Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

Hospital Disaster Preparedness as Measured by Functional Capacity: a Comparison between Iran and Sweden

  • Ahmadreza Djalali (a1) (a2), Maaret Castren (a3), Hamidreza Khankeh (a1) (a4), Dan Gryth (a5), Monica Radestad (a3), Gunnar Öhlen (a6) and Lisa Kurland (a3)...
Abstract
Introduction

Hospitals are expected to continue to provide medical care during disasters. However, they often fail to function under these circumstances. Vulnerability to disasters has been shown to be related to the socioeconomic level of a country. This study compares hospital preparedness, as measured by functional capacity, between Iran and Sweden.

Methods

Hospital affiliation and size, and type of hazards, were compared between Iran and Sweden. The functional capacity was evaluated and calculated using the Hospital Safety Index (HSI) from the World Health Organization. The level and value of each element was determined, in consensus, by a group of evaluators. The sum of the elements for each sub-module led to a total sum, in turn, categorizing the functional capacity into one of three categories: A) functional; B) at risk; or C) inadequate.

Results

The Swedish hospitals (n = 4) were all level A, while the Iranian hospitals (n = 5) were all categorized as level B, with respect to functional capacity. A lack of contingency plans and the availability of resources were weaknesses of hospital preparedness. There was no association between the level of hospital preparedness and hospital affiliation or size for either country.

Conclusion

The results suggest that the level of hospital preparedness, as measured by functional capacity, is related to the socioeconomic level of the country. The challenge is therefore to enhance hospital preparedness in countries with a weaker economy, since all hospitals need to be prepared for a disaster. There is also room for improvement in more affluent countries.

DjalaliA, CastrenM, KhankehH, GrythD, RadestadM, OhlenG, KurlandL. Hospital Disaster Preparedness as Measured by Functional Capacity: a Comparison between Iran and Sweden. Prehosp Disaster Med.2013;28(5):1-8.

Copyright
Corresponding author
Correspondence: Ahmadreza Djalali, MD, EMDM, PhD CRIMEDIM - Center for Research and Education in Emergency and Disaster Medicine Università degli Studi del Piemonte Orientale Via Lanino 1 28100 Novara, Italy E-mail arj6976@gmail.com
References
Hide All
1.Top, M, Gider, Ö, Tas, Y. An investigation of hospital disaster preparedness in Turkey. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management. 2010;7(1): Article 69.
2.Barbera, JA, Yeatts, DJ, Macintyre, AG. Challenge of hospital emergency preparedness: analysis and recommendations. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009;3(2 Suppl):S74-S82.
3.Sauer, LM, McCarthy, ML, Knebel, A, Brewster, P. Major influences on hospital emergency management and disaster preparedness. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009;3(2 Suppl):S68-S73.
4.Adini, B, Goldberg, A, Laor, D, Cohen, R, Zadok, R, Bar-Dayan, Y. Assessing levels of hospital emergency preparedness. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2006;21(6):451-457.
5.Lazar, EJ, Cagliuso, NV Sr, Gebbie, KM. Are we ready and how do we know? The urgent need for performance metrics in hospital emergency management. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2009;3(1):57-60.
6.Higgins, W, Wainright, C, Liu, N, Carrico, R. Assessing hospital preparedness using an instrument based on the mass casualty disaster plan checklist: results of a statewide survey. Am J Infect Control. 2004;32(6):327-332.
7.Kaji, AH, Lewis, RJ. Hospital disaster preparedness in Los Angeles County. Acad Emerg Med. 2006;13(11):1198-1203.
8.Kaji, AH, Langford, V, Lewis, RJ. Assessing hospital disaster preparedness: a comparison of an on-site survey, directly observed drill performance, and video analysis of teamwork. Ann Emerg Med. 2008;52(3):195-201.
9. Hospital safety index: guide for evaluators. World Health Organization. 2008. http://www.paho.org/english/dd/ped/SafeHosEvaluatorGuideEng.pdf. Accessed June 2010.
10.Kollek, D, Cwinn, AA. Hospital emergency readiness overview study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2011;26(3):1-7.
11.Crosse, M, Bogart, G, Cohen, J, et al. Hospital preparedness: most urban hospitals have emergency plans but lack certain capabilities for bioterrorism response. 2003. Washington, DC: General Accounting Office. http://www.gao.gov/new.items/d03924.pdf. Accessed March 2012.
12.Leiba, A, Ashkenasi, I, Nakash, G, et al. Response of Thai hospitals to the tsunami disaster. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2006;21(1):s32-s37.
13.Djalali, A, Castren, M, Hosseinijenab, V, Khatib, M, Ohlen, G, Kurland, L. Hospital Incident Command System (HICS) performance in Iran: decision making during disasters. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2012;6;20(1):14.
14. Health sector response to Bam earthquake: lessons learnt. World Health Organization; 2005. http://www.emro.who.int/publications/Book_Details.asp?ID=195. Accessed November 2010.
15.Cavallo, E, Noy, I. The economics of natural disasters. 2010. http://www.iadb.org/res/publications/pubfiles/pubIDB-WP-124.pdf. Accessed January 2012.
16.Djalali, A, Khankeh, H, Öhlén, G, Castren, M, Kurland, L. Facilitators and obstacles in pre-hospital medical response to earthquakes: a qualitative study. Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med. 2011;16;19:30.
17.de Ville de Goyet, C. Health lessons learned from the recent earthquakes and tsunami in Asia. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2007;22(1):15-21.
18.Milch, K, Gorokhovich, Y, Doocy, S. Effects of seismic intensity and socioeconomic status on injury and displacement after the 2007 Peru earthquake. Disasters. 2010;34(4):1171-1182.
19.Patt, AG, Tadross, M, Nussbaumer, P, et al. Estimating least-developed countries’ vulnerability to climate-related extreme events over the next 50 years. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2010;26;107(4):1333-1337.
20.Brouwer, R, Akter, S, Brander, L, Haque, E. Socioeconomic vulnerability and adaptation to environmental risk: a case study of climate change and flooding in Bangladesh. Risk Anal. 2007;27(2):313-326.
21.Ransom, MM, Goodman, RA, Moulton, AD. Addressing gaps in health care sector legal preparedness for public health emergencies. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2008;2(1):50-56.
22. Country and lending groups by income. The World Bank. http://data.worldbank.org/about/country-classifications/country-and-lending-groups. Accessed November 2011.
23. EM-DAT. The international disaster database. http://www.emdat.be/. Accessed December 2011.
24. Sweden disaster statistics from 1980-2010. Prevention web. http://www.preventionweb.net/english/countries/statistics/?cid=166. Accessed January 2012.
25. National report of the Islamic Republic of Iran on disaster reduction. World conference on disaster reduction. January 18-22, 2005. Kobe, Hyogo, Japan 2005. http://www.unisdr.org/eng/mdgs-drr/national-reports/Iran-report.pdf. Accessed November 2010.
26.Djalali, A, Hosseinijenab, V, Hasani, A, et al. A fundamental, national, disaster management plan: an education based model. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2009;24(6):565-569.
27. Iran disaster statistics from 1980-2010. Prevention web. http://www.preventionweb.net/english/countries/statistics/?cid=81. Accessed January 2012.
28. Matthew E. Kahn. The death toll from natural disasters: the role of income, geography, and institutions. 2003. http://elsa.berkeley.edu/users/webfac/quigley/e231_f03/kahn.pdf. Accessed December 2011.
29.Ginter, PM, Duncan, WJ, Abdolrasulnia, M. Hospital strategic preparedness planning: the new imperative. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2007;22(6):529-536.
30.Maldin, B, Lam, C, Franco, C, et al. Regional approaches to hospital preparedness. Biosecur Bioterror. 2007;5(1):43-53.
31.Niska, RW, Shimizu, IM. Hospital preparedness for emergency response: United States, 2008. Natl Health Stat Report. 2011;24(37):1-14.
32.Li, X, Huang, J, Zhang, H. An analysis of hospital preparedness capacity for public health emergency in four regions of China: Beijing, Shandong, Guangxi, and Hainan. BMC Public Health. 2008;20(8):319.
33. A national assessment of emergency planning in Canada's general hospitals. Office of critical infrastructure protection and emergency preparedness. http://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2008/ps-sp/D82-69-2002E.pdf. Accessed July 2011.
34. Izmit, Turkey earthquake 1999. http://www.absconsulting.com/resources/Catastrophe_Reports/izmit-Turkey-1999.pdf. Accessed November 2011.
35.Fridlund, B, Hansson, H. Swedish emergency hospitals’ readiness for disaster; incidence, interest and training. Intensive Care Nurs. 1991, Sep; 7(3):164-170.
36.Lynn, M, Gurr, D, Memon, A, Kaliff, J. Management of conventional mass casualty incidents: Ten Commandments for hospital planning. J Burn Care Res. 2006;27(5):649-658.
37.Stander, M, Wallis, LA, Smith, WP. Hospital disaster planning in the Western Cape, South Africa. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2011;26(4):283-288.
38.Adini, B, Goldberg, A, Laor, D, Cohen, R, Bar-Dayan, Y. Factors that may influence the preparation of standards of procedures for dealing with mass casualty incidents. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2007;22(3):175-180.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
  • ISSN: 1049-023X
  • EISSN: 1945-1938
  • URL: /core/journals/prehospital-and-disaster-medicine
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Type Description Title
WORD
Supplementary materials

Djalali Supplementary Material
Supplementary Material

 Word (95 KB)
95 KB

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed