Skip to main content

Durational correlates of English sublexical constituent structure*

  • Mariko Sugahara (a1) and Alice Turk (a2)

This study investigates whether differences (a) in word-internal morphological structure and (b) in lexical stress patterns are reflected in prosodic constituent structure, by examining duration measurements in Scottish English. In Experiments 1 and 2, at a slow speech rate, stem-final rhymes followed by Level II suffixes were on average 4–6% longer than corresponding strings in monomorphemic words, and 7–8% longer than stem-final rhymes followed by Level I suffixes. These results are consistent with the view that stems preceding Level II suffixes are mapped onto prosodic words in the prosodic representation. Experiment 3 obtained no reliable durational differences, even at a slow speech rate, between the initial syllable rhymes of SS words and SW words, which does not provide evidence for the hypothesis that these different stress patterns are represented as differences in foot structure.

Hide All
Aronoff, Mark & Sridhar, S. N. (1983). Morphological levels in English and Kannada or atarizing Reagan. In Richardson, John F., Marks, Mitchell & Chukerman, Amy (eds.) Papers from the parasession on the interplay of phonology, morphology, and syntax. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society. 316.
Aylett, Matthew & Turk, Alice (2004). The smooth signal redundancy hypothesis: a functional explanation for relationships between redundancy, prosodic prominence, and duration in spontaneous speech. Language and Speech 47. 3156.
Baayen, R. Harald, Piepenbrock, Richard & van Rijn, Hedderik (1993). The CELEX lexical data base. [CD-ROM.] Philadelphia: Linguistic Data Consortium, University of Pennsylvania.
Beckman, Mary E. & Edwards, Jan (1990). Lengthenings and shortenings and the nature of prosodic constituency. In Kingston, John & Beckman, Mary E. (eds.) Papers in laboratory phonology I: between the grammar and physics of speech. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 152178.
Bell, Alan, Gregory, Michelle L., Brenier, Jason M., Jurafsky, Daniel, Ikeno, Ayako & Girand, Cynthia (2002). Which predictability measures affect content word durations? In Proceedings of Pronunciation Modeling and Lexicon Adaptation for Spoken Language Technology (PMLA). 15.
Benua, Laura (1997). Affix classes are defined by faithfulness. University of Maryland Working Papers in Linguistics 5. 126.
Bermúdez-Otero, Ricardo (1999). Constraint interaction in language change: quantity in English and Germanic. PhD dissertation, University of Manchester & University of Santiago de Compostela.
Borowsky, Toni (1993). On the Word level. In Hargus, Sharon & Kaisse, Ellen M. (eds.) Studies in Lexical Phonology. San Diego: Academic Press. 199234.
Cambier-Langeveld, Tina (2000). Temporal making of accents and boundaries. PhD dissertation, University of Leiden.
Campbell, N. W. & Isard, S. D. (1991). Segment durations in a syllable frame. JPh 19. 3447.
Chen, Matthew Y. (1990). What must phonology know about syntax? In Inkelas, Sharon & Zec, Draga (eds.) The phonology–syntax connection. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1946.
Cho, Taehong (2001). Effects of morpheme boundaries on intergestural timing: evidence from Korean. Phonetica 58. 129162.
Cho, Taehong & Keating, Patricia A. (2001). Articulatory and acoustic studies on domain-initial strengthening in Korean. JPh 29. 155190.
Chomsky, Noam & Halle, Morris (1968). The sound pattern of English. New York: Harper & Row.
Christie, W. M. (1977). Some multiple cues for juncture in English. General Linguistics 17. 212222.
Cohn, Abigail & McCarthy, John J. (1994). Alignment and parallelism in Indonesian phonology. Ms, Cornell University & University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Cooper, William E. & Paccia-Cooper, Jeanne (1980). Syntax and speech. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Cutler, Anne & Butterfield, Sally (1992). Rhythmic cues to speech segmentation: evidence from juncture misperception. Journal of Memory and Language 31. 218236.
Demuth, Katherine (1996). The prosodic structure of early words. In Morgan, James L. & Demuth, Katherine (eds.) Signal to syntax: bootstrapping from speech to grammar in early acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. 171184.
Ferreira, Fernanda (1993). Creation of prosody during sentence production. Psychological Review 100. 233253.
Fougeron, Cécile & Keating, Patricia A. (1997). Articulatory strengthening at edges of prosodic domains. JASA 101. 37283740.
Fowler, Carol A. (1981). A relationship between coarticulation and compensatory shortening. Phonetica 38. 3550.
Gerken, LouAnn (1994a). Young children's representation of prosodic structure: evidence from English-speakers' weak syllable productions. Journal of Memory and Language 33. 1938.
Gerken, LouAnn (1994b). A metrical template account of children's weak syllable omissions from multisyllabic words. Journal of Child Language 21. 565584.
Hall, T. Alan (2001). The distribution of superheavy syllables in Modern English. Folia Linguistica 35. 399442.
Halle, Morris & Mohanan, K. P. (1985). Segmental phonology of Modern English. LI 16. 57116.
Hammond, Michael (1999). The phonology of English: a prosodic optimality-theoretic approach. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hayes, Bruce (1980). A metrical theory of stress rules. PhD dissertation, MIT. Published 1985, New York: Garland.
Hayes, Bruce (1989). The prosodic hierarchy in meter. In Kiparsky, Paul & Youmans, Gilbert (eds.) Rhythm and meter. San Diego: Academic Press. 201260.
Hayes, Bruce (1995). Metrical stress theory: principles and case studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Huggins, A. W. F. (1975). On isochrony and syntax. In Fant, G. & Tatham, M. A. A. (eds.) Auditory analysis and perception of speech. London: Academic Press. 455464.
Hulst, Harry van der & Smith, Norval S. H. (eds.) (1982). The structure of phonological representations. 2 parts. Dordrecht: Foris.
Inkelas, Sharon (1990). Prosodic constituency in the lexicon. New York: Garland.
Itô, Junko & Mester, Armin (1994). Reflections on CodaCond and Alignment. In Merchant, Jason, Padgett, Jaye & Walker, Rachel (eds.) Phonology at Santa Cruz 3. Santa Cruz: Linguistics Research Center. 2746.
Kahn, Daniel (1976). Syllable-based generalizations in English phonology. PhD dissertation, MIT. Published 1980, New York: Garland.
Kiparsky, Paul (1982). From cyclic to lexical phonology. In Hulst, van der & Smith, (1982: Part 1). 131175.
Kiparsky, Paul (2000). Opacity and cyclicity. The Linguistic Review 17. 351365.
Kiparsky, Paul (2008). Fenno-Swedish quantity: contrast in Stratal OT. In Vaux, Bert & Nevins, Andrew (eds.) Rules, constraints, and phonological phenomena. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 185219.
Ladd, D. Robert (1986). Intonational phrasing: the case for recursive prosodic structure. Phonology Yearbook 3. 311340.
Lehiste, Ilse (1960). An acoustic-phonetic study of internal open juncture. Phonetica 5. Suppl. 554.
Lehiste, Ilse (1972). The timing of utterances and linguistic boundaries. JASA 51. 20182024.
Liberman, Mark & Prince, Alan (1977). On stress and linguistic rhythm. LI 8. 249336.
McCarthy, John J. (1982). Prosodic structure and expletive infixation. Lg 58. 574590.
McCarthy, John J. & Prince, Alan (1993a). Generalized alignment. Yearbook of Morphology 1993. 79153.
McCarthy, John J. & Prince, Alan (1993b). Prosodic morphology I: constraint interaction and satisfaction. Ms, University of Massachusetts & Rutgers University.
Marshall, Jonathan (2004). Language change and sociolinguistics: rethinking social networks. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mester, Armin (1994). The quantitative trochee in Latin. NLLT 12. 161.
Munson, Benjamin (2001). Phonological pattern frequency and speech production in adults and children. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research 44. 778792.
Nespor, Marina & Vogel, Irene (1986). Prosodic phonology. Dordrecht: Foris.
Pluymaekers, Mark, Ernestus, Mirjam & Baayen, R. Harald (2005). Lexical frequency and acoustic reduction in spoken Dutch. JASA 118. 25612569.
Price, P. J., Ostendorf, M., Shattuck-Hufnagel, S. & Fong, C. (1991). The use of prosody in syntactic disambiguation. JASA 90. 29562970.
Raffelsiefen, Renate (2005). Paradigm uniformity effects versus boundary effects. In Downing, Laura J., Hall, T. Alan & Raffelsiefen, Renate (eds.) Paradigms in phonological theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 211262.
Rakerd, Brad, Sennett, William & Fowler, Carol A. (1987). Domain-final lengthening and foot-level shortening in spoken English. Phonetica 44. 147155.
Redford, Melissa A. & Randall, Patrick (2005). The role of juncture cues and phonological knowledge in English syllabification judgments. JPh 33. 2746.
Schwarzlose, Rebecca & Bradlow, Ann R. (2001). What happens to segment durations at the end of a word? JASA 109. 2292.
Scobbie, James M., Hewlett, Nigel & Turk, Alice (1999). Standard English in Edinburgh and Glasgow: the Scottish vowel length rule revealed. In Foulkes, Paul & Docherty, Gerard J. (eds.) Urban voices: accent studies in the British Isles. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 230245.
Scobbie, James M., Gordeeva, Olga B. & Matthews, Ben (2006). Acquisition of Scottish English phonology: an overview. QMUC Speech Science Research Centre Working Paper WP-7. Edinburgh: Queen Margaret University College.
Selkirk, Elisabeth (1980a). The role of prosodic categories in English word stress. LI 11. 563605.
Selkirk, Elisabeth (1980b). Prosodic domains in phonology: Sanskrit revisited. In Aronoff, Mark & Kean, Mary-Louise (eds.) Juncture. Saratoga: Anma Libri. 107129.
Selkirk, Elisabeth (1981). On prosodic structure and its relation to syntactic structure. In Fretheim, Thorstein (ed.) Nordic Prosody II. Trondheim: Tapir. 111140.
Selkirk, Elisabeth (1982a). The syntax of words. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Selkirk, Elisabeth (1982b). The syllable. In Hulst, van der & Smith, (1982: part 2). 337383.
Selkirk, Elisabeth (1984). Phonology and syntax: the relation between sound and structure. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Selkirk, Elisabeth (1986). On derived domains in sentence phonology. Phonology Yearbook 3. 371405.
Selkirk, Elisabeth (1995). The prosodic structure of function words. In Beckman, Jill N., Dickey, Laura Walsh & Urbanczyk, Suzanne (eds.) Papers in Optimality Theory. Amherst: GLSA. 439469.
Siegel, Dorothy (1974). Topics in English morphology. PhD thesis, MIT. Published 1979, New York: Garland.
Smith, Jennifer (2002). Phonological augmentation in prominent positions. PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.
Sproat, Richard (1993). Looking into words. In Hargus, Sharon & Kaisse, Ellen M. (eds.) Studies in lexical phonology. San Diego: Academic Press. 173195.
Sproat, Richard & Fujimura, Osamu (1993). Allophonic variation in English /l/ and its implications for phonetic implementation. JPh 21. 291311.
Steriade, Donca (2000). Paradigm uniformity and the phonetics–phonology boundary. In Broe, Michael B. & Pierrehumbert, Janet B. (eds.) Papers in laboratory phonology V: acquisition and the lexicon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 313334.
Sugahara, Mariko & Turk, Alice (2004). Phonetic reflexes of morphological boundaries at a normal speech rate. In Bernard, Bel & Isabelle, Marlien (eds.) Proceedings of Speech Prosody 2004. 353356.
Szpyra, Jolanta (1989). The phonology–morphology interface: cycles, levels and words. London & New York: Routledge.
Treiman, Rebecca & Cassar, Marie (1997). Can children and adults focus on sound as opposed spelling in a phoneme counting task? Developmental Psychology 33. 771780.
Turk, Alice (1993). Effects of position-in-syllable and stress on consonant articulation. PhD dissertation, Cornell University.
Turk, Alice (1994). Articulatory phonetic clues to syllable affiliation: gestural characteristics of bilabial stops. In Keating, Patricia A. (ed.) Phonological structure and phonetic form: papers in laboratory phonology III. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 107135.
Turk, Alice, Nakai, Satsuko & Sugahara, Mariko (2006). Acoustic segment durations in prosodic research: a practical guide. In Sudhoff, Stefan, Lenertová, Denisa, Meyer, Roland, Pappert, Sandra, Augurzky, Petra, Mleinek, Ina, Richter, Nicole & Schließer, Johannes (eds.) Methods in empirical prosody research. Berlin & New York: de Gruyter. 128.
Turk, Alice & Sawusch, James R. (1997). The domain of accentual lengthening in American English. JPh 25. 2541.
Turk, Alice & Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie (2000). Word-boundary-related duration patterns in English. JPh 28. 397440.
Turk, Alice & White, Laurence (1999). Structural influences on accentual lengthening in English. JPh 27. 171206.
Van Lancker, Diana, Kreiman, Jody & Bolinger, Dwight (1988). Anticipatory lengthening. JPh 16. 339347.
Waals, Juliette (1999). An experimental view of the Dutch syllable. PhD dissertation, Utrecht University.
Walsh, Thomas & Parker, Frank (1983). The duration of morphemic and non-morphemic /s/ in English. JPh 11. 201206.
Warner, Natasha, Jongman, Allard, Sereno, Joan & Kemps, Rachèl (2004). Incomplete neutralization and other sub-phonemic durational differences in production and perception: evidence from Dutch. JPh 32. 251276.
White, Laurence (2002). English speech timing: a domain and locus approach. PhD dissertation, University of Edinburgh.
Wightman, Colin W., Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie, Ostendorf, Mari & Price, Patti J. (1992). Segmental durations in the vicinity of prosodic phrase boundaries. JASA 91. 17071717.
Wijnen, Frank, Krikhaar, Evelien & den Os, Els (1994). The (non)realization of unstressed elements in children's utterances: evidence for a rhythmic constraint. Journal of Child Language 21. 5983.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0952-6757
  • EISSN: 1469-8188
  • URL: /core/journals/phonology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed