Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Understanding the Impact of Electoral Systems on Women's Representation

  • Frank C. Thames (a1)
Abstract

The study of electoral systems is a key area of research within political science. In part, the attention paid to electoral systems reflects their importance to democratic political systems. Electoral systems define “what constitutes” a vote, establish “a rule for how votes are totaled,” and create a mechanism for “translating vote share into seat allocations” for representative institutions (Bawn 1993, 966). These roles mean that electoral systems impact not only how interests are represented, but also how accountability is structured.

Copyright
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

Kristi Andersen , and Stuart Thorson . 1984. “Congressional Turnover and the Election of Women.” The Western Political Quarterly 37 (1): 143–56.

Josephine Andrews , and Robert Jackman . 2005. “Strategic Fools: Electoral Rule Choice under Extreme Uncertainty.” Electoral Studies 24 (1): 6584.

Kathleen Bawn . 1993. “The Logic of Institutional Preferences: German Electoral Law as a Social Choice Outcome.” American Journal of Political Science 37 (4): 965–89.

Kenneth Benoit . 2004. “Models of Electoral System Change.” Electoral Studies 23 (3): 363–89.

Kenneth Benoit , and Jacqueline Hayden . 2004. “Institutional Change and Persistence: The Evolution of Poland's Electoral System, 1989–2001.” Journal of Politics 66 (2): 396427.

Kenneth Benoit , and John Schiemann . 2001. “Institutional Choice in New Democracies: Bargaining over Hungary's 1989 Electoral Law.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 13 (2): 159–88.

Nils-Christian Bormann , and Matt Golder . 2013. “Democratic Electoral Systems around the World.” Electoral Studies 32 (2): 360–69.

David Brady , and Jongryn Mo . 1992. “Electoral Systems and Institutional Choice: A Case Study of the 1988 Korean Elections.” Comparative Political Studies 24 (4): 405–29.

Ernesto Calvo , and Juan Pablo Micozzi . 2005. “The Governor's Backyard: A Seat-Vote Model of Electoral Reform for Subnational Multiparty Races.” Journal of Politics 67 (4): 1050–74.

John Carey , and Matthew Shugart . 1995. “Incentives to Cultivate a Personal Vote: A Rank Ordering of Electoral Formulas.” Electoral Studies 14 (4): 417–39.

Miki Caul . 1999. “Women's Representation in Parliament.” Party Politics 5 (1): 7998.

Miki Caul . 2001. “Political Parties and the Adoption of Candidate Gender Quotas: A Cross-National Analysis.” Journal of Politics 63 (4): 1214–29.

Miki Caul Kittelson , and Leslie Schwindt Bayer . 2012. The Gendered Effects of Political Institutions: Political Engagement and Participation. New York: Oxford University Press.

Karen Celis , Mona Lena Krook , and Petra Meier . 2011. “The Rise of Gender Quota Laws: Expanding the Spectrum of Determinants for Electoral Reform.” West European Politics 34 (3): 514–30.

Jose Antonio Cheibub , Jennifer Gandhi , and James Raymond Vreeland . 2009. “Democracy and Dictatorship Revisited.” Public Choice 143 (1–2): 67101.

Christine Cheng , and Margit Tavits . 2009. “Informal Influences in Selecting Female Political Candidates.” Political Research Quarterly 64 (2): 460–71.

Ray Christensen . 1998. “The Effect of Electoral Reforms on Campaign Practices in Japan: Putting New Wine into Old Bottles.” Asian Survey 38 (10): 9861004.

Brian Crisp , and Rachael Ingall . 2002. “Institutional Engineering and the Nature of Representation: Mapping the Effects of Electoral Reform in Colombia.” American Journal of Political Science 46 (4): 733–48.

Robert Darcy , and James R. Choike . 1986. “A Formal Analysis of Legislative Turnover: Women Candidates and Legislative Representation.” American Journal of Political Science 30 (1): 237–55.

Suzanna De Boef , and Luke Keele . 2008. “Taking Time Seriously.” American Journal of Political Science 52 (1): 184200.

Aldo Di Virgilio , and Steven R. Reed . 2011. “Nominating Candidates under New Rules in Italy and Japan: You Cannot Bargain with Resources You Do Not Have.” In A Natural Experiment on Electoral Law Reform: Evaluating the Long Run Consequences of 1990s Electoral Reform in Italy and Japan, ed. Daniela Giannetti and Bernard Grofman . New York: Springer, 6175.

Mark Donovan . 1995. “The Politics of Electoral Reform in Italy.” International Political Science Review/Revue internationale de science pol 16 (1): 4764.

Patrick Dunleavy , and Helen Margetts . 1995. “Understanding the Dynamics of Electoral Reform.” International Political Science Review 16 (1): 929.

Matt Golder . 2005. “Democratic Electoral Systems around the World, 1946–2000.” Electoral Studies 24 (1): 103–21.

Lucy Goodhart , and Anastasia Xenias . 2012. “Guns and Money in the Open Economy: The Exchange Rate and the Demand for Arms Imports.” International Studies Quarterly 56 (4): 786–92.

Maciej A. Górecki , and Paula Kukołowicz . 2014. “Gender Quotas, Candidate Background and the Election of Women: A Paradox of Gender Quotas in Open-list Proportional Representation Systems.” Electoral Studies 36: 6580.

Magda Hinojosa , and Susan Franceschet . 2012. “Separate but Not Equal: The Effects of Municipal Electoral Reform on Female Representation in Chile.” Political Research Quarterly 65 (4): 758–70.

Ronald Inglehart , and Pippa Norris . 2003. Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kiristof Jacobs , and Monique Leyenaar . 2011. “A Conceptual Framework for Major, Minor, and Technical Electoral Reform.” West European Politics 34 (3): 495513.

Mark P. Jones 2009. “Gender Quotas, Electoral Laws, and the Election of Women.” Comparative Political Studies 42 (1): 5681.

Willy Jou . 2009. “Electoral Reform and Party System Development in Japan and Taiwan: A Comparative Study.” Asian Survey 49 (5): 759–85.

Lane Kenworthy , and Melissa Malami . 1999. “Inequality in Political Representation: A Worldwide Comparative Analysis.” Social Forces 78 (1): 235–68.

James King . 2002. “Single-Member Districts and the Representation of Women in American State Legislatures: The Effects of Electoral System Change.” State Politics & Policy Quarterly 2 (2): 161–75.

Ulrik Kjaer , and Jergen Elklit . 2014. “The Impact of Assembly Size on Representativeness.” Journal of Legislative Studies 20 (2): 156–73.

Mona Lena Krook . 2007. “Candidate Gender Quotas: A Framework for Analysis.” European Journal of Political Research 46 (3): 367–94.

Mona Lena Krook . 2009. Quotas for Women in Politics: Gender and Candidate Selection Reform Worldwide. New York: Oxford University Press.

Sheri Kunovich . 2003. “The Representation of Polish and Czech Women in National Politics: Predicting Electoral List Position.” Comparative Politics 35 (3): 273–91.

Fabrice Edouard Lehoucq . 2000. “Institutionalizing Democracy: Constraint and Ambition in the Politics of Electoral Reform.” Comparative Politics 32 (4): 459–77.

Arend Lijphart . 1994. Electoral Systems and Party Systems: A Study of Twenty-Seven Democracies, 1945–1990. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Richard Matland . 1993. “Institutional Variables Affecting Female Representation in National Legislatures: The Case of Norway.” Journal of Politics 55 (3): 737–57.

Richard Matland . 1998. “Women's Representation in National Legislatures: Developed and Developing Countries.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 23 (1): 109–25.

Richard Matland , and Deborah Dwight Brown . 1992. “District Magnitude's Effect on Female Representation in U. S. State Legislatures.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 17 (4): 469–92.

Richard Matland , and Donley Studlar . 1996. “The Contagion of Women Candidates in Single-Member Districts and Proportional Representation: Canada and Norway.” Journal of Politics 58 (3): 707–33.

Rainbow Murray , Mona Lena Krook , and Katherine A. R. Opello . 2012. “Why are Gender Quotas Adopted? Party Pragmatism and Parity in France.” Political Research Quarterly 65 (3): 529–43.

David Niven . 1998. “Party Elites and Women Candidates.” Women & Politics 19 (2): 5780.

Pippa Norris . 1985. “Women's Legislative Participation in Western Europe.” West European Politics 8 (4): 90101.

Pamela Paxton , and Sherri Kunovich . 2003. “Women's Political Representation: The Importance of Ideology.” Social Forces 82 (1): 87114.

Gideon Rahat . 2004. “The Study of the Politics of Electoral Reform in the 1990s: Theoretical and Methodological Lessons.” Comparative Politics 36(4): 461479.

Gideon Rahat , and Reuven Hazan . 2011. “The Barriers to Electoral System Reform: A Synthesis of Alternative Approaches.” West European Politics 34 (3): 478–94.

Thomas Remington , and Steven Smith . 1996. “Political Goals, Institutional Context, and the Choice of an Electoral System: The Russian Parliamentary Electoral Law.” American Journal of Political Science 40 (4): 545–72.

Alan Renwick . 2010. The Politics of Electoral Reform: Changing the Rules of Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Andrew Roberts , Jason Seawright , and Jennifer Cyr . 2013. “Do Electoral Laws Affect Women's Representation?Comparative Political Studies 46 (12): 1555–81.

Jennifer Rosen . 2012. “The Effects of Political Institutions on Women's Political Representation: A Comparative Analysis of 168 Countries from 1992 to 2010.” Political Research Quarterly 66 (2): 306321.

Wilma Rule . 1981. “Why Women Don't Run: The Critical Contextual Factors in Women's Legislative Recruitment.” Western Political Quarterly 34 (1): 6067.

Wilma Rule . 1987. “Electoral Systems, Contextual Factors, and Women's Opportunity for Election to Parliament in Twenty-Three Democracies.” Western Political Quarterly 40 (3): 477–98.

Wilma Rule . 1990. “Why More Women Are State Legislators. A Research Note.” The Western Political Quarterly 43 (2): 437–48.

Rob Salmond . 2006. “Proportional Representation and Female Parliamentarians.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 31 (2): 175204.

Leslie Schwindt-Bayer , and William Mishler . 2005. “An Integrated Model of Women's Representation.” Journal of Politics 67 (2): 407–28.

Olga Shvetsova . 2003. “Endogenous Selection of Institutions and their Exogenous Effects.” Constitutional Political Economy 14 (3): 191212.

Donley Studlar , and Ian McAllister . 1991. “Political Recruitment to the Australian Legislature: Toward an Explanation of Women's Electoral Disadvantages.” Western Political Quarterly 44 (2): 467–85.

Donley Studlar , and Susan Welch . 1991. “Does District Magnitude Matter? Women Candidates in London Local Elections.” Western Political Quarterly 44 (2): 457–66.

Frank Thames , and Margaret Williams . 2010. “Incentives for Personal Votes and Women's Representation in Legislatures.” Comparative Political Studies 43 (12): 15751600.

Frank Thames , and Margaret Williams . 2013. Contagious Representation: Women's Political Representation in Democracies around the World. New York: New York University Press.

Caroline Tolbert , Daniel Smith , and John Green . 2009. “Strategic Voting and Legislative Redistricting Reform: District and Statewide Representational Winners and Losers.” Political Research Quarterly 62 (1): 92109.

Manon Tremblay , and Rejean Pelletier . 2001. “More Women Constituency Party Presidents: A Strategy for Increasing the Number of Women Candidates in Canada?Party Politics 7 (2): 157190.

Aili Mari Tripp , and Alice Kang . 2008. “The Global Impact of Quotas: On the Fast Track to Increased Female Legislative Representation.” Comparative Political Studies 41 (3): 338–61.

Susan Welch , and Donley Studlar . 1990. “Multi-Member Districts and the Representation of Women: Evidence from Britain and the United States.” Journal of Politics 52 (2): 391412.

Susan Welch , and Donley Studlar . “The Opportunity Structure for Women's Candidacies and Electability in Britain and the United States.” Political Research Quarterly 49 (4): 861–74.

Joakin Westerlund . 2007. “Testing for Error Correction in Panel Data.” Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics 69 (6): 709–48.

Christina Wolbrecht , and David E. Campbell . 2007. “Leading by Example: Female Members of Parliament as Political Role Models.” American Journal of Political Science 51 (4): 921–39.

Mi Yung Yoon . 2004. “Explaining Women's Legislative Representation in Sub-Saharan Africa.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 29 (3): 447–68.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Politics & Gender
  • ISSN: 1743-923X
  • EISSN: 1743-9248
  • URL: /core/journals/politics-and-gender
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 4
Total number of PDF views: 73 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 283 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th June 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.