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    Mumford, K. A. Powell, S. M. Rayner, J. L. Hince, G. Snape, I. and Stevens, G. W. 2015. Evaluation of a permeable reactive barrier to capture and degrade hydrocarbon contaminants. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, Vol. 22, Issue. 16, p. 12298.

    Statham, Tom M. Mumford, Kathryn A. Rayner, John L. and Stevens, Geoffrey W. 2015. Removal of copper and zinc from ground water by granular zero-valent iron: A dynamic freeze–thaw permeable reactive barrier laboratory experiment. Cold Regions Science and Technology, Vol. 110, p. 120.

    Mumford, K.A. Rayner, J.L. Snape, I. and Stevens, G.W. 2014. Hydraulic performance of a permeable reactive barrier at Casey Station, Antarctica. Chemosphere, Vol. 117, p. 223.

    Hafsteinsdóttir, Erla G. White, Duanne A. and Gore, Damian B. 2013. Effects of freeze–thaw cycling on metal-phosphate formation and stability in single and multi-metal systems. Environmental Pollution, Vol. 175, p. 168.

    Kalinovich, Indra K. Rutter, Allison Rowe, R. Kerry and Poland, John S. 2012. Design and application of surface PRBs for PCB remediation in the Canadian Arctic. Journal of Environmental Management, Vol. 101, p. 124.

    White, Duanne A. Hafsteinsdóttir, Erla G. Gore, Damian B. Thorogood, Gordon and Stark, Scott C. 2012. Formation and stability of Pb-, Zn- & Cu-PO4 phases at low temperatures: Implications for heavy metal fixation in polar environments. Environmental Pollution, Vol. 161, p. 143.

    Hafsteinsdóttir, Erla G. White, Duanne A. Gore, Damian B. and Stark, Scott C. 2011. Products and stability of phosphate reactions with lead under freeze–thaw cycling in simple systems. Environmental Pollution, Vol. 159, Issue. 12, p. 3496.

    Misaelides, Panagiotis 2011. Application of natural zeolites in environmental remediation: A short review. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, Vol. 144, Issue. 1-3, p. 15.

    Gore, D.B. and Snape, I. 2008. Freeze–thaw cycling, moisture and leaching from a Controlled Release Nutrient source. Cold Regions Science and Technology, Vol. 52, Issue. 3, p. 401.

    Hornig, Gabriele Northcott, Kathy Snape, Ian and Stevens, Geoff 2008. Assessment of sorbent materials for treatment of hydrocarbon contaminated ground water in cold regions. Cold Regions Science and Technology, Vol. 53, Issue. 1, p. 83.

    Fourie, Walter J. Barnes, David L. and Shur, Yuri 2007. The formation of ice from the infiltration of water into a frozen coarse grained soil. Cold Regions Science and Technology, Vol. 48, Issue. 2, p. 118.


Grain size of activated carbon, and untreated and modified granular clinoptilolite under freeze-thaw: applications to permeable reactive barriers

  • Damian B. Gore (a1), Erika S. Heiden (a2), Ian Snape (a3), Geraldine Nash (a3) and Geoffrey W. Stevens (a1)
  • DOI:
  • Published online: 08 May 2006

Permeable reactive barriers are used to adsorb contaminants from soil water. Their fillings are granular materials whose stability under freezing conditions has not been demonstrated. In this research, three granular materials (activated carbon, raw clinoptilolite and a nutrient amended clinoptilolite) were subjected to freeze-thaw cycles at different moisture conditions, in order to simulate their use in permeable reactive barriers in areas of freezing ground. The <250 μm fraction, which will potentially accumulate grain fragments, showed no change for the carbon, but an increase from ∼1% to ∼3% abundance by volume for the clinoptilolite with modes at 100–200 μm. SEM images show cracks in the zeolite grains, forming fragments of the size observed in the particle size data. These findings may have implications for the long-term permeabilities of reactive barriers operated in areas of freezing ground.

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Polar Record
  • ISSN: 0032-2474
  • EISSN: 1475-3057
  • URL: /core/journals/polar-record
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