Skip to main content
×
×
Home

Approaches used to estimate bioavailability when deriving dietary reference values for iron and zinc in adults

  • Susan J. Fairweather-Tait (a1) and Agnès de Sesmaisons (a2)
Abstract

This review aims to describe approaches used to estimate bioavailability when deriving dietary reference values (DRV) for iron and zinc using the factorial approach. Various values have been applied by different expert bodies to convert absorbed iron or zinc into dietary intakes, and these are summarised in this review. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) derived zinc requirements from a trivariate saturation response model describing the relationship between zinc absorption and dietary zinc and phytate. The average requirement for men and women was determined as the intercept of the total absorbed zinc needed to meet physiological requirements, calculated according to body weight, with phytate intake levels of 300, 600, 900 and 1200 mg/d, which are representative of mean/median intakes observed in European populations. For iron, the method employed by EFSA was to use whole body iron losses, determined from radioisotope dilution studies, to calculate the quantity of absorbed iron required to maintain null balance. Absorption from the diet was estimated from a probability model based on measures of iron intake and status and physiological requirements for absorbed iron. Average dietary requirements were derived for men and pre- and post-menopausal women. Taking into consideration the complexity of deriving DRV for iron and zinc, mainly due to the limited knowledge on dietary bioavailability, it appears that EFSA has made maximum use of the most relevant up-to-date data to develop novel and transparent DRV for these nutrients.

Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: S. J. Fairweather-Tait, email s.fairweather-tait@uea.ac.uk
References
Hide All
1.EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (2010) Scientific opinion on principles for deriving and applying dietary reference values. EFSA J 8, 1458.
2.Department of Health (1991) Dietary reference values for food and energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report of the panel on dietary reference values of the committee on medical aspects of food policy. Rep Health Soc Subj (Lond) 41, 1210.
3.Institute of Medicine (2001) Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
4.Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation on Human Vitamin and Mineral Requirements (1998) Vitamin and mineral requirements in human nutrition: report of a joint FAO/WHO expert consultation, Bangkok, Thailand, 21–30 September 1998. Geneva: WHO.
5.EFSA Scientific Committee on Food and NDA Panel (2006) Tolerable Upper Intake Levels for Vitamins and Minerals http://www.efsa.eu.int/science/nda/nda_opinions/catindex_en.htm (accessed March 2018).
6.King, JC & Garza, C (2007) Harmonization of nutrient intake values. Food and Nutrition Bulletin S3-S12, 28 no. 1 (supplement 1).
7.National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2018) Global Harmonization of Methodological Approaches to Nutrient Intake. Recommendations: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
8.National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (2018) Harmonization of Approaches to Nutrient Reference Values: Applications to Children and Women of Reproductive Age. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.
9.Lowe, NM, Dykes, FC, Skinner, AL et al. (2013) EURRECA – Estimating zinc requirements for deriving dietary reference values. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 53, 11101123.
10.Lowe, NM, Medina, MW, Stammers, AL et al. (2012) The relationship between zinc intake and serum/plasma zinc concentration in adults: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis by the EURRECA Network. Br J Nutr 108, 19621971.
11.Gibson, RS, King, JC & Lowe, N. (2016) A review of dietary zinc recommendations. Food Nutr Bull 30, S108S143.
12.EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (2014) Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for zinc. EFSA J 12, 3844.
13.Netherlands Food and Nutrition Council (1992) Recommended Dietary Allowances 1989 in the Netherlands. 115 pp. The Hague: Netherlands Food and Nutrition Council.
14.WHO and FAO (2004) Vitamin and Mineral Requirements in Human Nutrition. Geneva WHO.
15.Nordic Council of Ministers (2014) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. 627 pp. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers.
16.Brown, KH, Rivera, JA, Bhutta, Z et al. (2004) International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group technical document #1. Assessment of the risk of zinc deficiency in populations and options for its control. Food Nutr Bull 25(1 Suppl 2), S99S203.
17.Miller, LV, Krebs, NF & Hambidge, KM (2013) Mathematical model of zinc absorption: effects of dietary calcium, protein and iron on zinc absorption. Br J Nutr 109, 695700.
18.Miller, LV, Krebs, NF & Hambidge, KM (2007) A mathematical model of zinc absorption in humans as a function of dietary zinc and phytate. J Nutr 137, 135141.
19.ANSES (Agence nationale de sécurité sanitaire de l'alimentation, de l'environnement et du travail) (2016) Actualisation des repères du PNNS : élaboration des références nutritionnelles. Avis de l'ANSES. Rapports d'expertise collective. Available at: http://alimentation-sante.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/01/NUT2012SA0103Ra-1.pdf
20.Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Österreichische Gesellschaft für Ernährung, Schweizerische Gesellschaft für Ernährung (2016) Referenzwerte für die Nährstoffzufuhr. Neuer Umschau Buchverlag, Bonn. Available at: https://www.dge.de/wissenschaft/referenzwerte/
21.Green, R, Charlton, R, Seftel, H et al. (1968) Body iron excretion in man: a collaborative study. Am J Med 45, 336353.
22.Hunt, JT, Zito, CA & Johnson, LK (2009) Body iron excretion by healthy men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 17921798.
23.EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (2015) Scientific opinion on dietary reference values for iron. EFSA Journal 13, 4254.
24.Hallberg, L, Hultén, L & Gramatkovski, E (1997) Iron absorption from the whole diet in men: how effective is the regulation of iron absorption? Am J Clin Nutr, 66, 347356.
25.Hurrell, R & Egli, I (2010) Iron bioavailability and dietary reference values. Am J Clin Nutr 91, 1461S1467S.
26.Lynch, S, Pfeiffer, CM, Georgieff, MK et al. (2018) Biomarkers of nutrition for development (BOND) – iron review. J Nutr 148, 1001S1067S.
27.Collings, R, Harvey, LJ, Hooper, L et al. (2013) The absorption of iron from whole diets: a systematic review. Am J Clin Nutr 98, 6581.
28.Hallberg, L & Hulthén, L (2000) Prediction of dietary iron absorption: an algorithm for calculating absorption and bioavailability of dietary iron. Am J Clin Nutr 71, 11471160.
29.Cook, JD, Dassenko, SA & Lynch, SR (1991) Assessment of the role of nonhaem-iron availability in iron balance. Am J Clin Nutr 54, 717722.
30.Armah, SM, Carriquiry, A, Sullivan, D et al. (2013) A complete diet-based algorithm for predicting nonhaem iron absorption in adults. J Nutr 143, 11361140.
31.Armah, SM, Boy, E, Chen, D et al. (2015) Regular consumption of a high-phytate diet reduces the inhibitory effect of phytate on nonhaem-iron absorption in women with suboptimal iron stores. J Nutr 145, 17351739.
32.Australian National Health and Medical Research Council/New Zealand Ministry of Health (2006) Nutrient Reference Values for Australia and New Zealand Including Recommended Dietary Intakes. Available at: https://www.nhmrc.gov.au/guidelines-publications/n35-n36-n37
33.Raper, NR, Rosenthal, JC & Woteki, CE (1984) Estimates of available iron in diets of individuals 1 year old and older in the nationwide food consumption survey. J Am Diet Assoc 84, 783787.
34.Hallberg, L. Rossander-Hulten L (1991) Iron requirements in menstruating women. Am J Clin Nutr 54, 10471058.
35.Nilsson, L & Solvell, L (1967) Clinical studies on oral contraceptives – a randomized, doubleblind, crossover study of 4 different preparations (anovlar mite, lyndiol mite, ovulen, and volidan). Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 46(Suppl 8), 131.
36.Dainty, JR, Berry, R, Lynch, SR et al. (2014) Estimation of dietary iron bioavailability from food iron intake and iron status. PLoS One 9(10), e111824.
37.Fairweather-Tait, SJ, Jennings, A, Harvey, LJ et al. (2017) Modeling tool for calculating dietary iron bioavailability in iron-sufficient adults. Am J Clin Nutr 105, 14081414.
38.Milne, DB, Canfield, WK, Mahalko, JR et al. (1983) Effect of dietary zinc on whole body surface loss of zinc: impact on estimation of zinc retention by balance method. Am J Clin Nutr 38, 181186.
39.Taylor, CM, Bacon, JR, Aggett, PJ et al. (1992) Homeostatic regulation of zinc absorption and endogenous losses in zinc-deprived men. Am J Clin Nutr 53, 755763. Erratum in: Am J Clin Nutr (1992), 56, 462.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords