Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Longitudinal analysis of maize diversity in Yucatan, Mexico: influence of agro-ecological factors on landraces conservation and modern variety introduction

  • Marianna Fenzi (a1), Devra I. Jarvis (a2), Luis Manuel Arias Reyes (a3), Luis Latournerie Moreno (a4) and John Tuxill (a5)...
Abstract

Transformations that farmers bring to their traditional farming systems and their impacts on the conservation and evolution of maize varieties over a 12-year period are investigated using a longitudinal analysis. Despite the increased introduction and supply of improved maize variety seeds in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, over the last 12 years farmers continue to maintain a substantial amount of traditional maize variety diversity. Even with the increased availability of hybrid seeds, farmers in the community of Yaxcaba on average plant more than three quarters of their milpa fields to traditional maize varieties, with the latter one fourth predominately planted to a locally improved variety Nal Xoy, a farm cross of a traditional variety and an improved variety. We observed a significant reduction in yellow – x-Nuuk nal, a long-cycle traditional landrace, paralleled by an increase in short- and intermediate-cycle locally adapted improved maize varieties. We found great differences in the distribution of maize varieties by soil type, with modern varieties being targeted for the rarer, deeper and fine-grained soils, while traditional varieties predominate on the more prevalent stony and thin soils. Our results provide a picture in which most traditional maize varieties in Yaxcaba continue to be maintained by farmers, coexisting with locally adapted improved varieties on the same landscape, and allowing the continued evolution of maize populations.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Longitudinal analysis of maize diversity in Yucatan, Mexico: influence of agro-ecological factors on landraces conservation and modern variety introduction
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Longitudinal analysis of maize diversity in Yucatan, Mexico: influence of agro-ecological factors on landraces conservation and modern variety introduction
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Longitudinal analysis of maize diversity in Yucatan, Mexico: influence of agro-ecological factors on landraces conservation and modern variety introduction
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
This is an Open Access article, distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution licence (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. E-mail: d.jarvis@cgiar.org
References
Hide All
Anderson, E (1946) Maize in Mexico a preliminary survey. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 33: 147247.
Arias, L (1995) La producción milpera actual en Yaxcabá, Yucatán. In: Hernández, E, Bello, E and Levy, S (eds) La milpa en Yucatán. vol. 1. Montecillo, Estado de México: Colegio de Posgraduados, pp. 171200.
Arias, L, Chavez-Servia, J, Cob, JV, Burgos, L and Canul, J (2000) Agro-morphological characters and farmers' perceptions : data collection and anaysis. In: Jarvis, D, Sthapit, B and Sears, L (eds) Conserving Agricultural Biodiversity In Situ: A Scientific Basis for Sustainable Agriculture. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, pp. 95100.
Arias, L, Jarvis, D, Williams, D, Latournerie, L, Márquez, F, Castillo, F, Ramirez, P, Ortega, R, Ortiz, J, Sauri, E, Duch, J, Bastarrachea, J, Guadarrama, M, Cazares, E, Interian, V, Lope, D, Duch, T, Canul, J and Burgos, L (2002) Conservación in situ de la biodiversidad de las variedades locales en la milpa de Yucatán, México. In: Chávez-Servia, JL, Tuxill, J and Jarvis, D (eds) Manejo de la diversidad de los cultivos en los agroecosistemas tradicionales. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, pp. 3646.
Bajracharya, J, Rana, RB, Gauchan, D, Sthapit, BR, Jarvis, DI and Witcombe, JR (2010) Rice landrace diversity in Nepal. Socio-economic and ecological factors determining rice landrace diversity in three agro-ecozones of Nepal based on farm surveys. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 57: 10131022.
Bellón, MR and Taylor, JE (1993) “Folk” soil taxonomy and the partial adoption of new seed varieties. Economic Development and Cultural Change 41: 763786.
Bellón, MR and Brush, SB (1994) Keepers of maize in Chiapas, Mexico. Economic Botany 48: 196209.
Bellón, MR and Risopoulos, J (2001) Small-scale farmers expand the benefits of improved maize germplasm: a case study from Chiapas, Mexico. World Development 29: 799811.
Bellón, MR and Hellin, J (2011) Planting hybrids, keeping landraces: agricultural modernization and tradition among small-scale maize farmers in Chiapas, Mexico. World Development 39: 14341443.
Bellón, MR, Barrientos-Priego, AF, Colunga-GarcíaMarín, P, Perales, H, Agüero, JAR, Serna, RR and Zizumbo-Villareal, D (2009) Diversidad y conservación de recursos genéticos en plantas cultivadas. Capital natural de México 2: 355382.
Bezançon, G, Pham, JL, Deu, M, Vigouroux, Y, Sagnard, F, Mariac, C, Kapran, I, Mamadou, A, Gérard, B, Ndjeunga, J and Chantereau, J (2009) Changes in the diversity and geographic distribution of cultivated millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) varieties in Niger between 1976 and 2003. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 56: 223236.
Bisht, IS, Mehta, PS and Bhandari, DC (2007) Traditional crop diversity and its conservation on-farm for sustainable agricultural production in Kumaon Himalaya of Uttaranchal state: a case study. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 54: 345357.
Bocci, R and Chable, V (2009) Peasant seeds in Europe: stakes and prospects. Journal of Agriculture and Environment for International Development 103: 8193.
Bonneuil, C and Thomas, F (2009) Gènes, pouvoirs et profits: recherche publique et régimes de production des savoirs de Mendel aux OGM. Éditions Quae, Paris.
Brush, S (2004) Farmers' Bounty: Locating Crop Diversity in the Contemporary World. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Brush, SB and Perales H, R (2007) A maize landscape: ethnicity and agro-biodiversity in Chiapas Mexico. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 121: 211221.
Brush, SB, Bellon, MR, Hijmans, RJ, Ramirez, QO, Perales, HR and van Etten, J (2015) Assessing maize genetic erosion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112: E2.
Canul Ku, J (2009) Diversidad genética de poblaciones nativas de maíz y su mantenimiento en el sistema milpa de Yucatán. Texcoco, México: Colegio de Posgraduados.
Chi Canul, R (2002) Nalxoy, maize for traditional milpa. In: Chavez-Servia, JL, Arias-Reyes, LM, Jarvis, DI, Tuxill, J, Lope-Alzina, D and Eyzaguirre, C (eds) Managing Crop Diversity in Traditional Agroecosystems, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome, Italy, p. 37.
CONABIO(2014) Recopilación, generación, actualización y análisis de información acerca de la diversidad genética de maíces y sus parientes silvestres en México. CONABIO website. Available at http://www.biodiversidad.gob.mx/genes/proyectoMaices.html (accessed accessed November 2014).
Cotter, J (2003) Troubled Harvest: Agronomy and Revolution in Mexico, 1880–2002. Greenwood Publishing Group, Westport, CT.
Duch, J (1991) Fisiografia del estado de Yucatan y su relacion con la milpa. Mexico: Universidad Autonoma Chapingo.
Dyer, GA and López-Feldman, A (2013) Inexplicable or simply unexplained? The management of maize seed in Mexico. PLoS ONE 8: e68320.
Dyer, GA, López-Feldman, A, Yúnez-Naude, A and Taylor, JE (2014) Genetic erosion in maize's center of origin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111: 1409414099.
Dyer, GA, López-Feldman, A, Yúnez-Naude, A, Taylor, JE and Ross-Ibarra, J (2015) Reply to Brush et al.: Wake-up call for crop conservation science. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 112: E2.
Edmeades, S, Smale, M and Karamura, D (2006) Demand for cultivar attributes and the biodiversity of bananas on farm in Uganda. In: Smale, M (ed.) Valuing Crop Biodiversity: On-farm Genetic Resources and Economic Change. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing, pp. 97118.
FAO(2010) Second Report on the World's Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome, Italy: United National Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO). Available at http://www.fao.org/docrep/013/i1500e/i1500e00.htm (accessed accessed August 2014).
Fox, J and Haight, L (2010) Subsidizing inequality: Mexican corn policy since NAFTA, Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas, University of California, Santa Cruz.
Frankel, OH (1967) Guarding the plant breeder's treasury. New Scientist 35: 538540.
Frankel, OH (1973) Survey of Crop Genetic Resources in their Centres of Origin. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO-IBP).
Frankel, OH and Bennett, E (1970) Genetic Resources in Plants, their Exploration and Conservation. Oxford: Blackwell.
Giuliani, A (2007) Developing Markets for Agrobiodiversity. Securing Livelihoods in Dryland Areas. London, UK: Earthscan Research Editions.
Guzman, FA, Ayala, H, Azurdia, C, Duque, MC and Vicente, MC (2005) AFLP assessment of genetic diversity of Capsicum genetic resources in Guatemala: home gardens as an option for conservation. Crop Science 45: 363370.
Harlan, JR (1975) Our vanishing genetic resources. Science 188: 617621.
Hernandez, XE (1985) Maize and man in the greater Southwest. Economic Botany 39: 416430.
Jackson, L, van Noordwijk, M, Bengtsson, J, Foster, W, Lipper, L, Pulleman, M, Said, M, Snaddon, J and Vodouhe, R (2010) Biodiversity and agricultural sustainability: from assessment to adaptive management. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 2: 8087.
Jarvis, DI and Hodgkin, T (1999) Wild relatives and crop cultivars: detecting natural introgression and farmer selection of new genetic combinations in agroecosystems. Molecular Ecology 8: S159S173.
Jarvis, DI and Campilan, DM (2006) Crop Genetic Diversity to Reduce Pests and Diseases On-farm. Participatory Diagnosis Guidelines. Version 1. Bioversity Technical Bulletin. Bioversity International, Rome, Italy.
Jarvis, DI, Brown, AH, Cuong, PH, Collado-Panduro, L, Latournerie-Moreno, L, Gyawali, S, Tanto, T, Sawadogo, M, Mar, I and Sadiki, M (2008) A global perspective of the richness and evenness of traditional crop-variety diversity maintained by farming communities. Proceedings of the National Academy Science 105: 53265331.
Jarvis, DI, Hodgkin, T, Sthapit, BR, Fadda, C and Lopez-Noriega, I (2011) An heuristic framework for identifying multiple ways of supporting the conservation and use of traditional crop varieties within the agricultural production system. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 30: 125176.
Jarvis, DI, Hodgkin, T, Brown, AHD, Tuxill, J, Lopez Noriega, I, Smale, M and Sthapit, B (2016) Crop Genetic Diversity in the Field and on the Farm; Principles and Applications in Research Practices. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. In press.
Kato, A, Mapes, C, Mera, LM, Serratos, JA and Bye, RA (2009) Origen y diversificación del maíz: una revisión analítica. DF, México: UNAM, CONABIO.
Kontoleon, A, Pascual, U and Smale, M (2009) Introduction: agrobiodiversity for economic development: what do we know? Agrobiodiversity conservation and economic development. In: Kontoleon, A, Pascual, U and Smale, M (eds) Agrobiodiversity, Environment and Economic Development. UK: Routledge Explorations, pp. 124.
Latournerie Moreno, L, Tuxill, J, Yupit-Moo, E, Arias Reyes, L, Cristobal-Alejo, J and Jarvis, DI (2006) Traditional maize storage methods of Mayan farmers in Yucatán, Mexico: implications for seed selection and crop diversity. Biodiversity and Conservation 15: 17711795.
Leclerc, C and Coppens d'Eeckenbrugge, G (2012) Social organization of crop genetic diversity. The G × E × S interaction model. Diversity 4: 132.
Louette, D and Smale, M (2000) Farmers' seed selection practices and traditional maize varieties in Cuzalapa, Mexico. Euphytica 113: 2541.
Louette, D, Charrier, A and Berthaud, J (1997) In situ conservation of maize in Mexico: genetic diversity and maize seed management in a traditional community. Economic Botany 51: 2038.
Magurran, AE (2003) Measuring Biological Diversity. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Mulumba, JW, Nankya, R, Adokorach, J, Kiwuka, C, Fadda, C, De Santis, P and Jarvis, D (2012) A risk-minimizing argument for traditional crop varietal diversity use to reduce pest and disease damage in agricultural ecosystems of Uganda. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 157: 7086.
Ortega Paczka, R (2003) La diversidad de maíz en México. In: Esteva, G and Marielle, C (eds) Sin maíz no hay país. México, D.F. CONACULTA, pp. 123154.
Ortega Paczka, R and Dzib Aguilar, L (1992) Recursos genéticos de maíz para la milpa. In: Zizumbo, (ed.) La modernización de la milpa en Yucatán: utopia o realidad. Mérida, CICY, pp. 135145.
Ortega Pazcka, R, Dzib Aguilar, L, Arias-Reyes, LM, Cob-Vicab, V, Canul-Ku, J and Burgos, LA (2000) Mexico, seed supply systems: data collection and analysis. In: Jarvis, D, Sthapit, B and Sears, L (eds) Conserving Agricultural Biodiversity in situ: A Scientific Basis for Sustainable Agriculture. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, pp. 152154.
Pautasso, M, Aistara, G, Barnaud, A, Caillon, S, Clouvel, P, Coomes, OT, Delêtre, Demeulenaere, E, De Santis, P, Döring, T, Eloy, L, Emperaire, L, Garine, E, Goldringer, I, Jarvis, D, Joly, HI, Leclerc, C, Louafi, S, Martin, P, Masso, F, McGuire, S, McKey, D, Padoch, C, Soleri, C, Thomas, M and Tramontini, S (2012) Seed exchange networks in agrobiodiversity conservation: concepts, methods and challenges. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 33: 151175.
Perales, H and Golicher, D (2014) Mapping the diversity of maize races in Mexico. PloS One 9: e114657.
Perales, H, Brush, SB and Qualset, CO (2000) Agronomic and economic competitiveness of maize landraces and in situ conservation in Mexico. Farmers Gene Banks and Crop Breeding: Economic Analyses of Diversity in Wheat, Maize and Rice. The Netherlands: Springer, pp. 109126.
Perales, RH, Brush, SB and Qualset, CO (2003 a) Landraces of maize in Central Mexico: an altitudinal transect. Economic Botany 57: 720.
Perales, H, Brush, S and Qualset, C (2003 b) Dynamic management of maize landraces in Central Mexico. Economic Botany 57: 2134.
Perales, HR, Benz, BF and Brush, SB (2005) Maize diversity and ethnolinguistic diversity in Chiapas, Mexico. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102: 949954.
Practical Action (2011) Hunger, Food and Agriculture: Responding to the Ongoing Challenges. Rugby, Warwickshire: The Schumacher Centre for Technology and Development.
Rana, RB, Garforth, C, Jarvis, D and Sthapit, B (2007) Influence of socioeconomic and cultural factors in rice varietal diversity management on-farm in Nepal. Agriculture and Human Values 24: 461472.
Re Cruz, A (1996) The Two Milpas of Chan Kom: Scenarios of a Maya Village Life. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Salazar, R, Louwaars, NP and Visser, B (2007) On protecting farmers' new varieties: new approaches to rights on collective innovations in plant genetic resources. World Development 35: 15151528.
SIAP (2011) Servicio de información agroalimentaria y pesquera (SIAP), México. Available at http://www.siap.gob.mx/cierre-de-la-produccion-agricola-por-cultivo/ (accessed accessed November 2014).
Thomas, M, Dawson, JC, Goldringer, I and Bonneuil, C (2011) Seed exchanges, a key to analyze crop diversity dynamics in farmer-led on-farm conservation. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 58: 321338.
Tuxill, J (2005) Agrarian change and crop diversity in Mayan milpas of Yucatan, Mexico: implications for in situ conservation. PhD Thesis, New Haven, CT, Yale University.
Tuxill, JD and Nabhan, GP (2001) People, Plants, and Protected Areas: A Guide to In situ Management. London: Earthscan.
Tuxill, J, Arias Reyes, L, Latournerie, L, Uicab, VC and Jarvis, DI (2010) All maize is not equal: maize variety choices and Mayan foodways in rural Yucatan, Mexico. In: Staller, J and Carrasco, M (eds) Pre-Columbian Foodways: Interdisciplinary Approaches to Food, Culture, and Markets in Ancient Mesoamerica. Springer, New York, p. 467–486.
Vigouroux, Y, Mariac, C, De Mita, S, Pham, JL, Gérard, B, Kapran, I, Sagnard, F, Deu, M, Chantereau, J, Ali, A, Ndjeunga, J, Luong, V, Thuillet, A, Saïdou, A, Bezançon, G. (2011) Selection for earlier flowering crop associated with climatic variations in the Sahel. PloS ONE 6: e19563.
Wilkes, HG and Wilkes, S (1972) The green revolution. Environment: Science and Policy for Sustainable Development 14: 3239.
Zimmerer, KS (1996) Changing Fortunes: Biodiversity and Peasant Livelihood in the Peruvian Andes. Los Angeles, California, USA: University of California Press.
Zimmerer, KS (2013) The compatibility of agricultural intensification in a global hotspot of smallholder agrobiodiversity (Bolivia). Proceedings on the National Academy of Sciences 110: 27692774.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Plant Genetic Resources
  • ISSN: 1479-2621
  • EISSN: 1479-263X
  • URL: /core/journals/plant-genetic-resources
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
PDF
Supplementary materials

Fenzi supplementary material
Fenzi supplementary material 2

 PDF (10 KB)
10 KB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Fenzi supplementary material
Fenzi supplementary material 1

 PDF (231 KB)
231 KB
PDF
Supplementary materials

Fenzi supplementary material
Table S1

 PDF (40 KB)
40 KB

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 49
Total number of PDF views: 733 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 678 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 16th August 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.