Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Women as Candidates: An Experimental Study in Turkey

  • Richard E. Matland (a1) and Güneş Murat Tezcür (a1)
Abstract

Patriarchal practices and understandings, especially those based on religious teachings, are seen as serious hindrances to women's access to political power. This obstacle often is seen as greatest in countries where Islam is the dominant religion. This study offers preliminary insights regarding how the sex of political candidates affects voting perceptions and behavior in Turkey, one of the few democratic countries with a Muslim majority population. We designed an experiment in which university students read speeches by candidates from the two major parties (AKP and CHP), randomly varying the sex of the candidates. We find that candidate sex influences respondents' evaluations of areas of competence and perceptions of individual characteristics. It has almost no impact, however, on voting decisions. When it comes to voting, party support and policy stands are vastly more important than candidate sex, even for religiously observant voters.

Copyright
References
Hide All
Arat, Yeşim. 2005. Rethinking Islam and Liberal Democracy: Islamist Women in Turkish Politics. Albany: State University of New York Press.
Arat, Yeşim.. 1997. “The Project of Modernity and Women in Turkey.” In Rethinking Modernity and National Identity in Turkey, ed. Bozdoğan, Sibel and Kasaba, Reşat. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Aronson, Elliot, Ellsworth, Phoebe C., Carlsmith, J. Merrill, and Gonzales, Marti Hope. 1990. Methods of Research in Social Psychology New York: McGraw-Hill.
Banducci, Susan, Everitt, Joanna, and Gidengil, Elisabeth. 2002. “Gender Stereotypes of Political Candidates: A Meta-Analysis.” Presented at the annual meeting of the International Society of Political Psychology, Berlin.
Beaman, Lori, Chattopadhyay, Raghabendra, Duflo, Esther, Pande, Rohini, and Topalova, Petia. 2009. “Powerful Women: Does Exposure Reduce Prejudice?Quarterly Journal of Economics 124 (4): 14971540.
Berkes, Niyazi. 2002. Türkiye'de Çağdaşlaşma [Modernization in Turkey] İstanbul: Yapı Kredi.
Birch, Sarah. 2003. “Women and Political Representation in Contemporary Ukraine.” In Women's Access to Political Power in Post Communist Europe, ed. Matland, Richard E. and Montgomery, Kathleen A.. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Black, J. H., and Erickson, Lynda. 2003. “Women Candidates and Voter Bias: Do Women Politicians Need to Be Better?Electoral Studies 22: 81100.
Bochel, John, and Denver, David. 1983. “Candidate Selection in the Labour Party: What the Selectors Seek.” British Journal of Political Science 13: 4569.
Carkoğlu, Ali, and Hinich, Melvin J.. 2006. “A Spatial Analysis of Turkish Party Preferences.” Electoral Studies 25 (2): 369–92.
Chang, Chingching, and Hitchon, Jacqueline C. Bush. 2004. “When Does Gender Count? Further Insights into Gender Schematic Processing of Female Candidates' Political Advertisements.” Sex Roles 51 (3/4): 197208.
Darcy, R., and Schramm, Sarah Slavin. 1977. “When Women Run Against Men.” Public Opinion Quarterly 41: 112.
Darcy, R., Welch, Susan, and Clark, Janet. 1994. Women, Elections, and Representation. 2d ed.Lincoln: Nebraska University Press.
Druckman, Jamie, Green, Donald P., Kuklinski, James H., and Lupia, Arthur. 2006. “The Growth and Development of Experimental Research in Political ScienceAmerican Political Science Review 100 (4): 627–35.
Duben, Alan, and Behar, Cern. 1991. Istanbul Households: Marriage, Family and Fertility 1880–1940. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fish, Steven. 2011. Are Muslims Distinctive? A Look at the Evidence. New York: Oxford University Press.
Gallagher, Michael. 1988. “Conclusion.” In Candidate Selection in Comparative Perspective: The Secret Garden of Politics, ed. Gallagher, Michael and March, Michael. London: Sage.
Gerber, Alan S., and Green, Donald P.. 2005. “Correction to Gerber and Green (2000), Replications of Disputed Findings, and Reply to Imai (2005).” American Political Science Review 99: 301–13.
Hazan, Reuven, and Rahat, Gideon. 2010. Democracy Within Parties: Candidate Selection Methods and their Political Consequences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Herrick, Rebekah and Sapieva, Almira. 1997. “Perception of Women Politicians in Kazakhstan.” Women and Politics 18: 2740.
Huddy, Leonie, and Terkildsen, Nayda. 1993. “Gender Stereotypes and the Perception of Male and Female Candidates.” American Journal of Political Science. 37: 119–47.
Imai, Kosuke. 2005. “Do Get-Out-the-Vote Calls Reduce Turnout? The Importance of Statistical Methods for Field Experiments.” American Political Science Review 99: 283300.
Inglehart, Ronald, and Norris, Pippa. 2003. Rising Tide: Gender Equality and Cultural Change. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Jackson, John E. 2002. “A Seemingly Unrelated Regression Model for Analyzing Multiparty Elections.” Political Analysis 10 (1): 4965.
KA-DER. 2007. Kota El Kitabı [Quota handbook]. Ankara: Yalçın.
Kahn, Kim Fridkin. 1992. “Does Being Male Help? An Investigation of the Effects of Candidate Gender and Campaign Coverage on Evaluations of U.S. Senate Candidates.” Journal of Politics 54: 497517.
