This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
2. TLS Visscher & JC Seidell (2001) The public health impact of obesity. Annu. Rev Public Health 22, 355–375.
5. CG Owen , PH Whincup , L Orfei (2009) Is body mass index before middle age related to coronary heart disease risk in later life? Evidence from observational studies. Int J Obes 33, 866–877.
6. JJ Reilly & J Kelly (2011) Long-term impact of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence on morbidity and premature mortality in adulthood: systematic review. Int J Obes 35, 891–898.
7. MH Park , C Falconer , RM Viner (2012) The impact of childhood obesity on morbidity and mortality in adulthood: a systematic review. Obes Rev 13, 985–1000.
8. AS Singh , C Mulder , JWR Twisk (2008) Tracking of childhood overweight into adulthood: a systematic review of the literature. Obes Rev 9, 474–488.
9. T Lobstein (2008) Child obesity: what can be done and who will do it? Proc Nutr Soc 67, 301–306.
10. K Silventoinen , M Bartels , D Posthuma (2007) Genetic regulation of growth in height and weight from 3 to 12 years of age: a longitudinal study of Dutch twin children. Twin Res Hum Genet 10, 354–363.
11. CMA Haworth , S Carnell , EL Meaburn (2008) Increasing heritability of BMI and stronger associations with the FTO gene over childhood. Obesity 16, 2663–2668.
13. K Silventoinen & J Kaprio (2009) Genetics of tracking of body mass index from birth to late middle age: evidence from Twin and Family Studies. Obes Facts 2, 196–202.
14. AM Craigie , AA Lake , SA Kelly (2011) Tracking of obesity-related behaviours from childhood to adulthood: a systematic review. Maturitas 70, 266–284.
15. GL Ambrosini , PM Emmett , K Northstone (2012) Identification of a dietary pattern prospectively associated with increased adiposity during childhood and adolescence. Int J Obes 36, 1299–1305.
16. RM van Dam (2005) New approaches to the study of dietary patterns. Br J Nutr 93, 573–574.
18. V Mikkila , L Rasanen , OT Raitakari (2005) Consistent dietary patterns identified from childhood to adulthood: the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study. Br J Nutr 93, 923–931.
19. OT Raitakari , KVK Porkka , S Taimela (1994) Effects of persistent physical activity and inactivity on coronary risk-factors in children and young adults – the cardiovascular risk in young Finns study. Am J Epidemiol 140, 195–205.
20. X Chen & Y Wang (2008) Tracking of blood pressure from childhood to adulthood – a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Circulation 117, 3171–3180.
21. SC Langley-Evans & S McMullen (2010) Developmental origins of adult disease. Med Princ Pract 19, 87–98.
22. LJ Lloyd , SC Langley-Evans & S McMullen (2010) Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular disease risk: a systematic review. Int J Obes 34, 18–28.
23. LJ Lloyd , SC Langley-Evans & S McMullen (2012) Childhood obesity and risk of the adult metabolic syndrome: a systematic review. Int J Obes 36, 1–11.
25. TJ Cole , MC Bellizzi , KM Flegal (2000) Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: international survey. BMJ 320, 1240–1243.
28. AR Sinaiko , RP Donahue , DR Jacobs (1999) Relation of weight and rate of increase in weight during childhood and adolescence to body size, blood pressure, fasting insulin, and lipids in young adults – the Minneapolis Children's Blood Pressure Study. Circulation 99, 1471–1476.
29. DS Freedman , LK Khan , WH Dietz (2001) Relationship of childhood obesity to coronary heart disease risk factors in adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Pediatrics 108, 712–718.
30. CM Wright , L Parker , D Lamont (2001) Implications of childhood obesity for adult health: findings from thousand families cohort study. BMJ 323, 1280–1284.
31. V Burke , LJ Beilin , D Dunbar (2004) Associations between blood pressure and overweight defined by new standards for body mass index in childhood. Prev Med 38, 558–564.
32. R Hardy , ME Wadsworth , C Langenberg (2004) Birthweight, childhood growth, and blood pressure at 43 years in a British birth cohort. Int J Epidemiol 33, 121–129.
33. AE Field , NR Cook & MW Gillman (2005) Weight status in childhood as a predictor of becoming overweight or hypertensive in early adulthood. Obes Res 13, 163–169.
34. L Li , C Law & C Power (2007) Body mass index throughout the life-course and blood pressure in mid-adult life: a birth cohort study. J Hypertens 25, 1215–1223.
35. A Oren , LE Vos , CS Uiterwaal (2003) Change in body mass index from adolescence to young adulthood and increased carotid intima-media thickness at 28 years of age: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Young Adults study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 27, 1383–1390.
37. DS Freedman , WH Dietz , R Tang (2004) The relation of obesity throughout life to carotid intima-media thickness in adulthood: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 28, 159–166.
38. M Juonala , M Raitakari , J SAV (2006) Obesity in youth is not an independent predictor of carotid IMT in adulthood. The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Atherosclerosis 185, 388–393.
39. DS Freedman , DA Patel , SR Srinivasan (2008) The contribution of childhood obesity to adult carotid intima-media thickness: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Int J Obes 32, 749–756.
41. MK Salonen , E Kajantie , C Osmond (2009) Role of childhood growth on the risk of metabolic syndrome in obese men and women. Diabetes Metab 35, 94–100.
42. DS Freedman , LK Khan , MK Serdula (2004) Inter-relationships among childhood BMI, childhood height, and adult obesity: the Bogalusa Heart Study. Int J Obes 28, 10–16.
43. RM Martin , JMP Holly , GD Smith (2006) Associations of adiposity from childhood into adulthood with insulin resistance and the insulin-like growth factor system: 65-year follow-up of the Boyd Orr cohort. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 91, 3287–3295.
44. MSBJC Thearle , WC Knowler & J Krakoff (2009) Childhood predictors of adult acute insulin response and insulin action. Diab Care 32, 938–943.
45. JG Eriksson , T Forsen , J Tuomilehto (1999) Catch-up growth in childhood and death from coronary heart disease: longitudinal study. BMJ 318, 427–431.
46. DA Lawlor & DA Leon (2005) Association of body mass index and obesity measured in early childhood with risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in middle age – findings from the Aberdeen children of the 1950s prospective cohort study. Circulation 111, 1891–1896.
48. T Bjorge , A Engeland , A Tverdal (2008) Body mass index in adolescence in relation to cause-specific mortality: a follow-up of 230,000 Norwegian adolescents. Am J Epidemiol 168, 30–37.
50. JS Kaufman , RF Maclehose & S Kaufman (2004) A further critique of the analytic strategy of adjusting for covariates to identify biologic mediation. Epidemiol Perspect Innov 1, 4.
51. YK Tu , R West , GTH Ellison (2005) Why evidence for the fetal origins of adult disease might be a statistical artifact: the “reversal paradox” for the relation between birth weight and blood pressure in later life. Am J Epidemiol 161, 27–32.
52. E Bonora , S Kiechl , J Willeit (1998) Prevalence of insulin resistance in metabolic disorders – The Bruneck Study. Diabetes 47, 1643–1649.
53. RP Wildman , P Muntner , K Reynolds (2008) The obese without cardiometabolic risk factor clustering and the normal weight with cardiometabolic risk factor clustering: prevalence and correlates of 2 phenotypes among the US population (NHANES 1999–2004). Arch Intern Med 168, 1617–1624.
54. M Brochu , A Tchernof , IJ Dionne (2001) What are the physical characteristics associated with a normal metabolic profile despite a high level of obesity in postmenopausal women? J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86, 1020–1025.
55. E Muscelli , S Camastra , A Gastaldelli (1998) Influence of duration of obesity on the insulin resistance of obese non-diabetic patients. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 22, 262–267.
56. M Lundgren , M Svensson , S Lindmark (2007) Fat cell enlargement is an independent marker of insulin resistance and ‘hyperleptinaemia’. Diabetologia 50, 625–633.
57. C Weyer , JE Foley , C Bogardus (2000) Enlarged subcutaneous abdominal adipocyte size, but not obesity itself, predicts type II diabetes independent of insulin resistance. Diabetologia 43, 1498–1506.
58. LB Salans , SW Cushman & RE Weismann (1973) Studies of human adipose tissue. Adipose cell size and number in nonobese and obese patients. J Clin Invest 52, 929–941.
59. ES Ford (2003) C-reactive protein concentration and cardiovascular disease risk factors in children: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2000. Circulation 108, 1053–1058.
60. R Weiss , J Dziura , TS Burgert (2004) Obesity and the metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. N Engl J Med 350, 2362–2374.
61. LM Bell , S Byrne , A Thompson (2007) Increasing body mass index z-score is continuously associated with complications of overweight in children, even in the healthy weight range. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 92, 517–522.
62. R Weiss , SE Taksali , S Dufour (2005) The ‘obese insulin-sensitive’ adolescent: importance of adiponectin and lipid partitioning. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 90, 3731–3737.
63. JE Galgani , C Moro & E Ravussin (2008) Metabolic flexibility and insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 295, E1009–1017.
65. RM Puhl & JD Latner (2007) Stigma, obesity, and the health of the nation's children. Psychol Bull 133, 557–580.
66. SK Lhachimi , WJ Nusselder , TJ Lobstein (2013) Modelling obesity outcomes: reducing obesity risk in adulthood may have greater impact than reducing obesity prevalence in childhood. Obes Rev 14, 523–531.