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Representation and Inclusion

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  12 December 2012

Anne Phillips*
Affiliation:
London School of Economics

Extract

In 1995, the fourth and most influential world conference on women delivered the Beijing Declaration, calling for “women's empowerment and their full participation on the basis of equality in all spheres of society, including participation in the decision-making process and access to power.” The idea that women needed not just the equal right to vote and participate in politics, but “full participation on the basis of equality,” had been gathering force for a number of years. Activists around the world had long challenged the underrepresentation of women in legislatures and decision-making assemblies. Political parties in the Scandinavian countries had been experimenting with voluntary gender quotas from the early 1980s. In the course of the 1990s, a number of countries, particularly in Latin America, made it a legal or constitutional requirement that something had to be done. Votes for women were the key demand at the end of the nineteenth century; parity of representation was the new demand by the end of the twentieth.

Type
Critical Perspectives on Gender and Politics
Copyright
Copyright © The Women and Politics Research Section of the American Political Science Association 2012

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References

Bajpai, Rochana. 2011. Debating Difference: Minority Rights and Liberal Democracy in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Phillips, Anne. 1995. The Politics of Presence. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Pitkin, Hanna F. 1967. The Concept of Representation. Berkeley and London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
Rai, Shirin, and Hoskyns, Catherine. 1998. “Gender, Class and Representation: India and the European Union.” European Journal of Women's Studies 5 (4):345–65.Google Scholar
Young, Iris Marion. 2000. Inclusion and Democracy. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
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