North Africa Report 101.
International Crisis Group. 2011b. “Popular Protests in North Africa and the Middle East IV: Tunisia's Way.” Middle East/North Africa Report 106.
Ismail, Salwa. 2011. “The Syrian Uprising: Imagining and Performing the Nation.” Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism 11(3): 538–49.
Jasper, James M. 1997. The Art of Moral Protest: Culture, Biography and Creativity in Social Movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Javeline, Debra. 2003. “The Role of Blame in Collective Action: Evidence from Russia.” American Political Science Review 97(1): 107–21.
Joffe, George. 2012. “The Arab Spring in North Africa: Origins and Prospects.” Journal of North African Studies 16(4): 507–32.
Kahneman, Daniel, and Sunstein, Cass R.. 2005. “Cognitive Psychology of Moral Intuitions.” In Neurobiology of Human Values, ed. Changeux, Jean-Pierre al.Berlin: Springer-Verlag.
Keltner, Dacher, Ellsworth, Phoebe, and Edwards, Kari. 1993. “Beyond Simple Pessimism: Effects of Sadness and Anger on Social Perception.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 64(5): 740–52.
Kemper, Theodore D. 1978. A Social Interactional Theory of Emotions. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Khadraoui, Wided. 2012. “Elections and Instability in Algeria.” Foreign Policy in Focus Online, May 11,
Khalidi, Rashid. 2011. “Reflections on the Revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt.” Foreign Policy Online, February 24,
Khalil, Ashraf. 2011. Liberation Square: Inside the Egyptian Revolution and the Rebirth of a Nation. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Khalil, Karima. 2011. Messages from Tahrir: Signs from Egypt's Revolution. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press.
Khiari, Sadri. 2011. “The Tunisian Revolution Did Not Come Out of Nowhere: Sadri Khairi Speaks to Béatrice Hibou.” In African Awakening: The Emerging Revolution, ed. Ekine, Sokari and Manji, Firoze. Oxford: Pambazuka Press.
Kirkpatrick, David. D. 2011a. “Behind Tunisia Unrest, Rage Over Wealth of Ruling Family.” New York Times, January 13,
Kirkpatrick, David. D. 2011b. “As Egypt Protest Swells, U.S. Sends Specific Demands.” New York Times, February 8,
Klandermans, Bert. 1997. The Social Psychology of Protest. Oxford: Blackwell.
Kuran, Timur. 1995. Private Truths, Public Lives: The Social Consequences of Preference Falsification. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kuran, Timur. 2011. “The Politics of Revolutionary Surprise.” Daily News Egypt, February 9,
Kurzman, Charles. 2004. The Unthinkable Revolution in Iran. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kurzman, Charles. 2008. “Meaning-Making in Social Movements.” Anthropological Quarterly 81(1): 515.
Lazarus, Richard S. 1991. Emotion and Adaptation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Le Bon, Gustave. 1903. The Crowd: A Study of the Popular Mind. London: Fisher Unwin, Fourth Ed.
LeDoux, Joseph E. 1996. The Emotional Brain: The Mysterious Underpinnings of Emotional Life. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Le Monde. 2012. “L'Algérie à contre-courant du printemps arabe.” May 12,
Lerner, Jennifer S., and Keltner, Dacher. 2000. “Beyond Valence: Toward a Model of Emotion-Specific Influences on Judgment and Choice.” Cognition and Emotion 14(4): 473–93.
Lerner, Jennifer S., and Keltner, Dacher. 2001. “Fear, Anger, and Risk.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 81(1): 146–59.
Lévy, Bernard-Henri. 2011. “Why Egypt May Not Be Tunisia” Huffington Post, February 1,
Little, Daniel. 1998. Microfoundations, Method, and Causation. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
Loewenstein, George, Hsee, Christopher, Welch, Elke Weber,and Ned. 2001. “Risk as Feelings.” Psychological Bulletin 127(2): 267–86.
Loewenstein, George, and Lerner, Jennifer S.. 2003. “The Role of Affect in Decision Making.” In Handbook of Affective Science, ed. Davidson, Richard J, Sherer, Klaus R., and Goldsmith, H. Hill. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Lowe, Christian. 2012. “Algeria Offers Own Brand of “Arab Spring” for Vote.” Reuters, April 15,
Lupsha, Peter. 1971. “Explanation of Political Violence: Some Psychological Theories Versus Indignation.” Politics & Society 2(1): 89104.
Lutterbeck, Derek. 2012. “After the Fall: Security Sector Reform in Post-Ben Ali Tunisia.” Arab Reform Initiative, September,
Lynch, Marc. 2011. “After Egypt: The Limits and Promise of Online Challenges to the Authoritarian Arab State.” Perspectives on Politics 9(2): 301–10.
Mackey, Robert. 2011. “Subtitled Video of Wael Ghonim's Emotional TV Interview.” New York Times, February 8,
Mahmoud, Youssef. 2011. “Tunisia after the Uprising: Conversations and Observations.” International Peace Institute Comment & Analysis, September 16,
Makiya, Kanan. 1998. Republic of Fear: The Politics of Modern Iraq. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Malas, Nour. 2011. “The Interview with Wael Ghonim That Galvanized Protesters.” Wall Street Journal Blogs, February 8,
Mano, Haim. 1994. “Risk-taking, Framing Effects, and Affect.” Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 57(1): 3858.
Marcus, George E. 2000. “Emotions and Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 3: 221–50.
Marcus, George E., Neuman, W. Russell, and MacKuen, Michael. 2000. Affective Intelligence and Political Judgment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Margalit, Edna, and Sunstein, Cass R.. 2001. “Inequality and Indignation.” Philosophy & Public Affairs 30(4): 337–62.
Masoud, Tarek. 2011. “The Road to (and from) Liberation Square.” Journal of Democracy 22(3): 2034.
McAdam, Doug, McCarthy, John D., and Zald, Mayer N., eds. 1996. Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures, and Cultural Framings. New York: Cambridge University Press.
McAdam, Doug, Tarrow, Sidney, and Tilly, Charles. 2001. Dynamics of Contention. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McDermott, Rose. 2004. “The Feeling of Rationality: The Meaning of Neuroscientific Advances for Political Science.” Perspectives on Politics 2(4): 691706.
Meringolo, Azzurra. 2012. “The Inconvenient Revolution.” Foreign Policy Online, November 7,
Middle East Report. 2011. “Red-White-and-Black Valentine.”, February 14,
Moore, Barrington Jr. 1978. Injustice: The Social Bases of Obedience and Revolt. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.
Moumneh, Rasha. 2011. “A Young Man's Desperation Challenges Tunisia's Repression.” Foreign Policy Online, January 3,
NPR. 2012. “Wael Ghonim: Creating a Revolution 2.0 in Egypt.” February 9,
Neuman, W. Russell, Marcus, George, Crigler, Ann, and MacKuen, Michael, eds. 2007. The Affect Effect: Dynamics of Emotion in Political Thinking and Behavior. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Nizgharat, Othman. 2011. “The Arab Revolution begins on the Croisette.” Al-Akhbar, May 17 (Arabic),
Noe, Nicholas, and Raad, Walid. 2012. “No Arab Spring Please, We're Algerian.” Bloomberg, May 7
Nussbaum, Martha C. 2003. Upheavals of Thought: The Intelligence of Emotions. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Oberschal, Anthony. 1973. Social Conflict and Social Movements. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Olson, Mancur. 1965. The Logic of Collective Action: Public Goods and the Theory of Groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Osman, Tarek. 2010. Egypt on the Brink: From Nasser to Mubarak. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Owen, Roger. 2012. The Rise and Fall of Arab Presidents for Life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Patterson, Molly, and Monroe, Kristen Renwick. 1998. “Narrative in Political Science.” Annual Review of Political Science 1: 315–31.
Perkins, Kenneth. 2004. A History of Modern Tunisia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Petersen, Roger D. 2002. Understanding Ethnic Violence: Fear, Hatred, and Resentment in Twentieth-Century Eastern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Petersen, Roger D. 2011. Western Intervention in the Balkans: The Strategic Use of Emotion in Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Polletta, Francesca. 1998. “‘It Was like a Fever …’ Narrative and Identity in Social Protest.” Social Problems 45(2): 137–59.
Ragin, Charles. 1987. The Comparative Method: Moving Beyond Qualitative and Quantitative Strategies. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Redlawsk, David, ed. 2006. Feeling Politics. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Reuters Arabic. 2012. “Algeria Goes after Street Vendors following Declining Fear of Unrest.” October 12 (Arabic)
Robin, Corey. 2004. Fear: The History of a Political Idea. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Robinson, Dawn T., Smith-Lovin, Lynn, and Wisecup, Allison K.. 2006. “Affect Control Theory.” In Handbook of the Sociology of Emotions, ed. Stets, Jan E. and Turner, Jonathan H.. New York: Springer.
Ryan, Yasmine. 2011a. “How Tunisia's Revolution Began.” Al-Jazeera, January 26,
Ryan, Yasmine. 2011b. “The Massacre behind the Revolution.” Al-Jazeera, February 16,
Safdee, Mataa. 2012. “The New Arab Left: Remnants of the Old Regime or New Vanguard?” Al-Quds, April 4 (Arabic),\29qpt699.htm&arc=data\2012\04\04-29\29qpt699.htm
Saleh, Yassin al-Haj. 2011. “The Syrian ‘Common’: The Uprising of the Working Society.” Jadaliyya, August 14,
Sallam, Hesham, Stacher, Joshua, and Toensing, Chris. 2011. “Into Egypt's Uncharted Territory.” Middle East Report Online. February 1,
Schatz, Edward. 2009. “Introduction: Ethnographic Immersion and the Study of Politics.” In Political Ethnography: What Immersion Contributes to the Study of Power, ed. Schatz, Edward. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Schneider, Cathy Lisa. 2011. “Debate: Violence and State Repression.” Swiss Political Science Review 17(4): 480–84.
Scott, James. 1976. The Moral Economy of the Peasant: Rebellion and Subsistence in Southeast Asia. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Sebystyen, Amanda. 2011. “Voices From the Tunisian Revolution,” Red Pepper Online, May,
Sebystyen, Amanda. 2012. “Voices from the Tunisian Revolution.” Red Pepper Online, May,
Séréni, Jean-Pierre. 2012. “Contrasted Overtures to the Arab Spring in Algeria and Tunisia.” In Algeria and the Arab Spring: A Roundtable. Conference at the University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom, March 16,
Sgrena, Giuliana. 2012. “Algeria Skips the Revolutionary Spring.” IPS News, October 31,
Shah, Angela. 2011. “Egypt's New Hero: Can Geek-Activist Wael Ghonim Overthrow Mubarak?” Time, February 8,,8599,2047006,00.html
Shah, Dhruti. 2011. “The Big Stories Affecting You in 2011.” BBC News. December 26,
Sharp, Heather. 2005. “Egypt's Young Call for Change.” BBC News, August 3,
Shukrallah, Hani. 2011. Egypt, the Arabs, and the World: Reflections at the Turn of the Twenty-first Century. Cairo: American University of Cairo Press.
Slovic, Paul, Finucane, Melissa, Peters, Ellen, and MacGregor, Donald. 2002. “The Affect Heuristic.” In Heuristics and Biases: The Psychology of Intuitive Judgment, ed. Gilovich, Thomas, Griffin, Dale, and Kahneman, Daniel. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Songs of the Egyptian Revolution: Cursed Be Fear.” 2011. YouTube. Uploaded on February 16 (Arabic),
Soueif, Ahdaf. 2012. Cairo: My City, Our Revolution. London: Bloomsbury.
Sunstein, C. R., and Ullmann-Margalit, E.. 2001. “Solidarity Goods.” Journal of Political Philosophy 9: 129149.
Tarrow, Sidney. 1994. Power in Movement: Social Movements, Collective Action, and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Tilly, Charles. 1978. From Mobilization to Revolution. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Tlili, Hassan. 2012. “The Demise of Fear and the Freedom to Talk Are Among the Most Important Achievements of the Jasmine Revolution.” AFP, January 14 (Arabic),
United States Embassy Tunis. 2008. “Corruption in Tunisia: What's Yours Is Mine.” Wikileaks, Cable 08TUNIS679, created June 23, 2008, released August 30, 2011.
Varshney, Ashutosh. 2003. “Nationalism, Ethnic Conflict, and Rationality.” Perspectives on Politics 1(1): 8599.
Waseem Wagdi, Egyptian protester. Egyptian Embassy, London.” 2011. YouTube, Uploaded January 29,
Watanabe, Lisa 2012. “A ‘Spring for Algeria’? The Prospects for Managed Transition.” GCSP Policy Paper 2012/6.
Waterbury, John. 1970. Commander of the Faithful: The Moroccan Political Elite—A Study in Segmented Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.
Waterbury, John. 1973. “Endemic and Planned Corruption in a Monarchical Regime.” World Politics 25(4): 553–54.
Weaver, Matthew. 2011. “Egypt protests.” Guardian Blog. February 8,
Weddady, Nasser, and Ahmari, Sohrab. 2012. Arab Spring Dreams. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Wedeen, Lisa. 1999. Ambiguities of Domination: Politics, Rhetoric, and Symbols in Contemporary Syria. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Weyland, Kurt. 2012. “The Arab Spring: Why the Surprising Similarities with the Revolutionary Wave of 1848?Perspectives on Politics 10(4): 917–34.
Willis, Michael J. 2012. Politics and Power in the Maghreb: Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco from Independence to the Arab Spring. New York: Columbia University Press.
Winegar, Jessica. 2013. “Weighed Down: The Politics of Frustration in Egypt.” Middle East Report Online, January 11,
Wood, Elisabeth Jean. 2003. Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Zajonc, Robert B. 1984. “On the Primacy of Affect.” American Psychologist 39: 117–23.
Zeitouneh, Razan. 2011. “The Makers of the Revolution.” Trans. Hani Sayed. Jadaliyya, August 18,
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Perspectives on Politics
  • ISSN: 1537-5927
  • EISSN: 1541-0986
  • URL: /core/journals/perspectives-on-politics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed