Adams Julia, and Padamsee Tasleem. 2001. “Signs and Regimes: Rereading Feminist Work on Welfare States.” Social Politics 8: 1–23.
Amenta Edwin. 1993. “The State of the Art in Welfare State Research on Social Spending Efforts in Capitalist Democracies Since 1960.” American Journal of Sociology 99: 750–63.
Anderson Karen M. 2001. “The Politics of Retrenchment in a Social Democratic Welfare State: Reform of Swedish Pensions and Unemployment Insurance.” Comparative Political Studies 34: 1063–91.
Beck Nathaniel, and Katz Jonathan N.. 1995. “What to Do (and Not to Do) with Time-Series Cross-Section Data.” American Political Science Review 89: 634–47.
Bem Sandra Lipsitz. 1993. The Lenses of Gender. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Berkovitch Nitza. 1999. “The Emergence and Transformation of the International Women's Movement.” In Constructing World Culture, ed. Boli John and Thomas George M.. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 100–26.
Bianchi Suzanne, Casper Lynne M., and Peltola Pia K.. 1999. “A Cross-National Look at Married Women's Earnings Dependency.” Gender Issues 17: 3–33.
Bielby Denise. 1992. “Commitment to Work and Family.” Annual Review of Sociology 18: 281–302.
Bielby William, and Bielby Denise. 1992. “I Will Follow Him: Family Ties, Gender-Role Beliefs, and Reluctance to Relocating for a Better Job.” American Journal of Sociology 97: 1241–67.
Bittman Michael, England Paula, Sayer Liana C., Folbre Nancy, and Matheson George. 2003. “When Does Gender Trump Money? Bargaining and Time in Household Work.” American Journal of Sociology 109: 186–214.
Blossfeld Hans-Peter, De Rose Alessandra, Hoem Jan M., and Rohwer Gotz. 1995. “Education, Modernization, and the Risk of Marriage Disruption in Sweden, West Germany, and Italy.” In Gender and Family Change in Industrialised Countries, ed. Mason Karen Oppenheim and Jensen An-Magritt. Oxford: Clarendon, 200–22.
Bolzendahl Catherine. 2009. “Making the Implicit Explicit: Gender Influences on Social Spending in Twelve Industrialized Democracies, 1980–99.” Social Politics 16: 40–81.
Bolzendahl Catherine, and Brooks Clem. 2007. “Women's Political Representation and Welfare State Spending in Twelve Capitalist Democracies.” Social Forces 85: 1509–34.
Bolzendahl Catherine, and Olafsdottir Sigrun. 2008. “Gender Group Interest or Gender ideology? Understanding U.S. Support for Family Policy Within the Liberal Welfare Regime.” Sociological Perspectives 51: 281–304.
Brady David. 2005. “The Welfare State and Relative Poverty in Rich Western Democracies, 1967–1997.” Social Forces 83: 1329–64.
Bratton Kathleen A., and Ray Leonard P.. 2002. “Descriptive Representation, Policy Outcomes, and Municipal Day-Care Coverage in Norway.” American Journal of Political Science 46: 428–37.
Brooks Clem, and Manza Jeff. 2006. “Why Do Welfare States Persist?” Journal of Politics 68: 816–27.
Brooks Clem, and Manza Jeff. 2007. Why Welfare States Persist: The Importance of Public Opinion in Democracies. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Bussemaker Jet, and van Kersbergen Kees. 1994. “Gender and Welfare States: Some Theoretical Reflections.” In Gendering Welfare States, ed. Sainsbury Diane. London: Sage, 9–25.
Bystydzienski Jill M, ed. 1992. Women Transforming Politics: Worldwide Strategies for Empowerment. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Caiazza Amy. 2004. “Does Women's Representation in Elected Office Lead to Women-Friendly Policy? Analysis of State-Level Data.” Women & Politics 26: 35–70.
Campbell Rosie. 2004. “Gender, Ideology and Issue Preference: Is There Such a Thing as a Political Women's Interest in Britain?” British Journal of Politics and International Relations 6: 20–44.
Carroll Susan J. 2001. “Representing Women: Women State Legislators as Agents of Policy-Related Change.” In The Impact of Women in Public Office, ed. Carroll Susan J.. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 3–21.
Castles Francis G. 2002. “Developing New Measures of Welfare State Change and Reform.” European Journal of Political Research 41: 613–41.
Castles Francis G.. 2004. The Future of the Welfare State: Crisis Myths and Crisis Realities. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Castles Francis, and Mair Peter. 1984. “Left-Right Political Scales: Some ‘Expert’ Judgements.” European Journal of Political Research 12: 73–88.
Chappell Louise. 2002. “The ‘Femocrat’ Strategy: Expanding the Repertoire of Feminist Activists.” Parliamentary Affairs 55: 85–98.
Charles Maria. 1992. “Cross-National Variation in Occupational Sex Segregation.” American Sociological Review 57: 483–502.
Drobnic Sonja, Blossfeld Hans-Peter, and Rohwer Gotz. 1999. “Dynamics of Women's Employment Patterns over the Family Life Course: A Comparison of the United States and Germany.” Journal of Marriage and the Family 61: 133–46.
Esping-Andersen Gøsta. 1996. “After the Golden Age? Welfare State Dilemmas in a global Economy.” In Welfare States in Transition: National Adaptations in Global Economies, ed. Esping-Andersen Gøsta. London: Sage Publications, 1–30.
Esping-Andersen Gøsta. 2002. “A New Gender Contract.” In Why We Need a New Welfare State, ed. Esping-Andersen Gøsta, Gallie Duncan, Hemerijck Antonand, and Myles John. London: Oxford University Press, 68–95.
Esping-Andersen Gøsta, Gallie Duncan, Hemerijck Antonand, and Myles John. 2002. Why We Need a New Welfare State. London: Oxford University Press.
Fraser Nancy, and Gordon Linda. 1994. “‘Dependency’ Demystified: Inscriptions of Power in a Keyword of the Welfare State.” Social Politics 1: 4–31.
Fuwa Makiko. 2004. “Macro-level Gender Inequality and the Division of Household Labor in 22 Countries.” American Sociological Review 69: 751–67.
Gabel Matthew J., and Huber John D.. 2000. “Putting Parties in Their Place: Inferring Party Left-Right Ideological Positions from Party Manifestos Data.” American Journal of Political Science 44: 94–103.
Gauthier Anne Helene. 1998. The State and the Family: A Comparative Analysis of Family Policies in Industrialized Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gornick Janet C., and Jacobs Jerry A.. 1996. “A Cross-National Analysis of the Wages of Part-Time Workers: Evidence from the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia.” Work, Employment and Society 10: 1–27.
Gornick Janet C., and Jacobs Jerry A.. 1998. “Gender, the Welfare State, and Public Employment: A Comparative Study of Seven Industrialized Countries.” American Sociological Review 63: 688–710.
Gornick Janet C., and Meyers Marcia K.. 2005. Families That Work: Policies For Reconciling Parenthood And Employment. New York: Russell Sage.
Gornick Janet C., Meyers Marcia K., and Ross Katherin E.. 1997. “Supporting the Employment of Mothers: Policy Variation Across Fourteen Welfare States.” Journal of European Social Policy 7: 45–70.
Gornick Janet C., Meyers Marcia K., and Ross Katherin E.. 1998. “Public Policies and the Employment of Mothers: A Cross-National Study.” Social Science Quarterly 79: 35–54.
Haas Linda. 1990. “Gender Equality and Social Policy: Implications of a Study of Parental Leave in Sweden.” Journal of Family Issues 11: 401–26.
Halaby Charles N. 2004. “Panel Models in Sociological Research: Theory into Practice.” Annual Review of Sociology 30: 507–44.
Haney Lynne. 1996. “Homeboys, Babies, Men in Suits: The State and the Reproduction of Male Dominance.” American Sociological Review 61: 759–78.
Hernes Helga. 1984. “Women and the Welfare State: The Transition from Private to Public Dependence.” In Patriarchy in a Welfare Society, ed. Holter Harriet. Oslo: Universitetsforlag.
Hernes Helga. 1987. Welfare State and Woman Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hicks Alexander, and Misra Joya. 1993. “Political Resources and the Growth of Welfare in Affluent Captialist Democracies, 1960–1982.” American Journal of Sociology 99: 668–710.
Hobson Barbara. 1993. “Feminist Strategies and Gendered Discourses in Welfare States: Married Women's Right to Work in the United States and Sweden.” In Mothers of a New World: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States, ed. Koven Seth and Michel Sonya. New York: Routledge.
Hobson Barbara, and Lindholm Marika. 1997. “Collective Identities, Women's Power Resources, and the Making of Welfare States.” Theory and Society 26: 475–508.
Hook Jennifer. 2006. “Care in Context: Men's Unpaid Work in 20 Countries, 1965–1998.” American Sociological Review 71: 639–60.
Huber Evelyne, Ragin Charles, Stephens John D., Brady David, and Beckfield Jason. 2004. “Comparative Welfare States Data Set.” Northwestern University, University of North Carolina, Duke University, and Indiana University.
Huber Evelyne, and Stephens John D.. 2000. “Partisan Governance, Women's Employment, and the Social Democratic Service State.” American Sociological Review 65: 323–42.
Huber Evelyne, and Stephens John D.. 2001. Development and Crisis of the Welfare State: Parties and Policies in Global Markets. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Iversen Torben, and Rosenbluth Frances. 2008. “Work and Power: The Connection Between Female Labor Force Participation and Female Political Representation.” Annual Review of Political Science 11: 479–95.
Jensen Carsten. 2008. “World of Welfare Services and Transfers.” Journal of European Social Policy 18: 151–62.
Kane Emily, and Sanchez Laura. 1994. “Family Status and Criticism of Gender Inequality at Home and at Work.” Social Forces 72: 1079–1102.
Katz Richard S., and Mair Peter, eds. 1992. Party Organizations: A Data Handbook. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications.
Katzenstein Mary Fainsod. 1987. “Comparing the Feminist Movements of the United States and Western Europe: An Overview.” In The Women's Movements of the United States and Western Europe, ed. Katzenstein Mary Fainso and Mueller Carol McClurg. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 3–22.
Kilkey Majella, and Bradshaw Jonathan. 1999. “Lone Mothers, Economic Well-Being, and Policies.” In Gender and Welfare State Regimes, ed. Sainsbury Diane. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 147–84.
Kitschelt Herbert. 1994. The Transformation of European Social Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Klein Ethel. 1994. “The Diffusion of Consciousness in the United States and Western Europe.” In Different Roles, Different Voices: Women and Politics in the United States and Europe, ed. Githens Marianne, Norris Pippa, and Lovenduski Joni. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers.
Korpi Walter. 2000. “Faces of Inequality: Gender, Class, and Patterns of Inequalities in Different Types of Welfare States.” Social Politics 7: 127–87.
Korpi Walter, and Palme Joakim. 2008. “The Social Citizenship Indicator Program (SCIP).” Swedish Institute for Social Research, Stockholm University.
Koven Seth, and Michel Sonya. 1993. Mothers of a New World: Maternalist Politics and the Origins of Welfare States. New York: Routledge.
Leira Arnlaug. 2002. “Chapter 6. Childcare as a Social Right: Family Change and Policy Reform.” In Working Parents and the Welfare State: Family Change and Policy Reform in Scandinavia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lister Ruth. 2003. Citizenship: Feminist Perspectives. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Mason K., and Jensen A. M., eds. 1995. Gender and Family Change in Industrialized Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Misra Joya. 2003. “Women as Agents in Welfare State Development: A Cross-National Analysis of Family Allowance Adoption.” Socio-Economic Review 1: 185–214.
Montanari Ingalill. 2000. “From Family Wage to Marriage Subsidy and Child Benefits: Controversy and Consensus in the Development of Family Support.” Journal of European Social Policy 10: 307–33.
Morgan Kimberly J. 2003. “The Politics of Mother's Employment: France in Comparative Perspective.” World Politics 55: 259–89.
Morgan Kimberly J., and Zippel Kathrin. 2003. “Paid to Care: The Origins and Effects of Care Leave Policies in Western Europe.” Social Politics 10: 49–85.
Nelson Moria, and Stephens John D.. 2008. “Welfare Regimes and Women's Employment.” In The Political Economy of the Service Transition. Trinity College, Dublin: Institute for International Integration Studies.
O'Connor Julia S., Orloff Ann Shola, and Shaver Sheila. 1999. States, Markets, Families: Gender, Liberalism and Social Policy in Australia, Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Orloff Ann Shola. 1993a. “Gender and the Social Rights of Citizenship: The Comparative Analysis of Gender Relations and Welfare States.” American Sociological Review 58: 303–28.
Orloff Ann Shola. 1993b. The Politics of Pensions. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press.
Orloff Ann Shola. 2002. “Explaining US welfare reform: power, gender, race and the US policy legacy.” Critical Social Policy 22:96–118.
Pateman Carol.  1988. Participation and Democratic Theory. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Paxton Pamela, and Kunovich Sheri. 2003. “Women's Political Representation: The Importance of Ideology.” Social Forces 82: 87–114.
Pennings Paul. 1999. “European Social Democracy between Planning and Market: A Comparative Exploration of Trends and Variations.” Journal of European Public Policy 6: 743–56.
Pierson Paul. 2001. The New Politics of the Welfare State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Plümper Thomas, and Troeger Vera E.. 2007. “Efficient Estimation of Time-Invariant and Rarely Changing Variables in Finite Sample Panel Analyses with Unit Fixed Effects.” Political Analysis 15: 124–39.
Plümper Thomas, Troeger Vera E., and Manow Philip. 2005. “Panel Data Analysis in Comparative Politics: Linking Method to Theory.” European Journal of Political Research 44: 327–54.
Powell Brian, Bolzendahl Catherine, Geist Claudia, and Steelman Lala. 2010. Counted Out: Same-Sex Relations and Americans' Definitions of Family. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Rønsen Marit, and Sundström Marianne. 2002. “Family Policy and After-Birth Employment among New Mothers—A Comparison of Finland, Norway and Sweden.” European Journal of Population 18: 121–52.
Rosenfeld Rachel A., and Birkelund Gunn Elisabeth. 1995. “Women's Part-Time Work: A Cross-National Comparison.” European Sociological Review 11: 111–34.
Rosenfeld Rachel A., Van Buren Mark E., and Kalleberg Arne L.. 1998. “Gender Differences in Supervisory Authority: Variation among Advanced Industrialized Democracies.” Social Science Research 27: 23–49.
Roth Silke. 2007. “Sisterhood and Solidarity? Womens Organizations in the Expanded European Union.” Social Politics: International Studies in Gender, State & Society 14: 460–87.
Sainsbury Diane. 1994. Gendering Welfare States. London: Sage Publications.
Sainsbury Diane. 1996. Gender, Equality and Welfare States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Schwindt-Bayer Leslie A., and Mishler William. 2005. “An Integrated Model of Women's Representation.” Journal of Politics 67: 407–28.
Scruggs Lyle. 2004. “Welfare State Entitlements Data Set: A Comparative Institutional Analysis of Eighteen Welfare States, Version 1.2.”
Scruggs Lyle, and Allan James. 2006. “Welfare-State Decommodification in 18 OECD Countries: A Replication and Revision.” Journal of European Social Policy 16: 55–72.
Skocpol Theda. 1992. Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Sorensen Jesper B. 1990. “Perceptions of Women's Opportunity in Five Industrialized Nations.” European Sociological Review 6: 151–64.
Stetson Dorothy McBride, and Mazur Amy G.. 1995. Comparative State Feminism. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Stier Haya, Lewin-Epstein Noah, and Braun Michael. 2001. “Welfare Regimes, Family-Supportive Policies, and Women's Employment along the Life-Course.” American Journal of Sociology 106: 1731–60.
Swers Michele. 1998. “Are Women More Likely to Vote for Women's Issue Bills Than Their Male Colleagues?” Legislative Studies Quarterly 23: 435–48.
Van Echtelt Patricia, Glebbeek Arie, Lewis Suzan, and Lindenbert Siegwart. 2009. “Post-Fordist Work: A Man's World? Gender and Working Overtime in the Netherlands.” Gender & Society 23: 188–214.
van Kersbergen Kees. 1995. Social Capitalism: A Study of Christian Democracy and the Welfare State. London: Routledge.
Waring Marilyn, Greenwood Gaye, and Pintat Christine. 2000. “Politics: Women's Insight.” Geneva: Inter-Parliamentary Union.
Welch Susan. 1985. “Are Women More Liberal Than Men in the U.S. Congress?” Legislative Studies Quarterly 10: 125–34.
Wilensky Harold. 1975. The Welfare State and Equality: Structural and Ideological Roots of Public Expenditures. Berkeley: University of California Press.