Skip to main content

Thriving or Dividing? The Women's Movement and the Independence Referenda in Scotland and Catalonia

  • Alba Alonso (a1)
Hide All

I wish to thank Tània Verge, Fiona Mackay, and Karen Celis for their support; the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments; and all the people who kindly agreed to be interviewed for this research.

Hide All
Banaszak, Lee Ann, Beckwith, Karen, and Rucht, Dieter, eds. 2003. Women's Movements Facing the Reconfigured State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Beckwith, Karen. 2007. “Mapping Strategic Engagements: Women's Movement and the State.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 9 (3): 312–38.
Bell, Christine, and Mackay, Fiona. 2013. “Why Should Women Care about Constitutional Debates? And Why Aren't Their Voices Being Heard?” Gender Politics at Edinburgh (blog), February 20. (accessed May 3, 2018).
Boyd, Cat, and Morrison, Jenny. 2014. Scottish Independence: A Feminist Response. Edinburgh: Word Power.
Breitenbach, Esther, and Mackay, Fiona, eds. 2001. Women and Contemporary Scottish Politics: An Anthology. Edinburgh: Polygon.
Brown, Alice. 2001. “Deepening Democracy: Women and the Scottish Parliament.” In Women and Contemporary Scottish Politics: An Anthology, eds. Breitenbach, Esther and Mackay, Fiona. Edinburgh: Polygon, 197212.
Brown, Alice, Donaghy, Tahyna Barnett, Mackay, Fiona, and Meehan, Elizabeth. 2002. “Women and Constitutional Change in Scotland and Northern Ireland.” Parliamentary Affairs 55 (1): 7184.
Bustelo, María, and Ortbals, Candice D.. 2007. “The Evolution of Spanish State Feminism: a Fragmented Landscape.” In Changing State Feminism, eds. Outshoorn, Joyce and Kantola, Johanna. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 201–23.
Celis, Karen, Mackay, Fiona, and Meier, Petra. 2013. “Social Movement Organizations and Changing State Architectures: Comparing Women's Movement Organizing in Flanders and Scotland.” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 43 (1): 4467.
Celis, Karen, and Meier, Petra. 2011. “Activism in Asymmetric Federations: Women's and Sexual Minorities Advocacy in Belgium.” Presented at the European Consortium for Political Research Joint Sessions, University of Saint Gallen, April 1217.
Cruells, Marta, and Ruiz, Sonia. 2014. “Political Intersectionality within the Indignados Social Movement.” In Intersectionality and Social Change, vol. 37, ed. Woehrle, Lynne M.. Bingley: Emerald Group, 325.
Dean, Jonathan, and Aune, Kristin. 2015. “Feminist Resurgent? Mapping Contemporary Feminist Activism in Europe.” Social Movements Studies 14 (4): 375–95.
Del Giorgio, Elena. 2010. “What Has Happened to the Women's Movement? Organisational Dynamics and Trajectories of Feminist Organisations in Milan and Berlin.” PhD diss., European University Institute.
Dobrowolsky, Alexandra. 2002. “Crossing Boundaries: Exploring and Mapping Women's Constitutional Interventions in England, Scotland, and Northern Ireland.” Social Politics 9 (2): 293340.
Dufour, Pascale, and Traisnel, Christophe. 2014. “Nationalism and Protest.” In Group Politics and Social Movements in Canada, ed. Smith, Miriam. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 251–76.
Erk, Jan, and Swenden, Wilfried. 2010. “The New Wave of Federalism Studies.” In New Directions in Federalism Studies, ed. Erk, Jan and Swenden, Wilfried. London: Routledge, 115.
Franceschet, Susan, and Piscopo, Jennifer M.. 2013. “Federalism, Decentralization, and Reproductive Rights in Argentina and Chile.” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 43 (1): 129–50.
García, Joana. 2015. “Feminismos en Tiempos de Resistencias a la Austeridad y Confluencias por la Ruptura con el 78” [Feminisms in times of resistance to austerity and political confluences for breaking with the 78 regime]. Anuario Movimientos Sociales 2014. (accessed May 3, 2018).
Gibernau, Montserrat. 2014. “Prospects for an Independent Catalonia.” International Journal of Political and Cultural Sociology 27 (1): 523.
Gray, Gwen. 2006. “Women, Federalism and Women Friendly Policies.” Australian Journal of Public Administration 65 (1): 2545.
Grey, Sandra, and Sawer, Marian, eds. 2008. Women's Movements: Flourishing or in Abeyance? London: Routledge.
