Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Strategies for conservation of germplasm in endemic redwoods in the face of climate change: a review

  • M. R. Ahuja (a1)
Abstract

This study reviews the various conservation strategies applied to the four redwood species, namely coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), Sierra redwood or giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum), dawn redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides) and South American redwood or alerce (Fitzroya cupressoides), which are endemic in the USA, China and South America, respectively. All four redwood genera belong to the family Cupressaceae; they are monospecific, share a number of common phenotypic traits, including red wood, and are threatened in their native ranges due to human activity and a changing climate. Therefore, the management objective should be to conserve representative populations of the native species with as much genetic diversity as possible for their future survival. Those representative populations exhibiting relatively high levels of genetic diversity should be selected for germplasm preservation and monitored during the conservation phase by using molecular markers. In situ and ex situ strategies for the preservation of germplasm of the redwoods are discussed in this study. A holistic in situ gene conservation strategy calls for the regeneration of a large number of diverse redwood genotypes that exhibit adequate levels of neutral and adaptive genetic variability, by generative and vegetative methods for their preservation and maintenance in their endemic locations. At the same time, it would be desirable to conserve the redwoods in new ex situ reserves, away from their endemic locations with similar as well as different environmental conditions for testing their growth and survival capacities. In addition, other ex situ strategies involving biotechnological approaches for preservation of seeds, tissues, pollen and DNA in genebanks should also be fully exploited in the face of global climate change.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author. E-mail: mrahuja@hotmail.com
References
Hide All
Adams, RP (1997) Conservation of DNA: DNA banking. In: Callow, JA, Ford-Lloyd, BV and Newbury, HJ (eds) Biotechnology and Plant Genetic Resources, Conservation and Use. London: CABI Publishing, pp. 163174.
Ahuja, MR (1986) Storage of forest tree germplasm in liquid nitrogen ( − 196°C). Silvae Genetica 35: 249251.
Ahuja, MR (1989) Storage of forest tree germplasm at sub-zero temperatures. In: Dhawan, V (ed.) Application of Biotechnology in Forestry and Horticulture. New York: Plenum Press, pp. 215228.
Ahuja, MR (1994) Reflections on germplasm preservation of trees. In: Pardos, JA, Ahuja, MR and Rosello, RE (eds) Biotechnology of Trees. Madrid: Investgacion Agraria Sistemas y Recursos Forestales, pp. 227233.
Ahuja, MR (1996) Micropropagation and field testing of frost-tolerant Sequoia sempervirens genotypes. In: LeBlanc, J (ed.) Proceeding of the Conference on Coast Redwood Forest Ecology and Management. Arcata: Humboldt State University, pp. 153155.
Ahuja, MR (1999) Biotechnology in forest tree gene banks. In: Edwards, DGW and Naithani, SC (eds) Seed and Nursery Technology of Forest Trees. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Limited Publishers, pp. 2336.
Ahuja, MR (2005) Polyploidy in gymnosperms: revisited. Silvae Genetica 54: 5969.
Ahuja, MR (2009) Genetic constitution and diversity in four narrow endemic redwoods from the family Cupressaceae. Euphytica 165: 519.
Ahuja, MR and Neale, (2002) Origins of polyploidy in coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.) and relationship of coast redwood to other genera of Taxodiaceae. Silvae Genetica 51: 93100.
Ahuja, MR and Neale, DB (2005) Evolution of genome size in conifers. Silvae Genetica 54: 126137.
Aitkin-Christie, J and Singh, AP (1987) Cold storage of tissue cultures. In: Bonga, JM and Durzan, DJ (eds) Cell and Tissue Culture in Forestry, vol. 1. Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, pp. 285304.
Allnutt, TR, Newton, AC, Lara, A, Premoli, A, Armesto, JJ, Vergara, R and Gardner, M (1999) Genetic variation in Fitzroya cupressoides (alerce), a threatened South American conifer. Molecular Ecology 8: 975987.
Arnaud, Y, Franclet, A, Tranvan, H and Jacques, M (1993) Micropropagation and rejuvenation of Sequoia sempervirens (Lamb) Endl.): a review. Annales des Sciences Forestieres 50: 273295.
Ball, EA (1950) Differentiation in a callus culture of Sequoia sempervirens. Growth 14: 295325.
Behm, A, Becker, A, Dorflinger, H, et al. , (1997) Concept for the conservation of forest genetic resources in the Federal Republic of Germany. Silvae Genetica 46: 2434.
Boe, KN (1974) Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. – Redwood. In: Schopmeyer, CS (ed.) Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Washington, DC: Forest Service, USDA, pp. 764766.
Bon, MC and Monteuuis, O (1991) Rejuvenation of a 100-year-old Sequoiadendron giganteum through in vitro meristem culture. I. Organogenic and morphological arguments. Physiologia Plantarum 81: 111115.
Bon, M-C, Riccari, F and Monteuuis, O (1994) Influence of phase change within a 90-year old Sequoia sempervirens on its in vitro organogenic capacity and protein patterns. Trees 8: 283287.
Bonner, FT (1990) Storage of seeds: potential and limitations for germplasm conservation. Forest Ecology and Management 35: 3543.
Boulay, M (1997) Multiplication rapide du Sequoia sempervirens en culture in vitro. Annales AFOCEL 1977: 3766.
Brinegar, C, Bruno, D, Kirkbride, R, Glavas, S and Udransky, U (2007) Applications of redwood genotyping by using microsatellite markers. USDA Forest Service Technical Report PSW-GTR 194, pp. 4755.
Chen, XY, Li, YY, Wu, TY, Zhang, X and Lu, HP (2003) Size-class differences in genetic structure of Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu et Cheng (Taxodiaceae) plantations in Shanghai. Silvae Genetica 52: 107109.
Chu, K and Cooper, SC (1999) An ecological reconnaissance in the native home of Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Arnoldia 59: 4046.
Davis, MB and Zabinski, C (1992) Changes in geographical range resulting from greenhouse warming effects on biodiversity in forests. In: Peters, RL and Lovejoy, TE (eds) Global Warming and Biological Diversity. New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 297308.
Engelmann, F (2004) Plant cryopreservation: progress and prospects. In Vitro Cellular and Developmental Biology – Plants 40: 427433.
Evarts, J and Popper, M (2001) Conservation and management of redwood forests. In: Evarts, J and Popper, M (eds) Coast Redwood A Natural and Cultural History. Los Olivos: Cachuma Press, pp. 165205.
Fins, L and Libby, WJ (1982) Population variation in Sequoiadendron: seed and seedling studies, vegetative propagation and isozyme variation. Silvae Genetica 31: 102110.
Gadek, PA, Alpers, DL, Heslewood, MM and Quinn, CJ (2000) Relationship within Cupressaceae sensu latu: a combined morphological and molecular approach. American Journal of Botany 87: 10441057.
Geburek, T and Konrad, H (2007) Why the conservation of forest genetic resources has not worked. Conservation Biology 22: 267274.
González-Martinez, SC, Krutovsky, KV and Neale, DB (2006) Forest-tree population genomics and adaptive evolution. New Phytologist 170: 227238.
Guinon, M, Larson, JB and Spethmann, W (1982) Frost resistance and early growth of Sequoiadendron giganteum seedlings of different origin. Silvae Genetica 31: 173178.
Hair, JB (1968) The chromosomes of the Cupressaceae. I. Tetraclineae and Actinostrobeae (Callitroideae). New Zealand Journal of Botany 6: 277284.
Hamrick, JL (2004) Response of forest trees to global environmental changes. Forest Ecology and Management 197: 323335.
Hamrick, JL, Godt, MJW and Sherman-Boyles, SL (1992) Factors influencing levels of genetic diversity in woody plant species. New Forests 6: 95124.
Hannah, L, Midgley, G, Andelman, S, Araújo, M, Hughes, G, Martinez-Meyer, E, Pearson, R and Williams, P (2007) Protected areas needs in a changing climate. Frontiers of Ecological Environment 5: 131138.
Hartesveldt, RJ (1969) Sequoia in Europe with a review of their discovery and their resultant importation into Europe. Final Contract Report to the National Park Service. Contract no. 14-10-0434, pp. 22.
Hartesveldt, RJ, Harry, HT, Schellhammer, HS and Stecker, RR (1975) The Giant Sequoia of the Sierra Nevada. Washington, DC: US Department of Interior, National Park Service, p. 180.
Hattemer, HH (1995) Concepts and requirements in the conservation of forest genetic resources. Forest Genetics 2: 125134.
Hidalgo, E, González-Martinez, SC, Lexer, C and Heinze, B (2010) Conservation genomics. In: Jansson, S, Bhalerao, R and Groover, A (eds) Genetics and Genomics of Populus. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, pp. 349368.
Holderegger, R, Kamm, U and Gugerli, F (2006) Adaptive vs neutral genetic diversity: implications for landscape genetics. Landscape Ecology 21: 797807.
IPCC (2007) Climate Change 2007. The physical science basis. Summary for policymakers. Available at www.ipcc.ch.
IUCN (2010) IUCN red list of threatened species. Version 2010.2. Available at www.iucnredlist.org.
Iverson, LR and Prasad, AM (2002) Potential redistribution of tree species habitat under five climate change scenarios in the eastern US. Forest Ecology and Management 155: 205222.
Iverson, LR, Schwartz, MW and Prasad, AM (2004) How fast and far might tree species migrate in the eastern United States due to climate change. Global Ecology and Biogeography 13: 209219.
Iverson, LR, Prasad, AM and Schwartz, MW (2005) Predicting potential changes in suitable habitat and distribution by 2100 for tree species in the eastern United States. Journal of Agricultural Meteorology 61: 2937.
Iverson, LR, Prasad, AM, Matthews, SN and Peters, M (2008) Estimating potential habitat for 134 eastern US tree species under six climate scenarios. Forest Ecology and Management 254: 390406.
Johnson, LC (1974) Metasequoia glyptostroboides Hu and Cheng – Dawn Redwood. In: Schopmeyer, CS (ed.) Seeds of Woody Plants in the United States. Washington, DC: Forest Service, USDA, pp. 540542.
Johnstone, JA and Dawson, TE (2010) Climate context and ecological implications of summer fog decline in the cost redwood region. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 107: 45334538.
Karhu, AP, Hurme, P, Karjalainen, M, Karvonen, P, Kärkkäinen, K and Neale, DB (1996) Do molecular markers reflect patterns of differentiation in adaptive traits in conifers? Theoretical and Applied Genetics 93: 215221.
Kelly, AE and Goulden, ML (2008) Rapid shifts in plant distribution with recent climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 105: 1182311826.
Krutovsky, KV and Neale, DB (2005) Forest genomics and new molecular genetic approaches to measuring and conserving adaptive genetic diversity in forest trees. In: Geburek, T and Turok, J (eds) Conservation and Management of Forest Genetic Resources in Europe. Zvolen: Arbora Publishers, pp. 369390.
Kuser, JE (1981) Redwoods around the world. American Forests 87: 3032.
Kuser, J (1983) Inbreeding depression in Metasequoia. Journal of Arnold Arboretum 64: 475581.
Kuser, JE (1999) Metasequoia glyptostroboides: fifty years of growth in North America. Arnoldia 59: 7679.
Kuser, JE, Bailly, A, Franclet, A, Libby, WJ, Martin, J, Reydelius, J, Schoenike, R and Vagle, N (1995) Early results of a range-wide provenance test of Sequoia sempervirens. Forest Genetics Resources (Rome: FAO) 23: 2125.
Kuser, JE, Sheely, DL and Hendricks, DR (1997) Genetic variation in two ex situ collections of the rare Metasequoia glyptostroboides (Cupressaceae). Silvae Genetica 46: 258264.
Ledig, FT (1986) Conservation strategies for forest gene resources. Forest Ecology and Management 14: 7790.
Ledig, FT (1987) Genetic structure and conservation of California's endemic and near-endemic conifers. In: Elliot, TS (ed.) Conservation and Management of Rare and Endangered Plants. Sacramento: California Native Plant Society, pp. 587594.
Ledig, FT (1988) The conservation of diversity in forest trees. Bioscience 38: 471479.
Ledig, FT and Kitzmiller, JH (1992) Genetic strategies for reforestation in the face of global climate change. Forest Ecology and Management 50: 153169.
Ledig, FT, Hodgekiss, PD and Jacob-Cervantes, V (2002) Genetic diversity, mating system, and conservation of Mexican subalpine relict, Picea mexicana Martinez. Conservation Genetics 3: 113122.
Leng, Q, Fan, S-H, Wang, L, Yang, H, et al. , (2007) Database of native Metasequoia glyptostroboides trees in China based on new consensus surveys and expeditions. Bulletin of Peabody Museum Natural History 48: 185233.
Li, J (1999) Metasequoia: an overview of its phylogeny, reproductive biology, and ecotypic variation. Arnoldia 59: 5459.
Li, YY, Chen, XY, Zhang, X, Wu, TY, Lu, HP and Cai, YW (2005) Genetic differences between wild and artificial populations of Metasequoia glyptostroboides: implications of species recovery. Conservation Biology 19: 224231.
Libby, WJ (1981) Some observations on Sequoiadendron and Calocedrus in Europe. California Forestry and Forest Products 49: 112.
Libby, WJ, McCutchan, BG and Millar, CI (1981) Inbreeding in selfs of redwood. Silvae Genetica 30: 1525.
Libby, WJ, Anekonda, TS and Kuser, JE (1996) The genetic architecture of coast redwood. In: Leblanc, J (ed.) Proceeding of the Conference on coast Redwood Forest Ecology and Management. Arcata: Humboldt State University, pp. 147149.
Liu, C, Xia, X, Yin, W, Huang, L and Zhou, J (2006) Shoot regeneration and somatic embryogenesis from needles of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl.). Plant Cell Reports 25: 621628.
Loarie, SR, Carter, BE, Hayhoe, K, McMahon, S, Moe, R, Knight, CA and Ackerly, DD (2008) Climate change and the future of California's endemic flora. Public Library of Science ONE 3: e2502.
McKenney, DW, Pedlar, J, Lawrence, K, Campbell, K and Hutchison, MF (2007) Potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of North American trees. Bioscience 57: 939948.
McLachlan, JS, Clark, JS and Manos, PS (2005) Molecular indicators of tree migration capacity under rapid climate change. Ecology 86: 20882098.
Melchior, GH and Hermann, S (1987) Differences in growth performance of four provenances of giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl) Buchh.). Silvae Genetica 38: 6568.
Melchior, GH, Muhs, HJ and Stephan, BR (1986) Tactics for forest tree resources in the Federal Republic of Germany. Forest Ecology and Management 17: 7381.
Metcalf, W (1924) Artificial reproduction of redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). Journal of Forestry 22: 873893.
Millar, CI (1993) Conservation of germplasm of forest trees. In: Ahuja, MR and Libby, WJ (eds) Clonal Forestry II. Conservation and Application. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, pp. 4265.
Millar, CI and Westfall, RD (1992) Allozyme markers in forest genetic conservation. New Forests 6: 347371.
Millar, CI, Stephenson, NL and Stephens, SL (2007) Climate change and forests of the future: managing in the face of uncertainty. Ecological Applications 17: 21452151.
Monteuuis, O (1987) In vitro meristem culture of juvenile and mature Sequoiadendron giganteum. Tree Physiology 3: 265272.
Monteuuis, O (1991) Rejuvenation of a 100-year-old Sequoiadendron giganteum through in vitro meristem culture. I. Organogenic and morphological arguments. Physiologia Plantarum 81: 111115.
Monteuuis, O, Doulbeau, S and Verdeil, JL (2008) DNA methylation in different origin clonal offspring from a mature Sequoiadendron giganteum genotype. Trees 22: 779784.
Noss, RF, Strittholt, JR, Heilman, GE, Frost, PA and Sorensen, M (2000) Conservation planning in the redwoods region. In: Noss, RF (ed.) The Redwood Forest. History, Ecology, and Conservation of Redwoods. Washington, DC: Save-the-Redwoods League Island Press, pp. 2012228.
Olson, DF, Roy, DF and Walters, GA (1990) Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. Redwood. In: Burns, RM and Honkala, BH (eds) Silvics of North America, vol. 1. Conifers. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, pp. 541551.
Parker, T and Donoso, C (1993) Natural regeneration of Fitzroya cupressoides in Chile and Argentina. Forest Ecology and Management 59: 6385.
Parmesan, C (2006) Ecological and evolutionary responses to recent climate change. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 37: 637669.
Parmesan, C and Yohe, G (2003) A globally coherent fingerprint of climate change impacts across natural systems. Nature 421: 3742.
Pearson, RG (2006) Climate change and the migration capacity of species. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 21: 111113.
Premoli, AC, Kitzberger, T and Veblen, TT (2000) Conservation genetics of the endangered conifer Fitzroya cupressoides in Chile and Argentina. Conservation Genetics 1: 5766.
Premoli, AC, Vergara, R, Souto, CP, Lara, A and Newton, AC (2003) Lowland valleys shelter the ancient conifer Fitzroya cupressoides in the Central Depression of southern Chile. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 33: 623631.
Pressey, RL, Cabeza, M, Watts, ME, Cowling, RM and Wilson, KA (2007) Conservation planning in a changing world. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 22: 583592.
Rice, N, Cordeiro, G, Shepherd, M, Bundock, P, Bradburry, L, Pacey-Miller, T, Futado, A and Harry, R (2006) DNA banks and their role in facilitating the application of genomics to plant germplasm. Plant Genetic Resources 4: 6470.
Rogers, DL (1997) Inheritance of allozymes from seed tissues of the hexaploid gymnosperm, Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endl. (Coast redwood). Heredity 78: 166175.
Rogers, DL (2000) Genotypic diversity and clones size in old-growth populations of coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens). Canadian Journal of Botany 78: 14081419.
Root, TL, MacMynowski, DP, Mastrandrea, MD and Schneider, SH (2005) Human modified temperature induce species changes: joint attribution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102: 74657469.
Ryynänen, L (1996) Survival and regeneration of dormant silver birch buds stored at supper-low temperatures. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 26: 617623.
Sakai, A (1986) Cryopreservation of germplasm of woody plants. In: Bajaj, YPS (ed.) Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry, vol. I. Trees I. Heidelberg: Springer Verlag, pp. 113129.
Satoh, K (1999) Metasequoia travels the globe. Arnoldia 59: 7275.
Sawyer, JO, Gray, J, West, J, Thorburgh, DA, Noss, RF, Engbeck, JH, Marcot, BG and Raymond, R (2000) History of redwoods and redwood forests. In: Noss, RF (ed.) The Redwood Forest. History, Ecology, and Conservation of Redwoods. Washington, DC: Save-the-Redwoods League Island Press, pp. 81118.
Saylor, LC and Simons, HA (1970) Karyology of Sequoia sempervirens: karyotype and accessory chromosomes. Cytologia 35: 294303.
Schlarbaum, SE and Tsuchiya, T (1984) Cytotaxonomy and phylogeny in certain species of Taxodiaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution 147: 2954.
Schubert, GH (1952) Germination of various coniferous seeds after cold storage. USDA Forest Service Research Note PSW-83, pp. 7.
Schwartz, MW, Iverson, LR, Prasad, AM, Matthews, SN and O'Connor, RJ (2006) Predicting extinctions as a result of climate change. Ecology 87: 16111615.
Stanwood, PC (1985) Cryopreservation of seed germplasm for genetic conservation. In: Kartha, KK (ed.) Cryopreservation of Plant Cell and Organs. Boca Raton: CRC Press, pp. 199226.
Stebbins, GL (1957) Self-fertilization and population variability in the higher plants. American Naturlist 91: 337354.
Suszka, B, Chmielarz, P and Walkenhorst, R (2005) How long can seeds of Norway speruce (Picea abies (l.) Karst.) be stored? Annales of Forest Sciences 62: 7378.
Thomas, CD, Cameron, A, Green, RE, et al. , (2004) Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427: 145148.
Thuiller, W, Albert, C, Araújo, MB, et al. , (2008) Predicting global change impacts on plant species distributions: future challenges. Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 9: 137152.
Tikader, A, Vijayan, K and Kamble, CK (2009) Conservation and management of mulberry germplasm through biomolecular approaches – a review. Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews 3: 92104.
Trenberth, KE, Dai, A, Rasmussen, RM and Pearson, RB (2003) The changing character of precipitation. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 84: 12051217.
Volis, S and Blecher, M (2010) Quasi in situ: a bridge between ex situ and in situ conservation of plants. Biodiversity and Conservation 19: 24412454.
Weatherspoon, CP (1990) Sequoiadendron giganteum (Lindl.) Buchholz, Giant Sequoia. In: Burns, RM and Honkala, BH (eds) Silvics of North America. vol 1. Conifers. Agriculture Handbook 654. Washington, DC: US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, pp. 552562.
White, TL, Adams, WT and Neale, DB (2007) Forest Genetics. Cambridge, MA: CABI Publishing..
Wright, JW (1976) Introduction to Forest Genetics. New York: Academic Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Plant Genetic Resources
  • ISSN: 1479-2621
  • EISSN: 1479-263X
  • URL: /core/journals/plant-genetic-resources
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed