Skip to main content

Phonological constituents and their movement in Latin*

  • Brian Agbayani (a1) and Chris Golston (a1)

We document a fronting process in Latin that is difficult to model as syntactic movement but fairly easy to model as phonological movement. Movement with similar properties has been observed elsewhere in Classical Greek, Russian, Irish and Japanese; we suggest that the Latin movement is of the same type and takes place in the phonological component of the grammar, following the mapping from syntactic to prosodic structure.

Corresponding author
Hide All

For helpful comments and questions we'd like to thank audiences at Auckland University, Stockholm University, California State University, Fresno, the University of California, Santa Cruz, the UCLA Indo-European Conference, the Annual Meeting on Phonology at MIT, ‘Parallel domains: a workshop in honor of Jean-Roger Vergnaud at the University of Southern California’ and ‘The prosodic hierarchy in a typological perspective’ at Stockholm University. Special thanks to A. M. Devine, Lawrence Stephens and Ben Fortson for help with the Latin, to three anonymous reviewers at Phonology and to Arto Anttila for helping us clarify the presentation of our ideas. Any errors of data and/or analysis are our own.

Hide All
Abels Klaus (2003). Successive cyclicity, anti-locality, and adposition stranding. PhD dissertation, University of Connecticut.
Ackema Peter (2001). Colliding complementizers in Dutch: another syntactic OCP effect. LI 32. 717727.
Adams J. N. (1971). A type of hyperbaton in Latin prose. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philological Society 17. 116.
Adams J. N. (1995). The language of the Vindolanda writing tablets: an interim report. Journal of Roman Studies 85. 86134.
Adams J. N. (1996). Interpuncts as evidence for the enclitic character of personal pronouns in Latin. Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik 111. 208210.
Agbayani Brian & Golston Chris (2010a). Phonological movement in Classical Greek. Lg 86. 133167.
Agbayani Brian & Golston Chris (2010b). Second-position is first-position: Wackernagel's Law and the role of clausal conjunction. Indogermanische Forschungen 115. 121.
Agbayani Brian, Golston Chris & Henderer Dasha (2011). Prosodic movement. WCCFL 28. 231239.
Agbayani Brian, Golston Chris & Ishii Toru (2015). Syntactic and prosodic scrambling in Japanese. NLLT 33. 4777.
Allen W. Sidney (1973). Accent and rhythm. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Anttila Arto (1997). Deriving variation from grammar. In Hinskens Frans, van Hout Roeland & Wetzels W. Leo (eds.) Variation, change and phonological theory. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. 3568.
Anttila Arto (2012). Modeling phonological variation. In Cohn Abigail C., Fougeron Cécile & Huffman Marie K. (eds.) The Oxford handbook of laboratory phonology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 7691.
Bašić Monica (2004). Nominal subextractions and the structure of NPs in Serbian and English. MPhil dissertation, University of Tromsø.
Bennett Ryan, Elfner Emily & McCloskey Jim (2016). Lightest to the right: an apparently anomalous displacement in Irish. LI 47.
Blair Walter (1874). Latin pronunciation: an inquiry into the proper sound of the Latin language during the classical period. New York & Chicago: Barnes.
Bolkestein A. Machtelt (2001). Random scrambling? Constraints on discontinuity in Latin noun phrases. In Maussy Claude (ed.) De lingua Latina novae quaestiones: actes du Xe colloque international de linguistique latine, Paris-Sevres, 19–23 avril 1999. Leuven: Peeters. 245258.
Booij Geert (1996). Cliticization as prosodic integration: the case of Dutch. The Linguistic Review 13. 219242.
Bošković Željko (2005). On the locality of left branch extraction and the structure of NP. Studia Linguistica 59. 145.
Bošković Željko (2009). On Leo Tolstoy, its structure, case, left-branch extraction, and prosodic inversion. In Franks Steven, Joseph Brian D. & Chidambaram Vrinda (eds.) A linguist's linguist: studies in South Slavic linguistics in honor of E. Wayles Browne. Bloomington: Slavica. 99122.
Bošković Željko & Takahashi Daiko (1998). Scrambling and Last Resort. LI 29. 347366.
Büring Daniel (2013). Syntax, information structure and prosody. In den Dikken Marcel (ed.) The Cambridge handbook of generative syntax. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 860895.
Butler H. E. (ed.) (1920). The Institutio Oratoria of Quintilian. Vol. 1. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Butler H. E. (ed.) (1921). The Institutio Oratoria of Quintilian. Vol. 3. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Carnie Andrew (2010). Constituent structure. 2nd edn. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Ćavar Damir & Fanselow Gisbert (2000). Discontinuous constituents in Slavic and Germanic languages. Ms, University of Hamburg & University of Potsdam.
Chomsky Noam (1973). Conditions on transformations. In Anderson Stephen R. & Kiparsky Paul (eds.) A Festschrift for Morris Halle. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 232286.
Chomsky Noam (1986). Barriers. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Chomsky Noam (2008). On phases. In Freidin Robert, Otero Carlos P. & Zubizarreta Maria Luisa (eds.) Foundational issues in linguistic theory: essays in honor of Jean-Roger Vergnaud. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 133166.
Danckaert Lieven (2012). Latin embedded clauses: the left periphery. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Devine A. M. & Stephens Laurence D. (2000). Discontinuous syntax: hyperbaton in Greek. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Devine A. M. & Stephens Laurence D. (2006). Latin word order: structured meaning and information. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press.
Dover K. J. (1960). Greek word order. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Embick David & Noyer Rolf (2001). Movement operations after syntax. LI 32. 555595.
Fanselow Gisbert & Lenertová Denisa (2011). Left peripheral focus: mismatches between syntax and information structure. NLLT 29. 169209.
Féry Caroline (2013). Focus as prosodic alignment. NLLT 31. 683734.
Fortson IV Benjamin W. (2008). Language and rhythm in Plautus: synchronic and diachronic studies. Berlin & New York: de Gruyter.
Fortson IV Benjamin W. (2010). Reconstructing the history of Latin and Sabellic adpositional morphosyntax. American Journal of Philology 131. 121154.
Franks Steven & Progovac Ljiljane (1994). On the placement of Serbo-Croatian clitics. Indiana Slavic Studies 7. 6978.
Golston Chris (1991). Minimal word, minimal affix. NELS 21. 95109.
Golston Chris (1995). Syntax outranks phonology: evidence from Ancient Greek. Phonology 12. 343368.
Greenough J. B. (1894). Early Latin prosody. Harvard Studies in Classical Philology 5. 5771.
Grohmann Kleanthes K. (2002). Anti-locality and clause types. Theoretical Linguistics 28. 4372.
Halpern Aaron (1995). On the placement and morphology of clitics. Stanford: CSLI.
Hayes Bruce (1989). The prosodic hierarchy in meter. In Kiparsky Paul & Youmans Gilbert (eds.) Rhythm and meter. San Diego: Academic Press. 201260.
Henderer Dasha (2010). Prosodic movement in colloquial Russian. Ms, California State University Fresno.
Huang C.-T. James (1982). Logical relations in Chinese and the theory of grammar. PhD dissertation, MIT.
Ito Junko & Mester Armin (2012). Recursive prosodic phrasing in Japanese. In Borowsky Toni, Kawahara Shigeto, Shinya Takahito & Sugahara Mariko (eds.) Prosody matters: essays in honor of Elisabeth Selkirk. London: Equinox. 280303.
Ito Junko & Mester Armin (2013). Prosodic subcategories in Japanese. Lingua 124. 2040.
Kayne Richard S. (1994). The antisymmetry of syntax. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Kayne Richard S. (2005). Some notes on comparative syntax, with special reference to English and French. In Cinque Guglielmo & Kayne Richard S. (eds.) The Oxford handbook of comparative syntax. Oxford & New York: Oxford University Press. 369.
Kidwai Ayesha (1999). Word order and focus positions in Universal Grammar. In Rebuschi Georges & Tuller Laurice (eds.) The grammar of focus. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins. 213244.
Laughton E. (1960). Observations on the style of Varro. The Classical Quarterly (New Series) 10. 128.
FresnoLeben Will (1973). Suprasegmental phonology. PhD dissertation, MIT
Mercado Angelo (2012). Italic verse: a study of the poetic remains of Old Latin, Faliscan, and Sabellic. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachen und Literaturen der Universität Innsbruck.
Mester Armin (1994). The quantitative trochee in Latin. NLLT 12. 161.
Nespor Marina & Vogel Irene (1986). Prosodic phonology. Dordrecht: Foris.
Nunes Jairo (2004). Linearization of chains and sideward movement. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Pinkster Harm (2005). Changing patterns of discontinuity in Latin. Paper presented at the 13th International Colloquium on Latin Linguistics, Brussels.
Powell J. G. F. (2010). Hyperbaton and register in Cicero. In Dickey Eleanor & Chahoud Anna (eds.) Colloquial and literary Latin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 163185.
Radford Andrew (1977). Counter-filtering rules. York Papers in Linguistics 7. 745.
Radford Robert S. (1903). The Latin monosyllables in their relation to accent and quantity: study in the verse of Terence. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association 34. 60103.
Radford Robert S. (1904). On the recession of the Latin accent in connection with monosyllabic words and the traditional word-order. Part 1. American Journal of Philology 25. 147162.
Reynolds William T. (1994). Variation and phonological theory. PhD dissertation, University of Pennsylvania.
Ribbeck Otto (ed.) (1866). P. Vergili Maronis: opera. Vol. 5. Leipzig: Teubner.
Rizzi Luigi (1997). The fine structure of the left periphery. In Haegeman Liliane (ed.) Elements of grammar: handbook in generative syntax. Dordrecht: Kluwer. 281337.
Ross John R. (1967). Constraints on variables in syntax. PhD dissertation, MIT.
Saito Mamoru (1989). Scrambling as semantically vacuous A¢-movement. In Baltin Mark R. & Kroch Anthony S. (eds.) Alternative conceptions of phrase structure. Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press. 182200.
Selkirk Elisabeth (1984). Phonology and syntax: the relation between sound and structure. Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
Selkirk Elisabeth (1986). On derived domains in sentence phonology. Phonology Yearbook 3. 371405.
Selkirk Elisabeth (1995). Sentence prosody: intonation, stress, and phrasing. In Goldsmith John A. (ed.) The handbook of phonological theory. Cambridge, Mass. & Oxford: Blackwell. 550569.
Selkirk Elisabeth (1996). The prosodic structure of function words. In Morgan James L. & Demuth Katherine (eds.) Signal to syntax: bootstrapping from speech to grammar in early acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum. 187213.
Selkirk Elisabeth (2009). On clause and intonational phrase in Japanese: the syntactic grounding of prosodic constituent structure. Gengo Kenkyu 136. 3573.
Selkirk Elisabeth (2011). The syntax–phonology interface. In Goldsmith John A., Riggle Jason & Yu Alan C. L. (eds.) The handbook of phonological theory. 2nd edn. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 435484.
Smyth Herbert Weir (1920). Greek grammar for colleges. New York: American Book Company.
Speas Margaret J. (1990). Phrase structure in natural language. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Spevak Olga (2010). Constituent order in Classical Latin prose. Amsterdam & Philadelphia: Benjamins.
Szendrői Kriszta (2001). Focus and the syntax–phonology interface. PhD dissertation, University College London.
Takahashi Daiko (1993). Minimality of movement. PhD dissertation, University of Connecticut.
Teliga Viktoriia (2011). Phonological movement in Ukrainian. MA thesis, California State University Fresno.
Truckenbrodt Hubert (1995). Phonological phrases: their relation to syntax, focus, and prominence. PhD dissertation, MIT.
Wackernagel Jacob (1892). Über ein Gesetz der indo-germanischen Wortstellung. Indogermanische Forschungen 1. 333436.
Wexler Kenneth & Culicover Peter W. (1980). Formal principles of language acquisition. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.
Wingo E. Otha (1972). Latin punctuation in the classical age. The Hague & Paris: Mouton.
Yip Moira (1998). Identity avoidance in phonology and morphology. In Lapointe Steven G., Brentari Diane K. & Farrell Patrick M. (eds.) Morphology and its relation to phonology and syntax. Stanford: CSLI. 216246.
Zec Draga & Inkelas Sharon (1990). Prosodically constrained syntax. In Inkelas Sharon & Zec Draga (ed.) The phonology–syntax connection. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 365378.
Zwicky Arnold M. & Pullum Geoffrey K. (1986a). The principle of phonology-free syntax: introductory remarks. Ohio State University Working Papers in Linguistics 32. 6391.
Zwicky Arnold M. & Pullum Geoffrey K. (1986b). Two spurious counterexamples to the principle of phonology-free syntax. Ohio State University Working Papers in Linguistics 32. 9299.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

  • ISSN: 0952-6757
  • EISSN: 1469-8188
  • URL: /core/journals/phonology
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 72
Total number of PDF views: 317 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 698 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.