Haussman, Melissa, Sawer, Marian, and Vickers, Jill, eds. 2010. Federalism, Feminism and Multilevel Governance. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Institut de Ciències Politiques i Socials (ICPS). 2014. Sondeig D'Opinió Catalunya [Opinion poll of Catalonia]. Barcelona: ICPS/UAB.
Johns, Robert, Bennie, Lynn, and Mitchell, James. 2011. “Gendered Nationalism: The Gender Gap in Support for the Scottish National Party.” Party Politics 18 (4): 581601.
Keating, Michael. 2012. “Rethinking Sovereignty. Independence-lite, Devolution-max and National Accommodation.” Revista d'Estudis Autonòmics i Federals 16: 929.
Keating, Michael, and Wilson, Alex. 2009. “Renegotiating the State of Autonomies: Statute Reform and Multi-level Politics in Spain.” West European Politics 32 (2): 536–58.
Kenny, Meryl. 2014. “Engendering the Independence Debate.” Scottish Affaires 23 (3): 323–31.
Kriesi, Hanspeter. 2004. “Political Context and Opportunity.” In The Blackwell Companion to Social Movements, eds. Snow, David A., Soule, Sarah A., and Kriesi, Hanspeter. London: Blackwell, 6790.
Liñeira, Robert. 2014. “Ha de ser Escócia un país independent? El debat a dos mesos del referéndum” [Should Scotland be an independent country? Debates two months before the referendum]. Cuaderns de l'ICPS 17, ICPS. (accessed May 3, 2018).
Liñeira, Robert, and Cetrà, Daniel. 2015. “The Independence Case in Comparative Perspective.” Political Quarterly 86 (2): 257–64.
Liñeira, Robert, Muñoz, Jordi, and Rico, Guillem. 2014. “Voters’ Inference of Candidates’ Ideological Orientations across Issue Dimensions.” Presented at the European Consortium for Political Research General Conference, Glasgow, Scotland, September 3–6.
Mackay, Fiona. 2008. “The State of Women's Movement/s in Britain: Ambiguity, Complexity and Challenges from the Periphery.” In Women's Movements: Flourishing or in Abeyance?, eds. Grey, Sandra and Sawer, Marian. London: Routledge, 1732.
Mackay, Fiona. 2010. “Gendering Constitutional Change and Policy Outcomes: Substantive Representation and Domestic Violence Policy in Scotland.” Policy & Politics 38 (3): 369–88.
Mackay, Fiona. 2014. “Nested Newness, Institutional Innovation and the Gender Limits of Change.” Politics & Gender 10 (4): 549–71.
Mackay, Fiona, and McAllister, Laura. 2012. “Feminising British Politics: Six Lessons from Devolution in Scotland and Wales.” Political Quarterly 83 (4): 730–34.
Macwhirter, Iain. 2014. Disunited Kingdom: How Westminster Won a Referendum but Lost Scotland. Edinburgh: Cargo Publishing.
Maillé, Chantal. 2007. “Réception de la théorie postcoloniale dans le féminisme Québécois” [The reception of postcolonial theory in Quebecois feminism]. Les féminismes 20 (2): 91111.
McBride, Dorothy E., and Mazur, Amy. 2008. “Women's Movements, Feminism, and Feminist Movements.” In Politics, Gender and Concepts, eds. Goertz, Gary and Mazur, Amy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 219–43.
McEwen, Nicola. 2005. “The Territorial Politics of Social Policy Development on Multi-level States.” Regional and Federal Studies 15 (4): 537–54.
Mooney, Gerry, and Scott, Gill. 2016. “The 2014 Scottish Independence Debate: Questions of Social Welfare and Social Justice.” Journal of Poverty and Social Justice 23 (1): 516.
Morata, Carles, Ntutumu, Fernando, and Marta Soler, Enric Rodriguez Lleonart i. 2014a. “Parlament al ralentí, tot esperant el desellaç del la transició nacional” [Parliament idling, everyone waiting for the outcome of the national transition]. In Anuari Politic de Catalunya 2013, ed. Marcet, Joan. Barcelona: ICPS, 2142.
Morata, Carles, Ntutumu, Fernando, and Marta Soler, Enric Rodriguez Lleonart i. 2014b. “Entre due aigües: el dret a decidir I el manteniment dels drets socials en temps de crisi” [Between two waters: The right to decide and the protection of social rights in times of crisis]. In Anuari Politic de Catalunya 2013, ed. Marcet, Joan. Barcelona: ICPS, 5970.
Moreno, Luis. 2008. La federalización de España. Poder político y territorio [Federalizing Spain: Political power and territory]. Madrid: Siglo XXI.
Morrison, Jenny. 2015. “Feminist Radicalism? Feminism and the Radical Independence Campaign.” Presented at the Political Studies Association Annual Conference, Sheffield, March 30–April 1.
Muñoz, Jordi, and Guinjoan, Marc. 2013. “Accounting for Internal Variation in Nationalist Mobilization: Unofficial Referendums for Independence in Catalonia (2009–2011).” Nations and Nationalism 19 (1): 4467.
Ormstron, Rachel. 2013. “Why Don't More Women Support Independence? Findings from the Scottish Social Attitudes Survey.” (accessed May 3, 2018).
Outshoorn, Joyce, and Kantola, Johanna, eds. 2007. Changing State Feminism. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Palomares, María, and García, Joana. 2012. Saberes y prácticas feministas. Una aproximación al movimiento feminista de Cataluña [Feminist knowledge and practices: An approach to the feminist movement in Catalonia]. Barcelona: ACSUR.
Rebouché, Rachel, and Fearon, Kate. 2005. “Overlapping Identities: Power Sharing and Women's Rights.” In Power Sharing: New Challenges for Divided Societies, eds. O'Flynn, Ian and Russell, David. London: Pluto Press, 155–71.
Rodó-de-Zárate, María. 2016. “Feminist and Queer Epistemologies beyond the Academia and the Anglophone World: Political Intersectionality and Transfeminism in the Catalan Context.” In The Routledge Research Companion to Geographies of Sex and Sexualities, eds. Brown, Gavin and Browne, Kath. Abingdon: Routledge, 155–64.
Rosie, Michael, and Bond, Ross. 2007. “Social Democratic Scotland?” In Scottish Social Democracy: Progressive Ideas for Public Policy, ed. Keating, Michael. Brussels: Peter Lang, 3958.
Sawer, Marian. 2010. “Premature Obituaries: How Can We Tell If the Women's Movement is Over?Politics & Gender 6 (4): 602–9.
Sawer, Marian, and Vickers, Jill. 2010. “Introduction: Political Architecture and its Gender Impact.” In Federalism, Feminism and Multilevel Governance, eds. Haussman, Melissa, Sawer, Marian, and Vickers, Jill. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 318.
Thapar-Björkert, Suruchi. 2013. “Gender, Nations, and Nationalism.” In The Oxford Handbook of Gender and Politics, eds. Waylen, Georgina, Celis, Karen, Kantola, Johanna, and Weldon, S. Laurel. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 803–27.
Valiente, Celia. 2007. “Are Gender Equality Institutions the Policy Allies of the Feminist Movement? A Contingent ‘Yes’ in the Spanish Central State.” South European Society & Politics 12 (3): 315–34.
Vickers, Jill. 2006. “Bringing Nations In: Some Methodological and Conceptual Issues in Connecting Feminisms with Nationhood and Nationalism.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 8 (1): 84109.
Vickers, Jill. 2010. “A Two-Way Street: Federalism and Women's Politics in Canada and the United States.” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 40 (3): 412–35.
Vickers, Jill. 2011. “Gender and State Architectures: The Impact of Governance Structures on Women's Politics.” Politics & Gender 7 (2): 254–62.
Vickers, Jill. 2013. “Is Federalism Gendered? Incorporating Gender into Studies of Federalism.” Publius: The Journal of Federalism 43 (1): 123.
Vickers, Jill, Chappell, Louise, and Meier, Petra, eds. 2013. Gendering Federalism. Special issue, Publius: The Journal of Federalism 43(1).
Verge, Tània. 2011. “Cuotas de género y reclutamiento político. Análisis del Parlament de Catalunya (1980–2010)” [Gender quotas and political recruitment. Analysis of the Parliament of Catalonia]. Revista Española de Ciencia Política 26: 87104.
Verge, Tània, Guinjoan, Marc, and Rodon, Toni. 2015. “Risk Aversion, Gender and Constitutional Change.” Politics & Gender 11 (3): 499521.
Walby, Sylvia. 2006. “Gender Approaches to Nation and Nationalism.” In The Sage Handbook of Nations and Nationalism, eds. Delanty, Gerard and Kumar, Krishan. London: Sage, 118–28.
Walby, Sylvia. 2011. The Future of Feminism. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Politics & Gender
  • ISSN: 1743-923X
  • EISSN: 1743-9248
  • URL: /core/journals/politics-and-gender
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed