Skip to main content Accessibility help

The Rights Revolution in the Age of Obama and Ferguson: Policing, the Rule of Law, and the Elusive Quest for Accountability

  • Lynda G. Dodd

Recent political science scholarship examining the institutional features of the rights revolution has highlighted the importance of the private enforcement of civil rights. This article discusses a less well-known line of Supreme Court cases concerning government liability that have undermined effective private enforcement of constitutional rights. I examine the impact of the Court’s “procedural assault” on private civil rights enforcement and possible responses to the recent protests in Ferguson, Missouri, and elsewhere across the country regarding police use of force. After identifying the ways in which the Court has undermined a core strand of the rights revolution, I assess the challenges confronting the Obama administration and civil rights leaders as they respond to these developments.

Hide All
Anderson v. Creighton, 483 U.S. 635 (1987).
Associated Industries of New York State v. Ickes, 134 F.2d 694 (2d Cir. 1943).
Bivens v. Six Unknown Named Agents of Fed. Bureau of Narcotics, 403 U.S. 388 (1971).
Bd. of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett, 531 U.S. 356 (2001).
Bd. of the County Commissioners of Bryan County v. Brown, 520 U.S. 397 (1997).
Brady v. Maryland, 373 U.S. 83 (1963).
Buckhannon Board & Care Home v. W. Va. Dep’t of Health and Services, 532 U.S. 598 (2001).
Bush v. Gore, 531 U.S. 98 (2000).
City of Canton v. Harris, 489 U.S. 378 (1989).
City of Los Angeles v. Lyons, 461 U.S. 95 (1983).
City of Oklahoma City v. Tuttle, 471 U.S. 808 (1985).
Connick v. Thompson, 131 S.Ct. 1350 (2011).
Ex parte Young, 209 U.S. 123 (1908).
Floyd v. New York, 959 F. Supp. 2d 540 (S.D.N.Y. 2013).
Graham v. Connor, 490 U.S. 386 (1989).
Hafer v. Melo, 502 U.S. 21 (1991).
Harlow v. Fitzgerald, 457 U.S. 800 (1982).
Hope v. Pelzer, 536 U.S. 730 (2002).
Iqbal v. Ashcroft, 556 U.S. 662 (2009).
Kimel v. Florida Bd. of Regents, 528 U.S. 62 (2000).
Lane v. Franks, 134 S.Ct. 2369 (2014).
Ledbetter v. Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., 550 U.S. 618 (2007).
McMillian v. Monroe County, 520 US. 781 (1997).
Mitchell v. Forsyth, 472 U.S. 511 (1985).
Monell v. New York City Dep't of Social Services, 436 U.S. 658 (1978).
Monroe v. Pape, 365 U.S. 167(1961).
Nevada Department of Human Resources v. Hibbs, 538 U.S. 721 (2003).
Newman v. Piggie Park Enterprises, 390 U.S. 400 (1968).
Pearson v. Callahan, 555 U.S. 223 (2009).
Pierson v. Ray, 386 U.S. 547 (1967).
Plumhoff v. Rickard, 134 S.Ct. 2012 (2014).
Quern v. Jordan, 440 U.S. 332 (1979).
Rizzo v. Goode, 423 U.S. 362 (1976).
Saucier v. Katz, 533 U.S. 194 (2001).
Scheuer v. Rhodes, 416 U.S. 232 (1974).
Screws v. United States, 325 U.S. 91 (1945).
Tennessee v. Garner, 471 U.S. 1 (1985).
Terebisi v. Terreso, 764 F.3d 217 (2d Cir. 2014).
Van de Kamp v. Goldstein, 129 S.Ct. 855 (2009).
Will v. Michigan Department of State Police, 491 U.S. 98 (1989).
Wood v. Moss, 134 S.Ct. 2056 (2014).
Wood v. Strickland, 420 U.S. 308 (1977).
Achtenberg, David. 2005. “Taking History Seriously: Municipal Liability Under 42 U.S.C.§ 1983 and the Debate Over Respondeat Superior.” Fordham Law Review 73: 2183–248.
Ackerman, Bruce. 2014. We the People, Vol. III: The Civil Rights Revolution. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.
Addo, Koran. 2015. “Michael Brown’s Family Files Wrongful Death Lawsuit.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, April 24.
Albiston, Catherine R. and Nielsen, Laura Beth. 2007. “The Procedural Attack on Civil Rights: The Empirical Reality of Buckhannon for the Private Attorney General.” University of California Los Angeles Law Review 54: 1087–134.
Appuzo, Matt and Fernandez, Manny. 2014. “Justice Dept. Inquiry to Focus on Practices of Police in Ferguson.” New York Times, September 3.
Appuzo, Matt and Steinhauer, Jennifer. 2015. “As Attorney General, Loretta Lynch Plans Striking New Tone for the Justice Department.” New York Times, April 23.
Armacost, Barbara E. 2004. “Organizational Culture and Police Misconduct.” George Washington Law Review 72: 453546.
Bacon, John and Welch, William M., 2015. “Tulsa Reserve Deputy Charged with Manslaughter.” USA Today, April 13.
Baker, Al. 2008. “Eleven Years of Police Gunfire, in Painstaking Detail.” New York Times, May 8.
Baker, Thomas E. 1994. Rationing Justice on Appeal: The Problems of the U.S. Courts of Appeals. New York: West Publishing.
Barkan, Ross. 2015. “NYPD Inspector General Finds ‘Troubling Deficiencies’ in Punishment of Chokeholds.” New York Observer, January 12.
Barnes, Jeb. 2007. “Bringing the Courts Back In: Interbranch Perspectives on the Role of Courts in American Politics and Policy Making.” Annual Review of Political Science 10: 2543.
Berman, Mark. 2015. “Protests Continue in Madison after Shooting; Police Chief Apologizes to Community.” Washington Post, March 9.
Blackmun, Harry A. 1985. “Section 1983 and Federal Protection of Individual Rights—Will the Statute Remain Alive or Fade Away.” New York University Law Review 60: 129.
Blum, Karen M. 2005. “Suing Sheriffs under Section 1983.” Stetson Law Review 34: 623–74.
Blum, Karen M. 2015. “Section 1983 Litigation: The Maze, the Mud, and the Madness.” William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal 23: 913–64.
Boone, Christian, 2014. “No Charges for Officers in Botched Raid that Disfigured Toddler.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, October 6.
Bosman, Julie and Goode, Erica, 2014. “F.B.I. Steps in Amid Unrest After Police Kill Missouri Youth.” New York Times, August 12.
Brookings Institute. 2015. “Panel: What’s Next in the National Conversation about Race and Policing in America?” March 3.
Burke, Thomas F. 2002. Lawyers, Lawsuits, and Legal Rights. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Capehart, Jonathan, 2015. “From Trayvon Martin to ‘Black Lives Matter.’” Washington Post, February 27.
Carp, Robert A., Manning, Kenneth L., and Stidham, Ronald. 2013. “A First Term Assessment: The Ideology of Barack Obama’s District Court Appointees.” Judicature 97: 128–36.
Capps, Kristin. 2014. “The Unprecedented Scale of the #BlackLivesMatter Protests.” The Atlantic, City Lab, December 5.
Casselman, Ben. 2014. “It’s Incredibly Rare for a Grand Jury to Do What Ferguson’s Just Did.”, November 24.
Chemerinsky, Erwin. 2011. The Conservative Assault on the Constitution. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Chemerinsky, Erwin. 2014a. “How the Supreme Court Protects Bad Cops.” New York Times, August 26.
Chemerinsky, Erwin. 2014b. “Op-ed: Police Dodge Accountability for Deaths.” Orange County Register. December 5.
Chen, Alan. 2006. “The Facts about Qualified Immunity.” Emory Law Journal 55: 229–78.
Chen, Alan. 2013. “Rights Lawyer Essentialism and the Next Generation of Civil Rights Critics.” Michigan Law Review 111: 903.
Cooper, Matthew. 2013. “Starting the Filibuster Fire.” National Journal, October 2.
Cooper, Phillip J. 1988. Hard Judicial Choices. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Crary, David. 2014. “AP Poll: Police Killings of Blacks Voted Top Story of 2014.” Yahoo News, December 22.
Dewan, Shaila and Oppel, Richard A. Jr. 2015. “In the Tamir Rice Case, Many Errors by Cleveland Police, Then a Fatal One.” New York Times, January 22.
Dodd, Lynda G. 2004. “Implementing the Rule of Law: The Role of Citizen-Plaintiffs. The Good Society 13: 3644.
Dodd, Lynda G. 2010. “Presidential Leadership and Civil Rights Lawyering in the Era Before Brown.” Indiana Law Journal 84: 1599–657.
Driver, Justin. 2011. “Obama’s Law.” New Republic, June 9.
Eisen, Lauren-Brooke. 2014. “Are More Criminal Justice Reforms on the Horizon in 2015? The Brennan Center for Justice Blog, December 29.
Eisenberg, Theodore. 2013. “40 Years of Federal Civil Rights Litigation.” Unpublished manuscript. Cornell University School of Law.
Eisenberg, Theodore and Schwab, Stewart J. 1987. “The Reality of Constitutional Tort Litigation.” Cornell Law Review 72: 641–95.
Engstrom, David Freeman. 2013. “The Twiqbal Empirical Puzzle and the Study of Civil Procedure.” Stanford Law Review 65: 1203–48.
Epp, Charles R. 1998. The Rights Revolution: Lawyers, Activists, and Supreme Courts in Comparative Perspective. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Epp, Charles R. 2009. Making Rights Real: Activists, Bureaucrats, and the Creation of the Legalistic State. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Epp, Charles R., Maynard-Moody, Steven, and Haider-Markel, Donald P.. 2014. Pulled Over: How Police Stops Define Race and Citizenship. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Farhang, Sean. 2010. The Litigation State: Public Regulation and Private Lawsuits in the U.S. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Farhang, Sean and Burbank, Stephen B.. 2014. “Reforming Civil Litigation: Why the Courts Succeed Where Congress Failed.” Unpublished manuscript. University of California - Berkeley.
Feeley, Malcom and Rubin, Edward. 1999. Judicial Policy Making and the Modern State. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Fischer-Baum, Reuben. 2014. “Nobody Knows How Many Americans the Police Kill Each Year.” August 19.
Fontana, David. 2014. “Not Your Law School Graduation Speaker: Progressive Law Students Won’t Hear From the Lions of the Warren Court Again this Week.” Slate. June 5.
Ford, Richard Thompson. 2011. Rights Gone Wrong: How Law Corrupts the Struggle for Equality. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.
Francis, Megan. 2014. Civil Rights and the Making of the Modern American State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Gabrielson, Ryan, Grochowski Jones, Ryann, and Sagara, Eric. 2014. “Deadly Force, in Black and White.” ProPublica, October 10.
Galanter, Marc. 1983. “Reading the Landscape of Disputes: What We Know and Don't Know (and Think We Know) about Our Allegedly Contentious and Litigious Society.” University of California Los Angeles Law Review 31: 471.
Garrett, Brandon. 2012. “Aggregation and Constitutional Rights.” Notre Dame Law Review 88: 593648.
Gilles, Myriam E. 2008. “Police, Race and Crime in 1950s Chicago: Monroe v. Pape as Legal Noir.” In Civil Rights Stories, ed. Gilles, Myriam E. and Goluboff, Risa L.. New York: Foundation Press.
Goff, Phillip Atiba. 2014. “America’s Lack of a Police Behavior Database is a Disgrace. That’s Why I’m Leading a Team to Build One.” New Republic, August 25.
Gokavi, Mark. 2014. “Walmart Shooting: Family Attorney says Crawford Did Nothing Wrong.” Dayton Daily News, September 26.
Goldstein, Joseph and Schweber, Nate. 2014. “Man’s Death after Chokehold Raises Old Issue for the Police.” New York Times, July 18.
Golgowski, Nina, Murphy, Doyle, and Silverstein, Jason. 2015. “University of Virginia Student’s Bloody Arrest Sparks Massive Protest, Governor’s Call for Investigation.” New York Daily News, March 19.
Gottschalk, Marie. 2014. Caught: The Prison State and the Lockdown of American Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Gross, Allie and Schatz, Bryan. 2014. “Congress is Finally Going to Make Local Law Enforcement Report How Many People They Kill.” Mother Jones, December 17.
Haire, Susan, Edwards, Barry, and Hughes, David. 2013. “Presidents and Courts of Appeals: The Voting Behavior of Obama’s Appointees.” Judicature 97(3): 137–43.
Harmon, Rachel. 2009. “Promoting Civil Rights through Proactive Policing Reform.” Stanford Law Review 62: 170.
Heisig, Eric. 2015. “Amended Lawsuit Filed by Tamir Rice’s Family in Case against the City of Cleveland.” January 30.
Hollis-Brusky, Amanda. 2015. Ideas with Consequences: The Federalist Society and the Conservative Counterrevolution. New York: Oxford University Press.
Howard, Philip K. 1997. The Death of Common Sense: How Law is Suffocating America. New York: Random House.
Horwitz, Sari, Leaning, Carol D. and Kindy, Kimberly. 2014. “Justice Department to Probe Ferguson Police Force.” Washington Post, September 3.
Irons, Peter. 1990. The Courage of Their Convictions: Sixteen Americans Who Fought Their Way to the Supreme Court. New York: Penguin Press.
Izadi, Elahe. 2014. “John Crawford’s Family Sue Wal-Mart, Ohio Town Police for Wrongful Death.” Washington Post, December 16.
Jacobs, Lawrence R. and King, Desmond S.. 2010. “Varieties of Obamism: Structure, Agency, and the Obama Presidency.” Perspectives on Politics, 8: 793802.
Jeffries, John C. 1998. “In Praise of the Eleventh Amendment and Section 1983.” Virginia Law Review 84: 4782.
Jois, Goutam U. 2010. Pearson, Iqbal, and Procedural Judicial Activism.” Florida State University Law Review 27: 901–44.
Johnson, Kevin. 2014. “Police Killings Highest in Two Decades.” USA Today, November 11.
Johnson, Kevin. 2015. “FBI Will Overhaul Crime Report, Add Missing Crimes.” USA Today, April 2.
Juzwiak, Rich and Chen, Aleksander. 2014. “Unarmed People of Color Killed by Police, 1999–2014.” Gawker, December 8.
Kagan, Ronald A. 2001. Adversarial Legalism: The American Way of Law. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Kamen, Al. 2014. “Obama Judges Tip Appeals Court to Democrats.”, May 29.
Kang, Jay Caspian. 2015. “‘Our Demand Is Simple: Stop Killing Us’: How a Group of Black Social Media Activists Built the Nation’s First 21st-Century Civil Rights Movement.” New York Times Magazine, May 4.
Karlan, Pamela S. 2003. “David C. Baum Memorial Lecture: Disarming the Private Attorney General.” University of Illinois Law Review 2003: 183.
Karlan, Pamela S. 2012. “What’s a Right without a Remedy?” Boston Review, March 1.
Kindy, Kimberly and Kelly, Kimbriell. 2015. “Thousands Dead, Few Prosecuted.” Washington Post, April 11.
King, Desmond S. and Smith, Rogers M.. 2011. Still a House Divided: Race and Politics in Obama's America. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kinports, Kit. 1997. “The Buck Does Not Stop Here: Supervisory Liability in Section 1983 Cases.” University of Illinois Law Review 1997: 147–92.
Klarman, Michael J. 2004. From Jim Crow to Civil Rights: The Supreme Court and the Struggle for Racial Equality. New York: Oxford University Press.
Klinkner, Philip. A. and Schaller, Thomas. 2009. “LBJ’s Revenge: The 2008 Election and the Rise of the Great Society Coalition.” The Forum 6: 117.
Kloppenberg, James T. 2011. Reading Obama: Dreams, Hope, & the American Political Tradition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Lawyers’ Committee for Civil Rights under Law. 2014. “A United Statement of Action to Promote Reform and Stop Police Abuse.” August 18.
Leber, Rebecca. 2014. “The Feds’ Ferguson Investigation is the Most Meaningful Action since Michael Brown’s Death.” New Republic, September 4.
Lee, Jaeah. 2014. “Here’s the Data That Shows Cops Kill Black People at a Higher Rate than White People.” Mother Jones, September 10.
Lemieux, Scott. 2014. “The Justice Department’s Next Move: Darren Wilson Is Small Fish. DOJ Should Go After the Whole Pond.” Slate, November 26.
Lerman, Amy E. and Weaver, Vesla M.. 2014. Resisting Citizenship: The Democratic Consequences of Crime Control. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Levinson, Daryl J. 2000. “Making Government Pay: Markets, Politics and the Allocation of Constitutional Costs.” University of Chicago Law Review 67: 345420.
Levy, Marin K. 2013. “Judging the Flood of Litigation.” University of Chicago Law Review 80: 1007–77.
Lewis, John. 2008. “Rep. Lewis, Sen. Kennedy Introduce Civil Rights Act of 2008.” Press release, January 23.
Lieberman, Robert C. 2007. “Private Power and American Bureaucracy: The EEOC and Civil Rights Enforcement.” Unpublished manuscript. Columbia University.
Lopez, German. 2015. “Study: More than Half of People Killed by Police Aren’t Counted by the FBI.”, March 5.
Lowell, James Russell. 1888. “The Place of the Independent in Politics.” In Political Essays. Boston, MA: Houghton & Mifflin.
Marbella, Jean. 2015. “Six Baltimore Police Charged in Freddie Gray’s Death.” Baltimore Sun, May 2.
Markon, Jerry. 2010. “Justice Dept. Steps Up Civil Rights Enforcement: Division Reshapes Itself After Employee Exodus During Bush Era.” Washington Post, June 4.
Markon, Jerry and Murray, Shailagh. 2011. “Judicial Vacancies Reach a Crisis Point.” Washington Post, February 8.
McCann, Michael and Haltom, William. 2004. Distorting the Law: Politics, Media, and the Litigation Crisis. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Melnick, R. Shep. 2011. “The Supreme Court and the Civil Rights State.” Unpublished manuscript. Boston College.
Melnick, R. Shep. 2012. “Adversarial Legalism, Civil Rights, and the Exceptional American State.” Unpublished manuscript. Boston College.
Melnick, R. Shep. 2014. “The Odd Evolution of the Civil Rights State.” Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy 37: 113–34.
Mettler, Suzanne. 2010. “Reconstituting the Submerged State: The Challenges of Social Policy Reform in the Obama Era.” Perspectives on Politics 8(3): 803–24.
Milkis, Sidney M., Rhodes, Jesse H. and Charnock, Emily. 2012. “What Happened to Post-Partisanship? Barack Obama and the New American Party System.” Perspectives on Politics 10(3): 5776.
Miller, Arthur R. 2003. “The Pre-Trial Rush to Judgment: Are the ‘Litigation Explosion’, ‘Liability Crisis’, and Efficiency Cliches Eroding Our Day in Court and Jury Trial Commitments?” New York University Law Review 78: 9821134.
Miller, Arthur R. 2013. “Simplified Pleading, Meaningful Days in Court, and Trials on the Merits: Reflections on the Deformations of Federal Procedure.” New York University Law Review 88: 286372.
Moore, Tina and Hutchinson, Bill. 2014. “Family of Eric Garner Plan to Sue NYPD and the City for $75 Million.” New York Daily News, October 7.
Morgan, Denise, Godsil, Rachel D., and Moses, Joy, eds. Awakening from the Dream: Civil Rights Under Siege and the New Struggle for Equal Justice. 2006. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.
Mueller, Benjamin and Southall, Ashley. 2014. “25,000 March in New York to Protest Police Violence.” New York Times, December 13.
Mulroy, Quinn W. 2012. “Public Regulation Through Private Litigation: The Regulatory Power of Private Lawsuits and the American Bureaucracy.” Ph.D. diss., Political Science, Columbia University.
Murakawa, Naomi. 2014. The First Civil Right: How Liberals Built Prison America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Myers, Jennifer. 2001. “No Talk of Retirement at Circuit Meeting.” Legal Times, July 9.
NeJaime, Douglas. 2012. “Cause Lawyers Inside the State.” Fordham Law Review 81: 649704.
Obama, Barack. 2006. The Audacity of Hope: Thoughts on Reclaiming the American Dream. New York: Crown.
Obama, Barack. 2007. “Remarks at the Selma Voting Rights March Commemoration in Selma, Alabama,” March 4. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project.
Obama, Barack. 2009. “Remarks Celebrating the 100th Anniversary of the NAACP in New York City,” July 16. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project.
Obama, Barack. 2014. “Remarks at the Lyndon B. Johnson Presidential Library Civil Rights Summit in Austin, Texas,” April 10. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project.
Obama, Barack. 2015a. “Remarks at an African American History Month Reception,” February 26. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project.
Obama, Barack. 2015b. “Remarks Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Selma to Montgomery Marches for Voting Rights in Selma, Alabama,” March 7. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project.
Olson, Walter. 1991. The Litigation Explosion: What Happened When America Unleashed the Lawsuit. New York: Dutton.
Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. 2013. “Big Racial Divide over Zimmerman Verdict: Whites Say Too Much Focus on Race, Blacks Disagree.” July 22.
Pew Research Center for the People & the Press. 2014. “Sharp Racial Divisions in Reactions to Brown, Garner Decisions.” December 8.
Powe, Lucas Scot Jr. 2000. The Warren Court and American Politics. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Posner, Richard A. 1996. The Federal Courts: Challenge and Reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. 2015. Interim Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.
Ramsey, Donovan X. 2015. “White America’s Silence on Police Brutality Is Consent.” Gawker Justice. April 10.
Rector, Kevin. 2015. “The 45-Minute Mystery of Freddie Gray’s Death.” Baltimore Sun, April 25.
Remnick, David. 2010. The Bridge: The Life and Rise of Barack Obama. New York: Vintage Books.
Resnik, Judith. 1997. “Changing Practices, Changing Rules: Judicial and Congressional Rulemaking on Civil Juries, Civil Justice, and Civil Judging.” Alabama Law Review 49: 133219.
Rosenberg, Gerald. 1991. The Hollow Hope: Can Courts Achieve Social Change? Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Rothfeld, Charles A. 1979. “Section 1983 Municipal Liability and the Doctrine of Respondeat Superior.” University of Chicago Law Review 46: 935–70.
Rudovsky, David. 1989. “The Qualified Immunity Doctrine in the Supreme Court: Judicial Activism and the Restriction of Constitutional Rights.” University of Pennsylvania Law Review 138: 2381.
Rudovsky, David. 1992. “Police Abuse: Can the Violence Be Contained?” Harvard Civil Rights-Civil Liberties Law Review 27: 465501.
Ruger, Todd. 2013. “No More Mr. Nice President: Obama’s D.C. Circuit Picks Signal a Tougher Approach.” National Law Journal, June 10.
Ruger, Todd. 2014. “Obama Criticized for Nominating Mostly Corporate Lawyers.” National Law Journal, February 6.
Rushin, Stephen. 2014. “Federal Enforcement of Police Reform.” Fordham Law Review 82: 3189–247.
Savage, Charles. 2006. “Civil Rights Hiring Shifted in Bush Era; Conservative Leanings Stressed.” Boston Globe, July 23.
Savage, Charles. 2009. “White House to Shift Efforts on Civil Rights.” New York Times, September 1.
Scheingold, Stuart. 2004. The Politics of Rights: Lawyers, Public Policy, and Political Change. 2d ed. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
Schlanger, Margo. 2003. “Inmate Litigation.” Harvard Law Review 116: 1555–706.
Schlanger, Margo. 2006. “Civil Rights Injunctions over Time: A Case Study of Jail and Prison Court Orders.” New York University Law Review 81: 550630.
Schlanger, Margo. 2015. “Trends in Prisoner Litigation, as the PLRA Enters Adulthood.” University of California-Irvine Law Review 5: 153178.
Schmidt, Michael. 2015a. “A Call to Better Track Police Use of Guns, Holder Urges Better Data on Shootings Involving Police.” New York Times, January 15.
Schmidt, Michael. 2015b. “Comey Speaks Out on Race and Police.” New York Times, February 12.
Schmidt, Michael. 2015c. “Scant Data Frustrates Efforts to Assess Number of Shootings by Police.” New York Times, April 8.
Schmidt, Michael, and Apuzzo, Matt. 2015. “South Carolina Officer Is Charged with Murder of Walter Scott.” New York Times, April 7.
Schmidt, Michael, and Fernandez, Manny. 2014. “Justice Dept. Inquiry to Focus on Practices of Police in Ferguson.” New York Times, September 3.
Schuck, Peter. 1983. Suing Government: Citizen Remedies for Official Wrongs. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Schwartz, Martin. 2009. “Supreme Court Sets Standards for Civil Rights Complaints. New York Law Journal, August 3.
Schwartz, Joanna C. 2010. “Myths and Mechanics of Deterrence: The Role of Lawsuits in Law Enforcement Decisionmaking.” University of California Los Angeles Law Review 57: 1023–94.
Schwartz, Joanna C. 2014. “Police Indemnification.” New York University Law Review 89: 8851004.
Shapo, Marshall S. 1965. “Constitutional Tort: Monroe v. Pape and the Frontiers Beyond.” Northwestern University Law Review 60: 277329.
Shapo, Marshall S. 2001. “Symposium, Re-Examining First Principles: Deterrence and Corrective Justice in Constitutional Torts: Afterword.” Georgia Law Review 35: 931–37.
Silveira, Matthew J. 2004. “An Unexpected Application of 42 U.S.C. § 14141: Using Investigative Findings for § 1983 Litigation.” University of California Los Angeles Law Review 52: 601–37.
Silverstein, Gordon. 2009. Law’s Allure: How Law Shapes, Constrains, Saves, and Kills Politics. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
Skocpol, Theda, and Jacobs, Lawrence, eds. 2011. Reaching for a New Deal: Ambitious Governance, Economic Meltdown, and Polarized Politics in Obama's First Two Years. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Skocpol, Theda, and Jacobs, Lawrence 2012. “Accomplished and Embattled: Understanding Obama's Presidency.” Political Science Quarterly 127: 124.
Smith, Rogers M., King, Desmond, and Klinkner, Philip A.. 2011 “Challenging History: Barack Obama & American Racial Politics.” Daedalus 140: 121–35.
Southworth, Ann. 2008. Lawyers on the Rights: Professionalizing the Conservative Coalition. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Staszak, Sarah. 2010. “Institutions, Rulemaking, and the Politics of Judicial Retrenchment.” Studies in American Political Development 24: 168–89.
Staszak, Sarah. 2015. No Day in Court: Access to Justice and the Politics of Judicial Retrenchment. New York: Oxford University Press.
Sugrue, Thomas. 2010. Not Even Past: Barack Obama and the Burdens of Race. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Tebo, Margaret. 2003. “Fee-Shifting Fallout.” ABA Journal, July.
Teles, Steven. 2008. The Rise of the Conservative Legal Movement: The Battle for the Control of the Law. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Thompson, John. 2011. “The Prosecution Rests, But I Can’t.” New York Times, April 10.
Toobin, Jeffrey. 2014.“Holder v. Roberts: The Attorney General Makes Voting Rights the Test Case of His Tenure.” New Yorker, February 17 and 24.
United States Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division. 2015a. Department of Justice Report Regarding the Criminal Investigation into the Shooting Death of Michael Brown by Ferguson, Missouri Police Officer Darren Wilson. March 4.
United States Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division. 2015b. Investigation of the Ferguson Police Department. March 4.
Vega, Tanzina, and Eligon, John. 2014. “Deep Tensions Rise to Surface after Ferguson Shooting.” New York Times, August 16.
Vives, Ruben. 2014. “Ezell Ford’s Parents File a Wrongful Death Lawsuit against LAPD.” Los Angeles Times, September 17.
Vives, Ruben, Winton, Richard and Mather, Kate. “After LAPD Kills Mentally Ill Man, Activists Demand Answers.” Los Angeles Times, August 14.
Voorhees, Josh. 2014. “Can Anyone Fix the Ferguson Police Department?” Slate. August 18.
Walker, Samuel E. and Archbold, Carol A.. 2014. The New World of Police Accountability. 2d ed. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications.
Ward, Artemus and Pickerill, Mitchell. 2013. “Minimalism Is Alive and Well on the Roberts Court.” National Law Journal, July 3.
Weinberg, Louise. 1977. “The New Judicial Federalism.” Stanford Law Review 29: 1191–244.
Weiser, Benjamin. 2014. “New York City Comptroller Seeks to Settle Claim by Eric Garner’s Family.” New York Times, December 16.
Wells, Georgia. 2014. “Ferguson to New York, Social Media Is the Organizers Biggest Megaphone.” Wall Street Journal, December 4.
White, House. 2014. President Obama’s Judicial Nominees: Creating a Judicial Pool that Resembles the Nation It Serves. May 5.
Wolf, Richard. 2012. “Obama Determined to Fill Federal Judgeships.” USA Today, November 28.
Yackle, Larry. 1994. Reclaiming the Federal Courts. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Perspectives on Politics
  • ISSN: 1537-5927
  • EISSN: 1541-0986
  • URL: /core/journals/perspectives-on-politics
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed