Adams, Julia, and Padamsee, Tasleem. 2001. “Signs and Regimes: Rereading Feminist Work on Welfare States.” Social Politics 8: 1–23.
Amenta, Edwin. 1993. “The State of the Art in Welfare State Research on Social Spending Efforts in Capitalist Democracies Since 1960.” American Journal of Sociology 99: 750–63.
Anderson, Karen M. 2001. “The Politics of Retrenchment in a Social Democratic Welfare State: Reform of Swedish Pensions and Unemployment Insurance.” Comparative Political Studies 34: 1063–91.
Beck, Nathaniel, and Katz, Jonathan N.. 1995. “What to Do (and Not to Do) with Time-Series Cross-Section Data.” American Political Science Review 89: 634–47.
Bem, Sandra Lipsitz. 1993. The Lenses of Gender. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Berkovitch, Nitza. 1999. “The Emergence and Transformation of the International Women's Movement.” In Constructing World Culture, ed. Boli, John and Thomas, George M.. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 100–26.
Bianchi, Suzanne, Casper, Lynne M., and Peltola, Pia K.. 1999. “A Cross-National Look at Married Women's Earnings Dependency.” Gender Issues 17: 3–33.
Bielby, Denise. 1992. “Commitment to Work and Family.” Annual Review of Sociology 18: 281–302.
Bielby, William, and Bielby, Denise. 1992. “I Will Follow Him: Family Ties, Gender-Role Beliefs, and Reluctance to Relocating for a Better Job.” American Journal of Sociology 97: 1241–67.
Bittman, Michael, England, Paula, Sayer, Liana C., Folbre, Nancy, and Matheson, George. 2003. “When Does Gender Trump Money? Bargaining and Time in Household Work.” American Journal of Sociology 109: 186–214.
Blossfeld, Hans-Peter, De Rose, Alessandra, Hoem, Jan M., and Rohwer, Gotz. 1995. “Education, Modernization, and the Risk of Marriage Disruption in Sweden, West Germany, and Italy.” In Gender and Family Change in Industrialised Countries, ed. Mason, Karen Oppenheim and Jensen, An-Magritt. Oxford: Clarendon, 200–22.
Bolzendahl, Catherine. 2009. “Making the Implicit Explicit: Gender Influences on Social Spending in Twelve Industrialized Democracies, 1980–99.” Social Politics 16: 40–81.
Bolzendahl, Catherine, and Brooks, Clem. 2007. “Women's Political Representation and Welfare State Spending in Twelve Capitalist Democracies.” Social Forces 85: 1509–34.
Bolzendahl, Catherine, and Olafsdottir, Sigrun. 2008. “Gender Group Interest or Gender ideology? Understanding U.S. Support for Family Policy Within the Liberal Welfare Regime.” Sociological Perspectives 51: 281–304.
Brady, David. 2005. “The Welfare State and Relative Poverty in Rich Western Democracies, 1967–1997.” Social Forces 83: 1329–64.
Bratton, Kathleen A., and Ray, Leonard P.. 2002. “Descriptive Representation, Policy Outcomes, and Municipal Day-Care Coverage in Norway.” American Journal of Political Science 46: 428–37.
Brooks, Clem, and Manza, Jeff. 2006. “Why Do Welfare States Persist?” Journal of Politics 68: 816–27.
Brooks, Clem, and Manza, Jeff. 2007. Why Welfare States Persist: The Importance of Public Opinion in Democracies. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Bussemaker, Jet, and van Kersbergen, Kees. 1994. “Gender and Welfare States: Some Theoretical Reflections.” In Gendering Welfare States, ed. Sainsbury, Diane. London: Sage, 9–25.
Bystydzienski, Jill M, ed. 1992. Women Transforming Politics: Worldwide Strategies for Empowerment. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Caiazza, Amy. 2004. “Does Women's Representation in Elected Office Lead to Women-Friendly Policy? Analysis of State-Level Data.” Women & Politics 26: 35–70.
Campbell, Rosie. 2004. “Gender, Ideology and Issue Preference: Is There Such a Thing as a Political Women's Interest in Britain?” British Journal of Politics and International Relations 6: 20–44.
Carroll, Susan J. 2001. “Representing Women: Women State Legislators as Agents of Policy-Related Change.” In The Impact of Women in Public Office, ed. Carroll, Susan J.. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 3–21.
Castles, Francis G. 2002. “Developing New Measures of Welfare State Change and Reform.” European Journal of Political Research 41: 613–41.
Castles, Francis G.. 2004. The Future of the Welfare State: Crisis Myths and Crisis Realities. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Castles, Francis, and Mair, Peter. 1984. “Left-Right Political Scales: Some ‘Expert’ Judgements.” European Journal of Political Research 12: 73–88.
Chappell, Louise. 2002. “The ‘Femocrat’ Strategy: Expanding the Repertoire of Feminist Activists.” Parliamentary Affairs 55: 85–98.
Charles, Maria. 1992. “Cross-National Variation in Occupational Sex Segregation.” American Sociological Review 57: 483–502.
Drobnic, Sonja, Blossfeld, Hans-Peter, and Rohwer, Gotz. 1999. “Dynamics of Women's Employment Patterns over the Family Life Course: A Comparison of the United States and Germany.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 61: 133–46.
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta. 1996. “After the Golden Age? Welfare State Dilemmas in a global Economy.” In Welfare States in Transition: National Adaptations in Global Economies, ed. Esping-Andersen, Gøsta. London: Sage Publications, 1–30.
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta. 2002. “A New Gender Contract.” In Why We Need a New Welfare State, ed. Esping-Andersen, Gøsta, Gallie, Duncan, Hemerijck, Antonand, and Myles, John. London: Oxford University Press, 68–95.
Esping-Andersen, Gøsta, Gallie, Duncan, Hemerijck, Antonand, and Myles, John. 2002. Why We Need a New Welfare State. London: Oxford University Press.
Fraser, Nancy, and Gordon, Linda. 1994. “‘Dependency’ Demystified: Inscriptions of Power in a Keyword of the Welfare State.” Social Politics 1: 4–31.
Fuwa, Makiko. 2004. “Macro-level Gender Inequality and the Division of Household Labor in 22 Countries.” American Sociological Review 69: 751–67.
Gabel, Matthew J., and Huber, John D.. 2000. “Putting Parties in Their Place: Inferring Party Left-Right Ideological Positions from Party Manifestos Data.” American Journal of Political Science 44: 94–103.
Gauthier, Anne Helene. 1998. The State and the Family: A Comparative Analysis of Family Policies in Industrialized Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gornick, Janet C., and Jacobs, Jerry A.. 1996. “A Cross-National Analysis of the Wages of Part-Time Workers: Evidence from the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia.” Work, Employment and Society 10: 1–27.
Gornick, Janet C., and Jacobs, Jerry A.. 1998. “Gender, the Welfare State, and Public Employment: A Comparative Study of Seven Industrialized Countries.” American Sociological Review 63: 688–710.
Gornick, Janet C., and Meyers, Marcia K.. 2005. Families That Work: Policies For Reconciling Parenthood And Employment. New York: Russell Sage.
Gornick, Janet C., Meyers, Marcia K., and Ross, Katherin E.. 1997. “Supporting the Employment of Mothers: Policy Variation Across Fourteen Welfare States.” Journal of European Social Policy 7: 45–70.
Gornick, Janet C., Meyers, Marcia K., and Ross, Katherin E.. 1998. “Public Policies and the Employment of Mothers: A Cross-National Study.” Social Science Quarterly 79: 35–54.
Haas, Linda. 1990. “Gender Equality and Social Policy: Implications of a Study of Parental Leave in Sweden.” Journal of Family Issues 11: 401–26.
Halaby, Charles N. 2004. “Panel Models in Sociological Research: Theory into Practice.” Annual Review of Sociology 30: 507–44.
Haney, Lynne. 1996. “Homeboys, Babies, Men in Suits: The State and the Reproduction of Male Dominance.” American Sociological Review 61: 759–78.
Hernes, Helga. 1984. “Women and the Welfare State: The Transition from Private to Public Dependence.” In Patriarchy in a Welfare Society, ed. Holter, Harriet. Oslo: Universitetsforlag.
Hernes, Helga. 1987. Welfare State and Woman Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hicks, Alexander, and Misra, Joya. 1993. “Political Resources and the Growth of Welfare in Affluent Captialist Democracies, 1960–1982.” American Journal of Sociology 99: 668–710.
Hobson, Barbara. 1993. “Feminist Strategies and Gendered Discourses in Welfare States: Married Women's Right to Work in the United States and Sweden.” In Mothers of a New World: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States, ed. Koven, Seth and Michel, Sonya. New York: Routledge.
Hobson, Barbara, and Lindholm, Marika. 1997. “Collective Identities, Women's Power Resources, and the Making of Welfare States.” Theory and Society 26: 475–508.
Hook, Jennifer. 2006. “Care in Context: Men's Unpaid Work in 20 Countries, 1965–1998.” American Sociological Review 71: 639–60.
Huber, Evelyne, Ragin, Charles, Stephens, John D., Brady, David, and Beckfield, Jason. 2004. “Comparative Welfare States Data Set.” Northwestern University, University of North Carolina, Duke University, and Indiana University.
Huber, Evelyne, and Stephens, John D.. 2000. “Partisan Governance, Women's Employment, and the Social Democratic Service State.” American Sociological Review 65: 323–42.
Huber, Evelyne, and Stephens, John D.. 2001. Development and Crisis of the Welfare State: Parties and Policies in Global Markets. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Iversen, Torben, and Rosenbluth, Frances. 2008. “Work and Power: The Connection Between Female Labor Force Participation and Female Political Representation.” Annual Review of Political Science 11: 479–95.
Jensen, Carsten. 2008. “World of Welfare Services and Transfers.” Journal of European Social Policy 18: 151–62.
Kane, Emily, and Sanchez, Laura. 1994. “Family Status and Criticism of Gender Inequality at Home and at Work.” Social Forces 72: 1079–1102.
Katz, Richard S., and Mair, Peter, eds. 1992. Party Organizations: A Data Handbook. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Katzenstein, Mary Fainsod. 1987. “Comparing the Feminist Movements of the United States and Western Europe: An Overview.” In The Women's Movements of the United States and Western Europe, ed. Katzenstein, Mary Fainso and Mueller, Carol McClurg. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 3–22.
Kilkey, Majella, and Bradshaw, Jonathan. 1999. “Lone Mothers, Economic Well-Being, and Policies.” In Gender and Welfare State Regimes, ed. Sainsbury, Diane. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 147–84.
Kitschelt, Herbert. 1994. The Transformation of European Social Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Klein, Ethel. 1994. “The Diffusion of Consciousness in the United States and Western Europe.” In Different Roles, Different Voices: Women and Politics in the United States and Europe, ed. Githens, Marianne, Norris, Pippa, and Lovenduski, Joni. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers.
Korpi, Walter. 2000. “Faces of Inequality: Gender, Class, and Patterns of Inequalities in Different Types of Welfare States.” Social Politics 7: 127–87.
Korpi, Walter, and Palme, Joakim. 2008. “The Social Citizenship Indicator Program (SCIP).” Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University.
Koven, Seth, and Michel, Sonya. 1993. Mothers of a New World: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States. New York: Routledge.
Leira, Arnlaug. 2002. “Chapter 6. Childcare as a Social Right: Family Change and Policy Reform.” In Working Parents and the Welfare State: Family Change and Policy Reform in Scandinavia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lister, Ruth. 2003. Citizenship: Feminist Perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mason, K., and Jensen, A. M., eds. 1995. Gender and Family Change in Industrialized Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Misra, Joya. 2003. “Women as Agents in Welfare State Development: A Cross-National Analysis of Family Allowance Adoption.” Socio-Economic Review 1: 185–214.
Montanari, Ingalill. 2000. “From Family Wage to Marriage Subsidy and Child Benefits: Controversy and Consensus in the Development of Family Support.” Journal of European Social Policy 10: 307–33.
Morgan, Kimberly J. 2003. “The Politics of Mother's Employment: France in Comparative Perspective.” World Politics 55: 259–89.
Morgan, Kimberly J., and Zippel, Kathrin. 2003. “Paid to Care: The Origins and Effects of Care Leave Policies in Western Europe.” Social Politics 10: 49–85.
Nelson, Moria, and Stephens, John D.. 2008. “Welfare Regimes and Women's Employment.” In The Political Economy of the Service Transition. Trinity College, Dublin: Institute for International Integration Studies.
O'Connor, Julia S., Orloff, Ann Shola, and Shaver, Sheila. 1999. States, Markets, Families: Gender, Liberalism and Social Policy in Australia, Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Orloff, Ann Shola. 1993a. “Gender and the Social Rights of Citizenship: The Comparative Analysis of Gender Relations and Welfare States.” American Sociological Review 58: 303–28.
Orloff, Ann Shola. 1993b. The Politics of Pensions. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.
Orloff, Ann Shola. 2002. “Explaining US welfare reform: power, gender, race and the US policy legacy.” Critical Social Policy 22:96–118.
Pateman, Carol.  1988. Participation and Democratic Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Paxton, Pamela, and Kunovich, Sheri. 2003. “Women's Political Representation: The Importance of Ideology.” Social Forces 82: 87–114.
Pennings, Paul. 1999. “European Social Democracy between Planning and Market: A Comparative Exploration of Trends and Variations.” Journal of European Public Policy 6: 743–56.
Pierson, Paul. 2001. The New Politics of the Welfare State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Plümper, Thomas, and Troeger, Vera E.. 2007. “Efficient Estimation of Time-Invariant and Rarely Changing Variables in Finite Sample Panel Analyses with Unit Fixed Effects.” Political Analysis 15: 124–39.
Plümper, Thomas, Troeger, Vera E., and Manow, Philip. 2005. “Panel Data Analysis in Comparative Politics: Linking Method to Theory.” European Journal of Political Research 44: 327–54.
Powell, Brian, Bolzendahl, Catherine, Geist, Claudia, and Steelman, Lala. 2010. Counted Out: Same-Sex Relations and Americans' Definitions of Family. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Rønsen, Marit, and Sundström, Marianne. 2002. “Family Policy and After-Birth Employment among New Mothers—A Comparison of Finland, Norway and Sweden.” European Journal of Population 18: 121–52.
Rosenfeld, Rachel A., and Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth. 1995. “Women's Part-Time Work: A Cross-National Comparison.” European Sociological Review 11: 111–34.
Rosenfeld, Rachel A., Van Buren, Mark E., and Kalleberg, Arne L.. 1998. “Gender Differences in Supervisory Authority: Variation among Advanced Industrialized Democracies.” Social Science Research 27: 23–49.
Roth, Silke. 2007. “Sisterhood and Solidarity? Womens Organizations in the Expanded European Union.” Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 14: 460–87.
Sainsbury, Diane. 1994. Gendering Welfare States. London: Sage Publications.
Sainsbury, Diane. 1996. Gender, Equality and Welfare States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie A., and Mishler, William. 2005. “An Integrated Model of Women's Representation.” Journal of Politics 67: 407–28.
Scruggs, Lyle. 2004. “Welfare State Entitlements Data Set: A Comparative Institutional Analysis of Eighteen Welfare States, Version 1.2.”
Scruggs, Lyle, and Allan, James. 2006. “Welfare-State Decommodification in 18 OECD Countries: A Replication and Revision.” Journal of European Social Policy 16: 55–72.
Skocpol, Theda. 1992. Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sorensen, Jesper B. 1990. “Perceptions of Women's Opportunity in Five Industrialized Nations.” European Sociological Review 6: 151–64.
Stetson, Dorothy McBride, and Mazur, Amy G.. 1995. Comparative State Feminism. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Stier, Haya, Lewin-Epstein, Noah, and Braun, Michael. 2001. “Welfare Regimes, Family-Supportive Policies, and Women's Employment along the Life-Course.” American Journal of Sociology 106: 1731–60.
Swers, Michele. 1998. “Are Women More Likely to Vote for Women's Issue Bills Than Their Male Colleagues?” Legislative Studies Quarterly 23: 435–48.
Van Echtelt, Patricia, Glebbeek, Arie, Lewis, Suzan, and Lindenbert, Siegwart. 2009. “Post-Fordist Work: A Man's World? Gender and Working Overtime in the Netherlands.” Gender & Society 23: 188–214.
van Kersbergen, Kees. 1995. Social Capitalism: A Study of Christian Democracy and the Welfare State. London: Routledge.
Waring, Marilyn, Greenwood, Gaye, and Pintat, Christine. 2000. “Politics: Women's Insight.” Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
Welch, Susan. 1985. “Are Women More Liberal Than Men in the U.S. Congress?” Legislative Studies Quarterly 10: 125–34.
Wilensky, Harold. 1975. The Welfare State and Equality: Structural and Ideological Roots of Public Expenditures. Berkeley: University of California Press.