1. Murray CJL, King G, Lopez AD, Tomijima N, Krug EG. Armed conflict as a public health problem. BMJ. 2002;324:346-349.
2. Degomme O, Guha-Sapir D. Patterns of mortality rates in Darfur conflict. Lancet. 2010;375:294-300.
3. Depoortere E, Checchi F, Broillet F, Gerstl S, Minetti A, et al. . Violence and mortality in West Darfur, Sudan (2003-04): epidemiological evidence from four surveys. Lancet. 2004;364:1315-1320.
4. Coghlan B, Brennan RJ, Ngoy P, Dofara D, Otto B, et al. . Mortality in the Democratic Republic of Congo: a nationwide survey. Lancet. 2006;367:44-51.
5. Ahoua L, Tamrat A, Duroch F, Grais RF, Brown V. High mortality in an internally displaced population in Ituri, Democratic Republic of Congo, 2005: results of a rapid assessment under difficult conditions. Glob Public Health. 2006;1(3):195-204.
6. Van Herp M, Parque V, Rackley E, Ford N. Mortality, violence and lack of access to health-care in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Disasters. 2003;27(2):141-153.
9. Awqati NA, Ali MM, Al-Ward NJ, et al. . Causes and differentials of childhood mortality in Iraq. BMC Pediatr. 2009;22:9-40.
10. Burnham G, Lafta R, Doocy S, Roberts L. Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: a cross-sectional cluster sample survey. Lancet. 2006;368(9545):1421-1428.
11. Alkhuzai AH, Ahmad IJ, Hweel MJ, et al. . Iraq Family Health Survey Study Group, Violence-related mortality in Iraq from 2002 to 2006. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(5):484-493.
12. Roberts L, Lafta R, Garfield R, Khudhairi J, Burnham G. Mortality before and after the 2003 invasion of Iraq: cluster sample survey. Lancet. 2004;364(9448):1857-1864.
13. Siegler A, Roberts L, Balch E, Bargues E, Bhalla A, Bills C, et al. . Media coverage of violent deaths in Iraq: an opportunistic capture-recapture assessment. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2008;23(4):369-371.
14. Spiegel PB, Salama P. War and mortality in Kosovo, 1998–99: an epidemiological testimony. Lancet. 2000;355(9222):2204-2209.
15. Hicks MH, Dardagan H, Serdan GG, Bagnal PM, Sloboda JA, Spagat M. The weapons that kill civilians — deaths of children and noncombatants in Iraq, 2003–2008. N Engl J Med 360;16: 1585-1588.
16. Donaldson RI, Hasson T, Aziz S, Ansari W, Evans G. The development of civilian emergency medical care during an insurgency: current status and future outlook in Iraq. Ann Emerg Med. 2010;56(2):172-177.
17. Zarocostas J. Exodus of medical staff strains Iraq's health facilities. BMJ. 2007;334(7599):865.
18. Ugalde A, Selva-Sutter E, Castillo C, Paz C, Cañas S. The health costs of war: can they be measured? Lessons from El Salvador. BMJ. 2000;321:169-172.
19. Voelker R. Iraqi Health Minister works to reform, restore neglected system. JAMA. 2008;300(6):639.
20. Al-Sahlawi KS, Zahid MA, Shahid AA, Hatim M, Al-Bader M. A study of violence against doctors in accident and emergency departments. Eur J Emerg Med. 1999;6(4):301-304.
21. Carmi-Iluz T, Peleg R, Freud T, Shvartzman P. Verbal and physical violence towards hospital- and community-based physicians in the Negev: an observational study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2005;5:54.
22. Kowalenko T, Walters BL, Khare RK, Compton S. Workplace violence: a survey of emergency physicians in the state of Michigan. Ann Emerg Med. 2005;46(2):142-147.
23. Ferns T. Violence in the accident and emergency department — an international perspective. Accid Emerg Nurs. 2005;13(3):180-185.
24. Ryan D, Maguire J. Aggression and violence — a problem in Irish Accident and Emergency departments? J Nurs Manag. 2006;14(2):106-115.
25. Derazon H, Nissimian S, Yosefy C, Peled R, Hay E. Violence in the emergency department in Hebrew. Harefuah. 1999;137(3-4):95-101, 175.
26. Lyneham J. Violence in New South Wales emergency departments. Aust J Adv Nurs. 2000;18(2):8-17.
27. Steel Z, Chey T, Silove D, Marnane C, Bryant RA, van Ommeren M. Association of torture and other potentially traumatic events with mental health outcomes among populations exposed to mass conflict and displacement: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2009;302(5):537-549.
28. Brackbill RM, Hadler JL, DiGrande L, et al. . Asthma and posttraumatic stress symptoms 5 to 6 years following exposure to the World Trade Center terrorist attack. JAMA. 2009;302(5):502-516.
29. Sonis J, Gibson JL, de Jong JTVM, Field NP, Hean S, Komproe I. Probable posttraumatic stress disorder and disability in Cambodia: associations with perceived justice, desire for revenge, and attitudes toward the Khmer Rouge trials. JAMA. 2009;302(5):527-536.
31. Alagappan K, Holliman JC. History of the development of international emergency medicine. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2005;23(1):1-10.