Kalaycıoğlu, Ersin. 1994. “Elections and Party Preferences in Turkey: Changes and Continuities in the 1990s.” Comparative Political Studies 273 (3): 402–24.
Kili, Suna. 1981. Atatürk Devrimi: Bir Çağdaşlaşma Modeli [Ataturk revolution: A model of modernization]. İstanbul: Cumhuriyet.
Koğacıoğlu, Dicle. 2004. “Progress, Unity, and Democracy: Dissolving Political Parties in Turkey.” Law & Society Review 38: 433–61.
LeDuc, Lawrence, Niemi, Richard G., and Norris, Pippa. 2010. Comparing Democracies 3: Elections and Voting in the 21st Century. London: Sage.
Leeper, Mark S. 1991. “The Impact of Prejudice on Female Candidates: An Experimental Look at Voter Inference.” American Politics Quarterly. 19: 248–61.
Loewenberg, Gerhard and Patterson, Samuel Charles Patterson. 1979. Comparing Legislatures. Boston: Little, Brown.
Matland, Richard E. 1994. “Putting Scandinavian Equality to the Test: An Experimental Evaluation of Gender Stereotyping of Political Candidates in a Sample of Norwegian Voters.” British Journal of Political Science 24 (2): 273–92.
Matland, Richard E.. 1998. “Women's Representation in National Legislatures: Developed and Developing Countries.” Legislative Studies Quarterly 23 (1): 109–25.
Matland, Richard E.. 2005. “Enhancing Women's Political Participation: Legislative Recruitment and Electoral Systems” in Women in Parliament: Beyond Numbers, ed. Karam, Azza and Ballington, Julie. 2d ed.Stockholm: IDEA.
Matland, Richard E., and King, David C.. 2002. “Women as Candidates in Congressional Elections.” In Women Transforming Congress, ed. Rosenthal, Cindy Simon. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.
Matland, Richard E., and Montgomery, Kathleen A., eds. 2003. Women's Access to Political Power in Post-Communist Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
McDermott, Rose. 2002. “Experimental Methodology in Political Science.” Political Analysis 10 (4): 325–42.
McElroy, Gail, and Marsh, Michael. 2010. “Candidate Gender and Vote Choice: Analysis from a Multimember Preferential Voting System.” Political Research Quarterly 63 (4): 822–33.
Moser, Robert A. 2003. “Electoral Systems and Women's Representation: The Strange Case of Russia.” In Women's Access to Political Power in Post-Communist Europe, Matland, Richard E. and Montgomery, Kathleen A.. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Norris, Pippa. 1985. “Women's Legislative Participation in Western Europe.” West European Politics 8 (4): 90101.
Rekkas, Marie 2008. “Gender and Elections: An Examination of the 2006 Canadian Federal Election.” Canadian Journal of Political Science 41: 9871001.
Rule, Wilma. 1987. “Electoral Systems, Contextual Factors and Women's Opportunity for Election to Parliament in Twenty-Three Democracies.” Western Political Quarterly 40 (3): 477–98.
Sapiro, Virginia. 1981–1982. “If US Senator Baker Were a Woman: An Experimental Study of Candidate Images.” Political Psychology 2: 6183.
Sayarı, Sabri, and Esmer, Yilmaz, eds. 2002. Politics, Parties, and Elections in Turkey. Boulder, Co.: Lynne Rienner.
Schwindt-Bayer, Leslie, Malecki, Michael, and Crisp, Brian F.. 2010. “Candidate Gender and Electoral Success in Single Transferable Vote Systems.” British Journal of Political Science 40: 693709.
Seltzer, Richard, Newman, Jody, and Leighton, Melissa Voorhees. 1997. Sex as a Political Variable: Women as Candidates and Voters in U.S. Elections. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reiner.
Sieminenska, Renata. 2003. “Women in the Polish Sejm: Political Culture and Party Policies versus Electoral Rules.” In Women's Access to Political Power in Post-Communist Europe, ed. Matland, Richard E. and Montgomery, Kathleen A.. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Tezcür, Güneş Murat. 2010. “The Moderation Theory Revisited: The Case of Islamic Political Actors.” Party Politics 16 (1): 6988.
Tomz, Michael, Tucker, Joshua A., and Wittenberg, Jason. 2002. “An Easy and Accurate Regression Model for Multiparty Electoral Data.” Political Analysis 10 (1): 6683.
Valen, Henry. 1988. “Norway: Decentralization and Group Representation.” In Candidate Selection in Comparative Perspective: The Secret Garden of Politics, ed. Gallagher, Michael and March, Michael. London: Sage.
Welch, Susan, and Studlar, Donley T.. 1986. “British Public Opinion toward Women in Politics: A Comparative Perspective.” Western Political Quarterly 39: 138–52.
White, Jenny. 2003a. “State Feminism, Modernization, and the Turkish Republican Woman.” National Women's Studies Association Journal 15 (3): 145–59.
White, Jenny.. 2003b. Islamist Mobilization in Turkey: A Study in Vernacular Politics. Seattle: University of Washington Press.
Williams, John E., and Best, Deborah L.. 1990. Measuring Sex Stereotypes: A Multination Study New York: Sage.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Politics & Gender
  • ISSN: 1743-923X
  • EISSN: 1743-9248
  • URL: /core/journals/politics-and-gender
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Metrics

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 314 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd July 2018. This data will be updated every 24 hours.