Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
Home
Hostname: page-component-7f7b94f6bd-dwjtz Total loading time: 0.256 Render date: 2022-06-29T20:52:11.334Z Has data issue: true Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "useRatesEcommerce": false, "useNewApi": true } hasContentIssue true

When and Where Do Women's Legislative Caucuses Emerge?

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  05 December 2018

Anna Mitchell Mahoney
Affiliation:
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Christopher J. Clark
Affiliation:
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Abstract

Women have organized around their gendered identity to accomplish political goals both inside and outside legislatures. Formal and informal institutional norms shape the form this collective action takes and whether it is successful. What, then, are the favorable conditions for organizing women's caucuses inside legislatures? Using an original dataset and employing an event history analysis, we identify the institutional conditions under which women's caucuses emerged in the 50 US states from 1972 to 2009. Within a feminist institutional framework, we argue that women's ability to alter existing organizational structures and potentially affect gender norms within legislatures is contextual. Although we find that women's presence in conjunction with Democratic Party control partially explains women's ability to act collectively and in a bipartisan way within legislatures, our analysis suggests that institutional-level variables are not enough to untangle this complicated phenomenon. Our work explains how gender and party interact to shape legislative behavior and clarifies the intractability of institutional norms while compelling further qualitative evidence to uncover the best conditions for women's collective action within legislatures.

Type
Research Article
Copyright
Copyright © The Women and Politics Research Section of the American Political Science Association 2018

Access options

Get access to the full version of this content by using one of the access options below. (Log in options will check for institutional or personal access. Content may require purchase if you do not have access.)

References

Aldrich, John H., and Battista, James S. Colman. 2002. “Conditional Party Government in the States.” American Journal of Political Science 46 (1): 164–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Banaszak, Lee Ann. 1996. Why Movements Succeed or Fail: Opportunity, Culture, and the Struggle for Women's Suffrage. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barrett, Edith J. 1997. “Gender and Race in the State House: The Legislative Experience.” Social Science Journal 34 (2): 131–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beckwith, Karen. 2007. “Numbers and Newness: The Descriptive and Substantive Representation of Women.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 40 (1): 2749.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Beckwith, Karen, and Cowell-Meyers, Kimberly. 2007. “Sheer Numbers: Critical Representation Thresholds and Women's Political Representation.” Perspectives on Politics 5 (3): 553–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Box-Steffensmeier, Janet M., and Jones, Bradford. 2004. Event History Modeling: A Guide for Social Scientists. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bratton, Kathleen. 2002. “Critical Mass Theory Revisited: The Behavior and Success of Token Individuals in State Legislatures.” American Political Science Association Annual Meeting, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
Buckley, Jack, and Westerland, Chad. 2004. “Duration Dependence, Functional Form, and Corrected Standard Errors: Improving EHA Models of State Policy Diffusion.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 4 (1): 94113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
California Latino Caucus. 2016. “Member Directory.” October 1. http://latinocaucus.legislature.ca.gov/member-directory. Accessed October 5, 2018.Google Scholar
California Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Caucus. 2016. “Home.” October 1. http://lgbtcaucus.legislature.ca.gov/. Accessed October 5, 2018.Google Scholar
Carroll, Susan. 2002. “Representing Women: Congresswomen's Perceptions of their Representational Roles.” In Women Transforming Congress, ed. Rosenthal, Cindy Simon. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
Carroll, Susan J. 2006. “Are Women Legislators Accountable to Women? The Complementary Roles of Feminist Identity and Women's Organizations.” In Gender and Social Capital, ed. O'Neil, Brenda and Gidengil, Elisabeth, 352–78. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
Carroll, Susan J., and Taylor, Ella. 1989. “Gender Differences in Policy Priorities of U.S. State and Legislators.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Atlanta.Google Scholar
Celis, Karen, Childs, Sarah, Kantola, Johanna, and Krook, Mona Lena. 2008. “Rethinking Women's Substantive Representation.” Representation 44 (2): 99110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Center for American Women and Politics. Spring 1989. CAWP News & Notes 7 (1): 131.Google Scholar
Center for American Women and Politics. Winter 1989. CAWP News & Notes 7 (2): 121.Google Scholar
Center for American Women in Politics. Spring 1992. CAWP News & Notes 8 (2): 131.Google Scholar
Center for American Women in Politics. Summer 1994. CAWP News & Notes 9 (3): 136.Google Scholar
Center for American Women in Politics. Summer/Fall 1994. CAWP News & Notes 9 (3A): 136.Google Scholar
Center for American Women in Politics. Spring 1998. CAWP News & Notes 11 (3): 116.Google Scholar
Center for American Women in Politics. 2001. “Women State Legislators: Past, Present and Future.” http://www.capwip.org/readingroom/cawp-womenstateleg.pdf. Accessed November 5, 2014.Google Scholar
Childs, Sarah, and Krook, Mona Lena. 2006. “Should Feminists Give Up on Critical Mass? A Contingent Yes.” Politics & Gender 2 (4): 522–30.Google Scholar
Childs, Sarah, and Krook, Mona Lena. 2009. “Analysing Women's Substantive Representation: From Critical Mass to Critical Actors.” Government and Opposition 44 (2): 125–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Clark, Christopher J.Gaining Voice: Causes and Consequences of Black Representation in the American States. Forthcoming. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Cox, Elizabeth M. 1996. Women State and Territorial Legislators, 1895–1995: A State-by-State Analysis, with Rosters of 6,000 Women. Jefferson, NC: McFarland.Google Scholar
Crowder-Meyer, Melody, and Lauderdale, Benjamin E.. 2014. “A Partisan Gap in the Supply of Female Potential Candidates in the United States.” Research & Politics 1 (1): 17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Crowley, Jocelyn. E. 2004. “When Tokens Matter.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 29 (1): 109–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Democratic National Committee. 2010.“The Democratic Party.” July 22. http://www.democrats.org/a/communities/women/. Accessed October 5, 2018.Google Scholar
Dodson, Debra, Carroll, Susan J., Mandel, Ruth B., Kleeman, Katherine E., Schreiber, Ronnee, and Liebowitz, Debra. 1995. Voices, Views, Votes: The Impact of Women in the 103rd Congress. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP), Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers.Google Scholar
Duerst-Lahti, Georgia. 2002. “Governing Institutions, Ideologies, and Gender: Toward the Possibility of Equal Political Representation.” Sex Roles: A Journal of Research 47:371–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Edwards, Bob, and McCarthy, John D.. 2004. “Resources and Social Movement Mobilization.” In The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, ed. Snow, David A., Soule, Sarah A., and Kriesi, Hanspeter, 116–52. Oxford, UK: Blackwell.Google Scholar
Freeman, Jo. 1986. “The Political Culture of the Democratic and Republican Parties.” Political Science Quarterly 101 (3): 327–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gertzog, Irwin N. 1995. Congressional Women: Their Recruitment, Integration, and Behavior. Rev. ed. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing.Google Scholar
Gertzog, Irwin N. 2004. Women and Power on Capitol Hill: Reconstructing the Congressional Women's Caucus. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
Hammond, Susan A. 1998. Congressional Caucuses in National Policymaking. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
Hammond, Susan Webb, Mulhollan, Daniel P., and Stevens, Arthur G. Jr. 1985. “Informal Congressional Caucuses and Agenda Setting.” Western Political Science Quarterly 38 (4): 583605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Harden, Jeffrey J. 2011. “A Bootstrap Method for Conducting Statistical Inference with Clustered Data.” State Politics and Policy Quarterly 11 (2): 223–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawkesworth, Mary. 2003. “Congressional Enactments of Race-Gender: Toward a Theory of Raced Gendered Institutions.” American Political Science Review 97 (4): 529–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hawkesworth, Mary, Dodson, Debra, Kleeman, Katherine E., Casey, Kathleen J., and Jenkins, Krista. 2000. Legislating by and for Women: A Comparison of the 103rd and 104th Congresses. New Brunswick, NJ: Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP), Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers.Google Scholar
Heath, Roseanna Michelle, Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A. and Taylor-Robinson, Michelle M.. 2005. “Women on the Sidelines: Women's Representation on Committees in Latin American Legislatures.” American Journal of Political Science 49 (2): 420–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hedge, David, Button, James, and Spear, Mary. 1996. “Accounting for the Quality of Black Legislative Life: The View from the States.” American Journal of Political Science 40 (1): 8298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hinckley, Barbara. 1971. Stability and Change in Congress. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
Holman, Mirya. 2014. Women in Politics in the American City. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.Google Scholar
Kam, Cindy, and Franzese, Robert J.. 2007. Modeling and Interpreting Interactive Hypotheses in Regression Analysis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Kanter, Rosabeth Moss. 1977. “Some Effects on Proportions on Group Life: Skewed Sex Ratios and Responses to Token Women.” American Journal of Sociology 82:965–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kanthak, Kristin, and Krause, George A.. 2012. The Diversity Paradox: Political Parties, Legislatures, and the Organizational Foundations of Representation in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 138.Google Scholar
Kathlene, Lyn. 1994. “Power and Influence in State Legislative Policymaking: The Interaction of Gender and Position in Committee Hearing Debates.” American Political Science Review 88 (3): 560–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Katzenstein, Mary Fainsod. 1998. Faithful and Fearless: Moving Feminist Protest Inside the Church and Military. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
Kenney, Sally J. 1996. “New Research on Gendered Political Institutions.” Political Research Quarterly 49 (2): 445–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kenny, Meryl. 2007. “Gender, Institutions and Power: A Critical Review.” Politics 27 (2): 91100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
King, James D. 2000. “Changes in Professionalism in U.S. State Legislatures.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 25 (2): 327–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
King-Meadows, Tyson, and Schaller, Thomas F.. 2006. Devolution and Black State Legislators: Challenges and Choices in the Twenty-First Century. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
Klarner, Carl. 2013a. “Other Scholars’ Competitiveness Measures.” Harvard Dataverse Network [Distributor] V1 [Version]. http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/22519. Accessed October 5, 2018.Google Scholar
Klarner, Carl. 2013b. “State Partisan Balance Data, 1937–2011.” Harvard Dataverse Network [Distributor] V1 [Version]. http://hdl:1902.1/20403. Accessed October 5, 2018.Google Scholar
Mackay, Fiona, Kenny, Meryl, and Chappell, Louise. 2010. “New Institutionalism Through a Gender Lens: Towards a Feminist Institutionalism?International Political Science Review 31 (5): 573–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mahoney, Anna. 2013. “The Politics of Women's Legislative Caucuses.” Ph.D. diss., Rutgers University.Google Scholar
Mahoney, James, and Thelen, Kathleen, eds. 2010. Explaining Institutional Change: Ambiguity, Agency, and Power. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
McAdam, Doug, McCarthy, John D., and Zald, Mayer N.. 1996. Comparative Perspectives on Social Movements: Political Opportunities, Mobilizing Structures and Cultural Framing. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McCammon, Holly J., Campbell, Karen E., Granberg, Ellen M., and Mowery, Christine. 2001. “How Movements Win: Gendered Opportunity Structures and U.S. Women's Suffrage Movements, 1866 to 1919.” American Sociological Review 66 (1): 4970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Menifield, Charles E., and Shaffer, Stephen D., eds. 2005. Politics in the New South: Representation of African Americans in Southern State Legislatures. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
Mueller, Carol. 1984. “Women's Organizational Strategies in State Legislatures.” In Political Women: Current Roles in State Government, ed. Flammang, Janet A.. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
National Order of Women. n.d. Legislators’ Records. Sophia Smith Collection. Northampton, MA: Smith College.Google Scholar
The New York State Black, Puerto Rican, Hispanic And Asian Legislative Caucus. 2016. “Committee Members.” https://www.nysenate.gov/committees/new-york-state-black-puerto-rican-hispanic-and-asian-legislative-caucus. Published October 1, 2016. Accessed October 5, 2018.Google Scholar
O'Brien, Diana Z. 2015. “Rising to the Top: Gender, Political Performance, and Party Leadership in Parliamentary Democracies.” American Journal of Political Science 59 (4): 1022–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Osborn, Tracy L. 2003. “Institutional Context and Support for a Women's Agenda in State Legislatures.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
Osborn, Tracy L. 2012. How Women Represent Women: Political Parties, Gender, and Representation in the State Legislatures. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reingold, Beth. 2000. Representing Women: Sex, Gender, and Legislative Behavior in Arizona and California. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.Google Scholar
Reingold, Beth, and Schneider, Paige. 2001. “Sex, Gender, and the Status of ‘Women's Issue’ Legislation in the States.” Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, San Francisco.Google Scholar
Ringe, Nils, and Victor, Jennifer N.. 2013. Bridging the Information Gap: Legislative Member Institutions in the US and EU. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rivers, Christina R. 2012. The Congressional Black Caucus, Minority Voting Rights, and the U.S. Supreme Court. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenthal, Alan. 1998. The Decline in Representative Democracy: Process, Participation and Power in State Legislatures. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rosenthal, Alan. 2009. Engines of Democracy: Politics and Policymaking in State Legislatures Washington, DC: CQ Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Smooth, Wendy. 2001. African American Women State Legislators: The Impact of Gender and Race on Legislative Influence. Ph.D. diss. University of Maryland, College Park.Google Scholar
Smooth, Wendy. 2008. “Gender, Race, and the Exercise of Power and Influence.” In Legislative Women. ed. Reingold, Beth, 175–96. Boulder CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
Snyder, James M. Jr., and Groseclose, Tim. 2000. “Estimating Party Influence in Congressional Roll-call Voting.” American Journal of Political Science 44 (2): 193211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sorenson, Georgia. 2000. “Our History.” Women Legislators of Maryland. February 20. http://www.womenlegislatorsmd.org/history.htm#MEETING THE CHALLENGE: 1965–1973. Accessed September 11, 2012.Google Scholar
Squire, Peverill. 2007. “Measuring State Legislative Professionalism: The Squire Index Revisited.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 7 (2): 211–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Squire, Peverill, and Moncrief, Gary. 2010. State Legislatures Today: Politics Under the Domes. Boston: Pearson Education.Google Scholar
Swers, Michele L. 2002. The Difference Women Make: The Policy Impact of Women in Congress. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
Tamerius, Karen. 1995. “Sex, Gender, and Leadership in the Representation of Women.” In Gender, Power, and Leadership and Governance, ed. Duerst-Lahti, Georgia and Kelly, Rita Mae. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
Tate, Katherine. 2014. Concordance: Black Lawmaking in the U.S. Congress from Carter to Obama. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
The Book of the States. Various years. Lexington, KY: The Council of State Governments.Google Scholar
Thomas, Sue. 1991. “The Impact of Women on State Legislative Policies.” Journal of Politics 53 (4): 958–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, Sue. 1994. How Women Legislate. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
Tolbert, C., and Steuernagel, G.. 2001. “Women Lawmakers, State Mandates and Women's Health.” Women and Politics 22 (2): 139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Women Legislators of Maryland. 2016. Our History. http://www.womenlegislatorsmd.org/history.htm. Accessed October 5, 2018.Google Scholar
“Women in State Legislatures 2016.” 2016. Center for American Women and Politics. http://cawp.rutgers.edu/women-state-legislature-2016. Accessed March 3, 2016.Google Scholar
“Women State Legislators: Past, Present and Future.” 2001. Center for American Women and Politics. http://www.cawp.rutgers.edu/research/topics/documents/StLeg2001Report.pdf. Accessed November 5, 2014.Google Scholar
Supplementary material: File

Mahoney and Clark supplementary material

Online Appendix

Download Mahoney and Clark supplementary material(File)
File 158 KB
3
Cited by

Save article to Kindle

To save this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about saving to your Kindle.

Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

When and Where Do Women's Legislative Caucuses Emerge?
Available formats
×

Save article to Dropbox

To save this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about saving content to Dropbox.

When and Where Do Women's Legislative Caucuses Emerge?
Available formats
×

Save article to Google Drive

To save this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you used this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about saving content to Google Drive.

When and Where Do Women's Legislative Caucuses Emerge?
Available formats
×
×

Reply to: Submit a response

Please enter your response.

Your details

Please enter a valid email address.

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *