Skip to main content
×
Home

The Trouble with Institutions: How Women's Policy Machineries Can Undermine Women's Mass Participation

  • Erin Hern (a1)
Abstract

It is no secret that men and women continue to have unequal access in democratic systems. In nearly every country for which data exist, women participate less in politics and hold fewer government positions than men (Beauregard 2014). In recent years, analysis of this ongoing problem has taken an institutional turn: feminist institutionalism examines how the formal and informal “rules of the game” create persistent bias against women in office and the advancement of feminist policy agendas (e.g., Krook and Mackay 2011). Such analysis is important and enlightening, but it illuminates only part of the story. An ongoing problem in most democracies is women's lower level of participation: women are less interested in politics, less likely to be active in campaigning, and less likely to contact officials. While women often vote at the same rate as men, their lower rates of political engagement and higher-intensity forms of participation remains to be explained (Coffe and Bolzendahl 2011; Verba, Burns, and Schlozman 1997).

Copyright
References
Hide All
Baldez Lisa. 2003. “Women's Movements and Democratic Transition in Chile, Brazil, East Germany, and Poland.” Comparative Politics 35 (3): 252–72.
Banazak Lee Ann, Beckwith Karen, and Rucht Dieter, eds. 2003. Women's Movements Facing the Reconfigured State. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Beauregard Katherine. 2014. “Gender, Political Participation, and Electoral Systems: A Cross-National Analysis.” European Journal of Political Research 53 (3): 617–34.
Beckwith Karen. 2000. “Beyond Compare? Women's Movements in Comparative Perspective.” European Journal of Political Research 37 (4): 431–68.
Beckwith Karen. 2010. “A Comparative Politics of Gender Symposium Introduction: Comparative Politics and the Logic of a Comparative Politics of Gender.” Perspectives on Politics 8 (1): 159–68.
Bratton Kathleen. 2005Critical Mass Theory Revisited: The Behavior and Success of Token Women in State Legislatures.” Politics & Gender 1 (1): 97125.
Bruch Sarah K., Ferree Myra Marx, and Soss Joe. 2010. “From Policy to Polity: Democracy, Paternalism, and the Incorporation of Disadvantaged Citizens.” American Sociological Review 75 (2): 205–26.
Burns Nancy, Schlozman Kay Lehman, and Verba Sidney. 2000. The Private Roots of Public Action: Gender, Equality, and Political Participation. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Campbell Andrea Louise. 2002. “Self-Interest, Social Security, and the Distinctive Participation Patterns of Senior Citizens.” American Political Science Review 96 (4): 565–74.
Campbell Andrea Louise. 2012. “Policy Makes Mass Politics.” Annual Review of Political Science 15: 333–51.
Chappell Louise. 2000. “Interacting with the State: Feminist Strategies and Political Opportunitites.” Journal of Politics 2 (2): 244–75.
Chappell Louise. 2002. “The Femocrat Strategy: Expanding the Repertoire of Feminist Activists.” Parliamentary Affairs 55 (1): 8598.
Chappell Louise. 2014. “‘New,’ ‘Old,’ and ‘Nested’ Institutions and Gender Justice Outcomes: A View from the International Criminal Court.” Politics & Gender 10 (4): 574–94.
Chappell Louise, and Waylen Georgina. 2013. “Gender and the Hidden Life of Institutions.” Public Administration 91 (3): 599615.
Chauncey George. 1981. “The Locus of Reproduction: Women's Labour on the Zambian Copperbelt, 1927–1953.” Journal of Southern African Studies 7 (2):135–64.
Coffe Hilde, and Bolzendahl Catherine. 2011. “Gender Gaps in Political Participation across Sub-Saharan African Nations.” Social Indicators Research 102 (2): 245–64.
Cooper Frederick. 1996. Decolonization and African Society: The Labor Question in French and British Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Crehan Kate. 1997. The Fractured Community: Landscapes of Power and Gender in Rural Zambia. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Dahlerup Drude. 1988. “From a Small to a Large Minority: Women Scandinavian Politics.” Scandinavian Political Studies 11 (4): 275–98.
Esping-Andersen Gøsta. 1990. The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Friedman Elisabeth. 2000. “State-Based Advocacy for Gender Equality in the Developing World: Assessing the Venezuelan National Women's Agency.” Women and Politics 21 (2): 4780.
Geisler Gisela. 1987. “Sisters under the Skin: Women and the Women's League in Zambia.” Journal of Modern African Studies 25 (1): 4366.
Geisler Gisela. 2004. Women and the Remaking of Politics in Southern Africa: Negotiating Autonomy, Incorporation and Representation. Uppsala: Nordic Africa Institute.
Gidengil Elisabeth. 2004. Citizens. Vancouver: University of Columbia Press.
Gidengil Elisabeth, Hennigar Matthew, Blais Andre, and Nevitte Neil. 2005. “Explaining the Gender Gap in Support for the New Right.” Comparative Political Studies 38 (10): 1171–95.
Goetz Anne Marie, ed. 1997. Getting Institutions Right for Women in Development. London and New York: Zed Books.
Hansen Karen Transberg. 1984. “Negotiating Sex and Gender in Urban Zambia.” Journal of Southern African Studies 10 (2): 219–38.
Herbert Eugenia. 2002. Twilight on the Zambezi: Late Colonialism in Central Africa. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Inglehart Ronald, and Norris Pippa. 2003. Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change Around the World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Jaquette Jane, and Wolchik Sharon L.. 1998. Women and Democracy: Latin American and Central and Eastern Europe. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Jolly Richard. 1971. “An Evaluation of Zambia's First National Development Plan.” In Socioeconomic Development in Dual Economies: The Example of Zambia, ed. Simonis Heide and Simonis Udo Ernst. Munchen: Weltforum Verlag.
Kittilson Miki Caul. 2010. “Comparing Gender, Institutions, and Political Behavior: Toward and Integrated Theoretical Framework.” Perspectives on Politics 8 (1): 217–22.
Kittilson Miki Caul, and Schwindt-Bayer Leslie A.. 2012. The Gendered Effects of Electoral Institutions: Political Engagement and Participation. New York: Oxford University Press.
Krook Mona Lena, and Childs Sarah. 2010. Women, Gender, and Politics: A Reader. New York: Oxford University Press.
Krook Mona Lena, and Mackay Fiona, eds. 2010. Gender, Politics, and Institutions: Towards a Feminist Institutionalism. New York: Palgrave.
Krook Mona Lena, and Mackay Fiona, eds. 2011. Gender, Politics, and Institutions: Towards a Feminist Institutionalism. New York: Palgrave McMillan.
Larmer Miles. 2011. Rethinking African Politics: A History of Opposition in Zambia. Surrey, England: Ashgate Publishers.
Lovenduski Joni, ed. 2005. State Feminism and Political Representation. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Mackay Fiona. 2014. “Nested Newness, Institutional Innovation, and the Gendered Limits of Change.” Politics & Gender 10 (4): 549–71.
Mackay Fiona, and Kenny Meryl. 2009. “Already Doin’ it for Ourselves? Skeptical Notes on Feminism and Institutionalism.” Politics & Gender 5 (2): 271–80.
Mackay Fiona, and Waylen Georgina. 2014. “Introduction: Gendering ‘New’ Institutions.” Politics & Gender 10 (4):489–94.
Mackay Fiona., Kenny Meryl, and Chappell Louise. 2010. “New Institutionalism through a Gender Lens: Towards a Feminist Institutionalism?International Political Science Review 31 (5): 578–88.
MacKinnon Catharine. 1991. Toward a Feminist Theory of the State. Boston: Harvard University Press.
MacLean Lauren. 2010. “State Retrenchment and the Exercise of Citizenship in Africa.” Comparative Political Studies 44 (9):1238–66.
Macola Giacomo. 2006. “‘It Means as If We are Excluded From the Good Freedom’: Thwarted Expectations of Independence in the Luapula Province of Zambia, 1964–6.” Journal of African History 47 (1): 4356.
McBride Dorothy E., and Mazur Amy G.. 2010. The Politics of State Feminism: Innovation in Comparative Research. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Mettler Suzanne, and Soss Joe. 2004. “The Consequences of Public Policy for Democratic Citizenship: Bridging Policy Studies and Mass Politics.” Perspectives on Politics 2 (1): 5573.
Moore Henrietta, and Vaughn Megan. 1994. Cutting Down Trees: Gender, Nutrition, and Agricultural Change in the Northern Province of Zambia. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
Outshoorn Joyce. 1994. “Between Movement and Government: ‘Femocrats’ in the Netherlands.” Annuaire Suisse de Science Politique 34 (1): 141–65.
Outshoorn Joyce, and Kantola Johanna, eds. 2007. Changing State Feminism. New York: Palgrave McMillan.
Parpart Jane. 1988. “Class and Gender on the Copperbelt: Women in Northern Rhodesian Copper Mining Communities, 1926–1964.” In Women and Class in Africa, ed. Robertson Claire and Berger Iris, Lynne Reinner: Boulder, CO.
Phiri Bizeck. 2008. “Gender and Politics: The Zambia National Women's Lobby Group in the 2001 Tripartite Elections.” In One Zambia, Many Histories: Towards a History of Post-Colonial Zambia, ed. Gewald Jan-Bart and Hinfelaar Marja. Leiden, Netherlands:Brill.
Poewe Karla. 1981. Matrilineal Ideology: Male-Female Dynamics in Luapula, Zambia. London: Academic Press.
Rakner Lise, van de Walle Nicolas, and Mulaisho Dominic. 2001. “Zambia.” In Aid and Reform in Africa, ed. Shatayanan Devarajan, Dollar David, and Holmgren Torgny. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Rowbotham Sheila. 1972. Women, Resistance, and Revolution. New York: Pantheon Books.
Sainsbury Diane. 1994. Gendering Welfare States. London: Sage Publications.
Sardanis Andrew. 2003. Africa: Another Side of the Coin: Northern Rhodesia's Final Years and Zambia's Nationhood. London: I.B. Tauris & Co. Ltd.
Schneider Ann, and Ingram Helen. 1993. “Social Construction of Target Populations: Implications for Politics and Policy.” American Political Science Review 87 (2): 334–47.
Schuster Isla Glazer. 1979. New Women of Lusaka. Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield Publishing Company.
Soss Joe. 1999. “Lessons of Welfare: Policy Design, Political Learning, and Political Action.” American Political Science Review 93 (2): 363–80.
Soss Joe. 2007. “A Public Transformed? Welfare Reform as Policy Feedback.” American Political Science Review 101 (1): 111–27.
Stetson Dorothy McBride, and Mazur Amy, eds. 1995. Comparative State Feminism. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Tetreault Mary Ann, ed. 1994. Women and Revolution in Africa, Asia, and the New World. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
Tordoff William, ed. 1979. Administration in Zambia. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Tripp Aili Mari, and Kang Alice. 2008. “The Global Impact of Quotas on the Fast Track to Increased Female Legislative Representation.” Comparative Political Studies 41 (3):338–61.
Tripp Aili, Casimiro Isabel, Kwesiga Joy, and Mungwa Alice. 2009. African Women's Movements: Transforming Political Landscapes. New York: Cambridge University Press.
True Jacqui. 2003. “Mainstreaming Gender in Global Public Policy.” International Feminist Journal of Politics 5 (3): 368–96.
Tordoff William. 1977. “Zambia: The Politics of Disengagement.” African Affairs 76 (302): 6069.
Tordoff William, ed. 1979. Administration in Zambia. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Verba Sidney, Burns Nancy, and Schlozman Kay. 1997. “Knowing and Caring about Politics: Gender and Political Engagement. Journal of Politics 59 (4): 1051–72.
Vickers Jill. 2011. “Gender and State Architectures: The Impact of Governance Structures on Women's Politics.” Politics & Gender 7 (2): 254–62.
Vickers Jill. 2013. “Is Federalism Gendered? Incorporating Gender into Studies of Federalism.” Publius 43 (1):123.
Walsh Denise. 2011. Women's Rights in Democratizing States: Just Debate and Gender Justice in the Public Sphere. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Waylen Georgina. 2007. Engendering Transitions: Women's Mobilization, Institutions, and Gender Outcomes. New York: Oxford University Press.
Waylen Georgina. 2009. “What Can Historical Institutionalism Offer Feminist Institutionalists?Politics & Gender 5 (2): 245–53.
Waylen Georgina. 2014. “A Seat at the Table—Is it Enough? Gender, Multiparty Negotiation, and Institutional Design in South African and Northern Ireland.” Politics & Gender 10 (4): 495523.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Politics & Gender
  • ISSN: 1743-923X
  • EISSN: 1743-9248
  • URL: /core/journals/politics-and-gender
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 24
Total number of PDF views: 103 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 428 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between 14th September 2016 - 23rd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.