Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Large genetic variation for heat tolerance in the reference collection of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) germplasm

  • L. Krishnamurthy (a1), P. M. Gaur (a1), P. S. Basu (a2), S. K. Chaturvedi (a2), S. Tripathi (a1), V. Vadez (a1), A. Rathore (a1), R. K. Varshney (a1) and C. L. L. Gowda (a1)...

Chickpea is the third most important pulse crop worldwide. Changes in cropping system that necessitate late planting, scope for expansion in rice fallows and the global warming are pushing chickpeas to relatively warmer growing environment. Such changes demand identification of varieties resilient to warmer temperature. Therefore, the reference collection of chickpea germplasm, defined based on molecular characterization of global composite collection, was screened for high temperature tolerance at two locations in India (Patancheru and Kanpur) by delayed sowing and synchronizing the reproductive phase of the crop with the occurrence of higher temperatures ( ≥ 35°C). A heat tolerance index (HTI) was calculated using a multiple regression approach where grain yield under heat stress is considered as a function of yield potential and time to 50% flowering. There were large and significant variations for HTI, phenology, yield and yield components at both the locations. There were highly significant genotypic effects and equally significant G × E interactions for all the traits studied. A cluster analysis of the HTI of the two locations yielded five cluster groups as stable tolerant (n = 18), tolerant only at Patancheru (n = 34), tolerant only at Kanpur (n = 23), moderately tolerant (n = 120) and stable sensitive (n = 82). The pod number per plant and the harvest index explained ≥ 60% of the variation in seed yield and ≥ 49% of HTI at Kanpur and ≥ 80% of the seed yield and ≥ 35% of HTI at Patancheru, indicating that partitioning as a consequence of poor pod set is the most affected trait under heat stress. A large number of heat-tolerant genotypes also happened to be drought tolerant.

Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Hide All
Bidinger FR, Mahalakshmi V and Rao GDP (1987) Assessment of drought resistance in pearl millet [Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke]. II Estimation of genotype response to stress. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 38: 4959.
Brockwell J (1982) Inoculation methods for field experimenters and farmers. In: Vincent JM (ed.) Nitrogen Fixation in Legumes. New York: Academic Press, pp. 211221.
Canci H and Toker C (2009) Evaluation of yield criteria for drought and heat resistance in chickpea. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 195: 4754.
Desclaux D and Roumet P (1996) Impact of drought stress on the phenology of two soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) cultivars. Field Crops Research 46: 6170.
Dua RP (2001) Genotypic variations for low and high temperature tolerance in gram (Cicer arietinum). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 71: 561566.
FAOSTAT(2009) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 2002. FAO Production Year Book. Available at Rome: FAO.
Gaur PM, Srinivasan S, Gowda CLL and Rao BV (2007) Rapid generation advancement in chickpea. Journal of SAT Agricultural Research 3. Available at
Gaur PM, Kumar J, Gowda CLL, Pande S, Siddique KHM, Khan TN, Warkentin TD, Chaturvedi SK, Than AM and Ketema D (2008) Breeding chickpea for early phenology: perspectives, progress and prospects. In: Kharkwal MC (ed.) Food Legumes for Nutritional Security and Sustainable Agriculture. vol. 2. New Delhi: Indian Society of genetics and Plant Breeding, pp. 3948.
Gowda CLL, Parthasarathy Rao P, Tripathy S, Gaur PM and Deshmukh RB (2009) Regional shift in chickpea production in India. In: Ali Masood and Kumar Shiv (eds) Milestones in Food Legumes Research. Kanpur: Indian Institute of Pulses Research, pp. 2135.
Harville DA (1977) Maximum likelihood approaches to variance component estimation and to related problems. Journal of the American Statistical Association 72: 320338.
Kashiwagi J, Krishnamurthy L, Upadhyaya HD and Gaur PM (2008) Rapid screening technique for canopy temperature status and its relevance to drought tolerance improvement in chickpea. Journal of SAT Agricultural Research 6: 4.
Krishnamurthy L, Johansen C and Sethi SC (1999) Investigation of factors determining genotypic differences in seed yield of nonirrigated and irrigated chickpea using a physiological model of yield determination. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 183: 917.
Krishnamurthy L, Kashiwagi J, Gaur PM, Upadhyaya HD and Vadez V (2010) Sources of tolerance to terminal drought in the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) minicore germplasm. Field Crops Research 119: 322330.
Kumar S (2006) Climate change and crop breeding objectives in the twenty first century. Current Science 90: 10531054.
Malhotra RS and Saxena MC (1993) Screening for cold and heat tolerance in cool season food legumes. In: Singh KB and Saxena MC (eds) Breeding for Stress Tolerance in Cool Season Food Legumes. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 227244.
Payne RW (ed.) (2002) The Guide to GenStat® Release 6.1. Part: 2 Statistics. Oxford: VSN International Ltd.
Reddy PV, Reddy KB and Rao GNSN (1989) Influence of soil moisture content on pod zone temperatures in groundnut. International Arachis Newsletter 6: 910.
Saxena NP (1987) Screening for adaptation to drought: case studies with chickpea and pigeonpea. In: Saxena NP and Johansen C (eds) Adaptation of Chickpea and Pigeonpea to Abiotic Stresses. Proceedings of Consultant's Workshop. Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India. Patancheru: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, pp. 6376.
Saxena NP (2003) Management of drought in chickpea – a holistic approach. In: Saxena NP (ed.) Management of Agricultural Drought. Agronomic and Genetic Options. New Delhi: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd, pp. 103122.
Snedecor GW and Cochran WG (1989) Statistical Methods. 8th edn. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.
Srinivasan A, Takeda H and Senboku T (1996) Heat tolerance in food legumes as evaluated by cell membrane thermostability and chlorophyll fluorescence techniques. Euphytica 88: 3545.
Subbarao GV, Kumar Rao JVDK, Kumar J, Johansen C, Deb UK, Ahmed I, Krishna Rao MV, Venkataratnam L, Hebbar KR, Sai MVSR and Harris D (2001) Spatial Distribution and Quantification of Rice-fallows in South Asia – Potential for Legumes. Patancheru: ICRISAT.
Summerfield RJ, Hadley P, Roberts EH, Minchin FR and Rawsthorne S (1984) Sensitivities of chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) to hot temperatures during the reproductive period. Experimental Agriculture 20: 7793.
Upadhyaya HD, Dwivedi SL, Baum M, Varshney RK, Udupa SM, Gowda CLL, Hoisington DA and Singh S (2008) Genetic structure, diversity, and allelic richness in composite collection and reference set in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). BMC Plant Biology 8: 106.
Vadez V, Krishnamurthy L, Serraj R, Gaur PM, Upadhyaya HD, Hoisington DA, Varshney RK, Turner NC and Siddique KHM (2007) Large variation in salinity tolerance in chickpea is explained by differences in sensitivity at the reproductive stage. Field Crops Research 104: 123129.
Wang J, Gan YT, Clarke F and McDonald CL (2006) Response of chickpea yield to high temperature stress during reproductive development. Crop Science 46: 21712178.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Plant Genetic Resources
  • ISSN: 1479-2621
  • EISSN: 1479-263X
  • URL: /core/journals/plant-genetic-resources
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 2
Total number of PDF views: 26 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 271 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 21st October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.