Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Women as Candidates: An Experimental Study in Turkey

  • Richard E. Matland (a1) and Güneş Murat Tezcür (a1)
Abstract

Patriarchal practices and understandings, especially those based on religious teachings, are seen as serious hindrances to women's access to political power. This obstacle often is seen as greatest in countries where Islam is the dominant religion. This study offers preliminary insights regarding how the sex of political candidates affects voting perceptions and behavior in Turkey, one of the few democratic countries with a Muslim majority population. We designed an experiment in which university students read speeches by candidates from the two major parties (AKP and CHP), randomly varying the sex of the candidates. We find that candidate sex influences respondents' evaluations of areas of competence and perceptions of individual characteristics. It has almost no impact, however, on voting decisions. When it comes to voting, party support and policy stands are vastly more important than candidate sex, even for religiously observant voters.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Arat Yeşim. 2005. Rethinking Islam and Liberal Democracy: Islamist Women in Turkish Politics. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Arat Yeşim.. 1997. “The Project of Modernity and Women in Turkey.” In Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey, ed. Bozdoğan Sibel and Kasaba Reşat. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Aronson Elliot, Ellsworth Phoebe C., Carlsmith J. Merrill, and Gonzales Marti Hope. 1990. Methods of Research in Social Psychology New York: McGraw-Hill.
Banducci Susan, Everitt Joanna, and Gidengil Elisabeth. 2002. “Gender Stereotypes of Political Candidates: A Meta-Analysis.” Presented at the annual meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology, Berlin.
Beaman Lori, Chattopadhyay Raghabendra, Duflo Esther, Pande Rohini, and Topalova Petia. 2009. “Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Prejudice?Quarterly Journal of Economics 124 (4): 14971540.
Berkes Niyazi. 2002. Türkiye'de Çağdaşlaşma [Modernization in Turkey] İstanbul: Yapı Kredi.
Birch Sarah. 2003. “Women and Political Representation in Contemporary Ukraine.” In Women's Access to Political Power in Post Communist Europe, ed. Matland Richard E. and Montgomery Kathleen A.. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Black J. H., and Erickson Lynda. 2003. “Women Candidates and Voter Bias: Do Women Politicians Need to Be Better?Electoral Studies 22: 81100.
Bochel John, and Denver David. 1983. “Candidate Selection in the Labour Party: What the Selectors Seek.” British Journal of Political Science 13: 4569.
Carkoğlu Ali, and Hinich Melvin J.. 2006. “A Spatial Analysis of Turkish Party Preferences.” Electoral Studies 25 (2): 369–92.
Chang Chingching, and Hitchon Jacqueline C. Bush. 2004. “When Does Gender Count? Further Insights into Gender Schematic Processing of Female Candidates' Political Advertisements.” Sex Roles 51 (3/4): 197208.
Darcy R., and Schramm Sarah Slavin. 1977. “When Women Run Against Men.” Public Opinion Quarterly 41: 112.
Darcy R., Welch Susan, and Clark Janet. 1994. Women, Elections, and Representation. 2d ed.Lincoln: Nebraska University Press.
Druckman Jamie, Green Donald P., Kuklinski James H., and Lupia Arthur. 2006. “The Growth and Development of Experimental Research in Political ScienceAmerican Political Science Review 100 (4): 627–35.
Duben Alan, and Behar Cern. 1991. Istanbul Households: Marriage, Family and Fertility 1880–1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fish Steven. 2011. Are Muslims Distinctive? A Look at the Evidence. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gallagher Michael. 1988. “Conclusion.” In Candidate Selection in Comparative Perspective: The Secret Garden of Politics, ed. Gallagher Michael and March Michael. London: Sage.
Gerber Alan S., and Green Donald P.. 2005. “Correction to Gerber and Green (2000), Replications of Disputed Findings, and Reply to Imai (2005).” American Political Science Review 99: 301–13.
Hazan Reuven, and Rahat Gideon. 2010. Democracy Within Parties: Candidate Selection Methods and their Political Consequences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Herrick Rebekah and Sapieva Almira. 1997. “Perception of Women Politicians in Kazakhstan.” Women and Politics 18: 2740.
Huddy Leonie, and Terkildsen Nayda. 1993. “Gender Stereotypes and the Perception of Male and Female Candidates.” American Journal of Political Science. 37: 119–47.
Imai Kosuke. 2005. “Do Get-Out-the-Vote Calls Reduce Turnout? The Importance of Statistical Methods for Field Experiments.” American Political Science Review 99: 283300.
Inglehart Ronald, and Norris Pippa. 2003. Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Jackson John E. 2002. “A Seemingly Unrelated Regression Model for Analyzing Multiparty Elections.” Political Analysis 10 (1): 4965.
KA-DER. 2007. Kota El Kitabı [Quota handbook]. Ankara: Yalçın.
Kahn Kim Fridkin. 1992. “Does Being Male Help? An Investigation of the Effects of Candidate Gender and Campaign Coverage on Evaluations of U.S. Senate Candidates.” Journal of Politics 54: 497517.
Kalaycıoğlu Ersin. 1994. “Elections and Party Preferences in Turkey: Changes and Continuities in the 1990s.” Comparative Political Studies 273 (3): 402–24.
Kili Suna. 1981. Atatürk Devrimi: Bir Çağdaşlaşma Modeli [Ataturk revolution: A model of modernization]. İstanbul: Cumhuriyet.
Koğacıoğlu Dicle. 2004. “Progress, Unity, and Democracy: Dissolving Political Parties in Turkey.” Law & Society Review 38: 433–61.
LeDuc Lawrence, Niemi Richard G., and Norris Pippa. 2010. Comparing Democracies 3: Elections and Voting in the 21st Century. London: Sage.
Leeper Mark S. 1991. “The Impact of Prejudice on Female Candidates: An Experimental Look at Voter Inference.” American Politics Quarterly. 19: 248–61.
Loewenberg Gerhard and Patterson Samuel Charles Patterson. 1979. Comparing Legislatures. Boston: Little, Brown.
Matland Richard E. 1994. “Putting Scandinavian Equality to the Test: An Experimental Evaluation of Gender Stereotyping of Political Candidates in a Sample of Norwegian Voters.” British Journal of Political Science 24 (2): 273–92.
Matland Richard E.. 1998. “Women's Representation in National Legislatures: Developed and Developing Countries.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 23 (1): 109–25.
Matland Richard E.. 2005. “Enhancing Women's Political Participation: Legislative Recruitment and Electoral Systems” in Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers, ed. Karam Azza and Ballington Julie. 2d ed.Stockholm: IDEA.
Matland Richard E., and King David C.. 2002. “Women as Candidates in Congressional Elections.” In Women Transforming Congress, ed. Rosenthal Cindy Simon. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Matland Richard E., and Montgomery Kathleen A., eds. 2003. Women's Access to Political Power in Post-Communist Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McDermott Rose. 2002. “Experimental Methodology in Political Science.” Political Analysis 10 (4): 325–42.
McElroy Gail, and Marsh Michael. 2010. “Candidate Gender and Vote Choice: Analysis from a Multimember Preferential Voting System.” Political Research Quarterly 63 (4): 822–33.
Moser Robert A. 2003. “Electoral Systems and Women's Representation: The Strange Case of Russia.” In Women's Access to Political Power in Post-Communist Europe, Matland Richard E. and Montgomery Kathleen A.. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Norris Pippa. 1985. “Women's Legislative Participation in Western Europe.” West European Politics 8 (4): 90101.
Rekkas Marie 2008. “Gender and Elections: An Examination of the 2006 Canadian Federal Election.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 41: 9871001.
Rule Wilma. 1987. “Electoral Systems, Contextual Factors and Women's Opportunity for Election to Parliament in Twenty-Three Democracies.” Western Political Quarterly 40 (3): 477–98.
Sapiro Virginia. 1981–1982. “If US Senator Baker Were a Woman: An Experimental Study of Candidate Images.” Political Psychology 2: 6183.
Sayarı Sabri, and Esmer Yilmaz, eds. 2002. Politics, Parties, and Elections in Turkey. Boulder, Co.: Lynne Rienner.
Schwindt-Bayer Leslie, Malecki Michael, and Crisp Brian F.. 2010. “Candidate Gender and Electoral Success in Single Transferable Vote Systems.” British Journal of Political Science 40: 693709.
Seltzer Richard, Newman Jody, and Leighton Melissa Voorhees. 1997. Sex as a Political Variable: Women as Candidates and Voters in U.S. Elections. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reiner.
Sieminenska Renata. 2003. “Women in the Polish Sejm: Political Culture and Party Policies versus Electoral Rules.” In Women's Access to Political Power in Post-Communist Europe, ed. Matland Richard E. and Montgomery Kathleen A.. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tezcür Güneş Murat. 2010. “The Moderation Theory Revisited: The Case of Islamic Political Actors.” Party Politics 16 (1): 6988.
Tomz Michael, Tucker Joshua A., and Wittenberg Jason. 2002. “An Easy and Accurate Regression Model for Multiparty Electoral Data.” Political Analysis 10 (1): 6683.
Valen Henry. 1988. “Norway: Decentralization and Group Representation.” In Candidate Selection in Comparative Perspective: The Secret Garden of Politics, ed. Gallagher Michael and March Michael. London: Sage.
Welch Susan, and Studlar Donley T.. 1986. “British Public Opinion toward Women in Politics: A Comparative Perspective.” Western Political Quarterly 39: 138–52.
White Jenny. 2003a. “State Feminism, Modernization, and the Turkish Republican Woman.” National Women's Studies Association Journal 15 (3): 145–59.
White Jenny.. 2003b. Islamist Mobilization in Turkey: A Study in Vernacular Politics. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Williams John E., and Best Deborah L.. 1990. Measuring Sex Stereotypes: A Multination Study New York: Sage.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Politics & Gender
  • ISSN: 1743-923X
  • EISSN: 1743-9248
  • URL: /core/journals/politics-and-gender
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 3
Total number of PDF views: 76 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 247 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 25th February 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.