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Factors Associated with Workplace Violence in Paramedics

  • Stella Koritsas (a1), Malcolm Boyle (a2) and Jan Coles (a3)

The majority of research that has explored workplace violence has focused on establishing the prevalence of violence in different settings. In general, there is a paucity of research that explores factors that may predict or increase the risk of experiencing violence in the workplace.


The aim of this research was to determine predictors of violence for paramedics.


A questionnaire was developed that focused on paramedics' experi-ences with six forms of violence: verbal abuse, property damage/theft, intimi-dation, physical abuse, sexual harassment, and sexual assault.The questionnaire was distributed randomly to paramedics throughout rural Victoria and metropolitan South Australia, and completed and returned anonymously.


Predictors emerged for verbal abuse, intimidation, sexual harassment, and sexual abuse. Specifically, gender was the only predictor of intimidation, sexual harassment, and sexual assault. Paramedic qualifications, how they responded to a call-out, and hours per week in direct patient contact emerged as a predictor of verbal abuse.


Certain factors predict or predispose paramedics to workplace violence. The need for workplace violence education and training is impera-tive for the prevention of violence, as well as for its management.

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Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
  • ISSN: 1049-023X
  • EISSN: 1945-1938
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