Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa
  • Get access
    Check if you have access via personal or institutional login
  • Cited by 1
  • Cited by
    This article has been cited by the following publications. This list is generated based on data provided by CrossRef.

    Wiwanitkit, Somsri and Wiwanitkit, Viroj 2015. Tropical disease after earthquake: 2015 Nepal earthquake. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, Vol. 5, Issue. 7, p. 586.


    ×

Association Between Earthquake Events and Cholera Outbreaks: A Cross-country 15-year Longitudinal Analysis

  • Steven A. Sumner (a1) (a2), Elizabeth L. Turner (a1) (a3) and Nathan M. Thielman (a1) (a2) (a4)
  • DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1049023X13008984
  • Published online: 29 October 2013
Abstract
AbstractIntroduction

Large earthquakes can cause population displacement, critical sanitation infrastructure damage, and increased threats to water resources, potentially predisposing populations to waterborne disease epidemics such as cholera.

Problem

The risk of cholera outbreaks after earthquake disasters remains uncertain. A cross-country analysis of World Health Organization (WHO) cholera data that would contribute to this discussion has yet to be published.

Methods

A cross-country longitudinal analysis was conducted among 63 low- and middle-income countries from 1995-2009. The association between earthquake disasters of various effect sizes and a relative spike in cholera rates for a given country was assessed utilizing fixed-effects logistic regression and adjusting for gross domestic product per capita, water and sanitation level, flooding events, percent urbanization, and under-five child mortality. Also, the association between large earthquakes and cholera rate increases of various degrees was assessed.

Results

Forty-eight of the 63 countries had at least one year with reported cholera infections during the 15-year study period. Thirty-six of these 48 countries had at least one earthquake disaster. In adjusted analyses, country-years with ≥10,000 persons affected by an earthquake had 2.26 times increased odds (95 CI, 0.89-5.72, P = .08) of having a greater than average cholera rate that year compared to country-years having <10,000 individuals affected by an earthquake. The association between large earthquake disasters and cholera infections appeared to weaken as higher levels of cholera rate increases were tested.

Conclusion

A trend of increased risk of greater than average cholera rates when more people were affected by an earthquake in a country-year was noted. However these findings did not reach statistical significance at traditional levels and may be due to chance. Frequent large-scale cholera outbreaks after earthquake disasters appeared to be relatively uncommon.

SumnerS, TurnerE, ThielmanN. Association Between Earthquake Events and Cholera Outbreaks: A Cross-country 15-year Longitudinal Analysis. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(6):1-6.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence: Steven Sumner, MD Hubert-Yeargan Center 310 Trent Drive, Rm 202 Duke Box 90518 Durham, NC 27708 USA E-mail steven.sumner@duke.edu
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

4.V Wiwanitkit . Vaccination in a post earthquake crisis. Hum Vaccin. 2010;6(7):595-596.

5.JT Watson , M Gayer , MA Connolly . Epidemics after natural disasters. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13(1):1-5.

6.C de Ville de Goyet . Stop propagating disaster myths. Lancet. 2000;356:762-764.

7.N Floret , JF Viel , F Mauny , B Hoen , R Piarroux . Negligible risk for epidemics after geophysical disasters. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12(4):543-548.

10.DA Walton , LC Ivers . Responding to cholera in post-earthquake Haiti. N Engl J Med. 2001;364(1):3-5.

19.RJ Borroto , R Martinez-Piedra . Geographical patterns of cholera in Mexico, 1991-1996. Int J Epidemiol. 2000;29(4):764-772.

24.J Ludwig , PJ Cook . Homicide and suicide rates associated with implementation of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act. JAMA. 2000;284(5):585-591.

S Sumner , E Turner , N Thielman . Association between earthquake events and cholera outbreaks: a cross-country 15-year longitudinal analysis. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(6):1-6

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
  • ISSN: 1049-023X
  • EISSN: 1945-1938
  • URL: /core/journals/prehospital-and-disaster-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: