Skip to main content Accessibility help

Disease and malnutrition in British hospitals

Published online by Cambridge University Press:  18 April 2008

C. R. Pennington
Department of Digestive Diseases and Clinical Nutrition, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY
Rights & Permissions[Opens in a new window]


Image of the first page of this article
Symposium on ‘Assessment of nutritional status in disease and other trauma’
Copyright © The Nutrition Society 1997


Allison, S. (1995). Malnutrition in hospitalised patients, assessment of nutritional support. Artifical Nutritional Support in Clinical Practice, pp. 115126 [Payne-James, J., Grimble, G. and Silk, D., editors]. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
Anderson, C. F. & Wochers, D. N. (1982). The utility of serum albumin values in the nutritional assessment of hospitalised patients. Mayo Clinic Proceedings 57, 181.Google Scholar
Animashaun, A. & Heatley, R. V. (1994). Nutritional immunology. In Consensus in Clinical Nutrition, pp. 7294 [Heatley, R. V., Green, J. H. and Losowsky, M. S., editors]. Cambridge: CAB INTERNATIONAL.Google Scholar
Arora, N. S. & Rochester, D. F. (1982). Respiratory muscle strength in maximal voluntary ventilation in undernourished patients. American Review of Respiratory Diseases 126, 12651268.Google ScholarPubMed
Askanazi, J., Carpentier, Y. A., Elwyn, D. H., Nordenstrom, J., Jeevanandam, M., Rosembaums, H., Gump, F. E. & Kinney, J. M. (1980). Influence of total parenteral nutrition on fuel utilisation in injury and sepsis. Annals of Surgery 191, 4046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Askanazi, J., Starker, P. N., Olsson, C., Hensle, T. W., Lockhart, S. H., Kinney, J. M. & Lasala, P. A. (1986). Effect of immediate post-operative nutritional support on the length of hospitalisation. Annals of Surgery 203, 236239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bastow, M. D., Rawlings, J. & Allison, S. P. (1983 a). Under-nutrition, hypothermia and injury in elderly women with fractured neck of femur: An injury response to altered metabolism? Lancet i, 143145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bastow, M. D., Rawlings, J. & Allison, S. P. (1983b). Benefits of supplementary tube feeding after fractured neck of femur: A randomised control trial. British Medical Journal 287, 15891592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Bengmark, S. (1996). Econutrition and health maintenance - a new concept to prevent GI inflammation, ulceration and sepsis. Clinical Nutrition 15, 110.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bistrian, B. R., Blackburn, G. L., Hallowell, E. & Heddle, R. (1974). Protein status of general surgical patients. Journal of the American Medical Association 230, 858860.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bistrian, B. R., Blackburn, G. L., Vitale, J., Cochran, D. & Naylor, J. (1976). Prevalence of malnutrition in general medical patients. Journal of the American Medical Association 235, 15671570.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Bumham, W. R. (1995). The role of the nutrition support team. In Artifical Nutritional Support in Clinical Practice, pp. 175186 Payne-James, J., Grimble, G. and Silk, D. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
Cederholm, T., Jagren, C. & Hellstrom, K. (1993). Nutritional status and performance capacity in internal medical patients. Clinical Nutrition 12, 814.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Cederholm, T. E. & Hellstrom, K. H. (1995). Reversibility of protein-energy malnutrition in a group of chronically ill elderly out-patients. Clinical Nutrition 14, 8187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cohen, H. J., Brown, M. R. & Hamilton, D. (1989). Glutathione peroxidase and selenium deficiency in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition. Time course for development of deficiency and repletion of enzyme activity in plasma and blood cells. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 49, 132141.Google ScholarPubMed
Conner, E. M. & Grisham, M. B. (1996). Inflammation, free radicals, and antioxidants. Nutrition 12, 274–227.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Delmi, M., Rapin, C. H., Bengoa, J. M., Delmas, P. D., Vasey, H. & Bonjour, J. P. (1990). Dietary supplementation in elderly patients with fractured neck of femur.. Lancet 335, 10131016.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Detsky, A. S., Baker, J. P. & Menelson, R. A. (1987). Predicting nutritional associated complications for patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 11, 440446.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Dickerson, J. W. T. (1986). Hospital induced malnutrition: a cause of concern. Professional Nurse 2, 293296.Google Scholar
Elia, M., (1995). Changing concepts of nutrient requirements in disease: Implications for artificial nutritional support Lancet i, 12791284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fearon, K. C. H., Richardson, R. A. & Hannan, W. J. (1992). An evaluation of bio-electrical impedance in the measurement of body composition of surgical patients. British Journal of Surgery 79, 421423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fleck, A., Colley, C. M. & Myres, M. A. (1985). Liver export proteins in trauma. British Medical Bulletin 41, 265273.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Frayn, K. N. (1986). Hormonal control of metabolism in trauma and sepsis. Clinics in Endocrinology 24, 577599.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Furst, P., Albers, S. & Stehle, P. (1990). Glutamine containing dipeptides in parenteral nutrition. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 14, Suppl., S188S124.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gardiner, K. R., Kirk, S. J. & Rowlands, B. J. (1995). Novel substrates to maintain gut integrity. Nutrition Research Reviews 8, 4366.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Garrow, J. (1994). Starvation in hospitals. British Medical Journal 308, 934.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gauderer, N. W. L., Ponsky, J. L. & Izand, R. J. (1980). Gastrostomy without laparotomy: The percutaneous endoscopic technique. Journal of Paediatric Surgery 15, 872875.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Giner, M., Laviano, A., Meguid, M. M. & Gleason, J. R. (1996). In 1995 a correlation between malnutrition and poor outcome in critically ill patients still exists. Nutrition 12, 2329.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gogos, C. A., Zoumbos, N., Makri, M. & Kalfarentzos, F. (1994). Medium and long chain triglycerides have different effects of the synthesis of tumour necrosis factor by human mononuclear cells in patients under total parenteral nutrition. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 13, 4044.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Gregory, J., Foster, K., Turner, H. & Wiseman, M. (1990). Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults London: H.M. Stationery Office.Google Scholar
Heymsfield, S. B., Bethell, R. A., Ansley, J. D., Gibbs, D. M., Felner, J. M. & Nutter, O. N. (1978). Cardiac abnormalities in cachectic patients before and during nutritional repletion. American Heart Journal 95, 584593.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Heymsfield, S. B., McManus, M. C. C., Smith, J., Stevens, V. & Nixon, D. W. (1982). Anthropometric measurements of muscle mass: revised equations for calculating bone free arm muscle area. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36, 680690.Google ScholarPubMed
Hill, G. L. (1992). Disorders of Nutritional Metabolism in Clinical Surgery: Understanding Management. London: Churchill Livingstone.Google Scholar
Hill, G. L., Blackett, R. L., Pickford, I., Birkenshaw, L., Young, G. A., Warren, J. B., Scharah, C. G. & Morgan, D. B. (1977). Malnutrition in surgical patients – an unrecognised problem Lancet i, 689692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jamieson, C. P., Norton, B., Day, T., Lakeman, M., Powell-Tuck, J. (1996). The quantitative effect of nutritional support on quality of life in out-patients. Gut 33, Suppl. 1, A41.Google Scholar
Jeejeebhoy, K. N. (1988). Bulk or bounce – the object of nutritional support. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 12, 539545.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Kaudsk, K. A. (1994). Gut mucosal nutritional support - Enteral nutrition as primary therapy after multiple system trauma. Gut 35, Suppl. 1 S52S54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keele, A. M., Bray, M., Emery, P., Duncan, H. & Silk, D. (1997). Two phased randomised controlled clinical trial of post-operative dietary supplements in surgical patients. Gut (In the Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Keys, A., Brozek, J. & Henschel, A. (1950). The Biology of Human Starvation Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
Khawaja, H. T., Campbell, M. J. & Weaver, P. C. (1988). Effect of transdermal glyceryl trinitrate on the survival of peripheral intravenous infusions: a double blind clinical study. British Journal of Surgery 75, 12121215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Kupfer, S. R., Underwood, L. E., Baxter, R. C. & Clemmons, D. R. (1993). Enhancement of the anabolic effects of growth hormone and insulin like growth factor 1 by use of both agents simultaneously. American Society for Clinical Investigation 91, 391396.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Larsson, J., Unosson, N., Ek, A. C., Nilsson, L., Thorslund, S. & Bjurulf, P. (1990). Effect of dietary supplement on nutritional status and clinical outcome in 501 geriatric patients – a randomised study. Clinical Nutrition 9, 179184.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lennard-Jones, J. E., Arrowsmith, H., Davison, C., Denham, A. F. & Micklewright, A. (1995). Screening by nurses and junior doctors to detect malnutrition when patients are first assessed in hospital. Clinical Nutrition 14, 336340.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Lopes, J., Russell, D. M., Whitwell, I. & Jeejeebhoy, K. (1982). Skeletal muscle function in malnutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 36, 602610.Google ScholarPubMed
Lukaski, H. C., Johnson, P. E., Bolonchuk, W. W. & Lykken, G. I. (1985). Assessment of fat free mass using Behr electrical impedance measurement of the human body. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 41, 810817.Google Scholar
McGlone, P. C., Dickerson, J. W. T. & Davies, G. J. (1995). The feeding of patients in hospital: A review. Journal of the Royal Society of Health 88, 282288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McMurray, D. M., Loomis, S. A., Casazza, L. J., Rae, J. & Miranda, R. (1981). Development of impaired cell mediated immunity in mild and moderate malnutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 34, 6877.Google ScholarPubMed
McWhirter, J. P., Hill, K., Richards, J. & Pennington, C. R. (1995a). The use, efficacy and monitoring of artificial nutritional support in a teaching hospital. Scottish Medical Journal 40, 179183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McWhirter, J. P. & Pennington, C. R. (1994). The incidence and recognition of malnutrition in hospital. British Medical Journal 308, 945948.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
McWhirter, J. P. & Pennington, C. R. (1996). A comparison between oral and nasogastic supplements in malnourished patients. Nutrition 12, 502506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
McWhirter, J. P., Ryan, M. F. & Pennington, C. R. (1995b). An evaluation of insulin like growth factor 1 as an indicator of nutritional status. Clinical Nutrition 14, 7480.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Maddan, N., Alexander, D. J. & McMahon, M. J. (1992). Influence of catheter type on the occurrence of thrombophlebitis. Lancet 339, 101103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Maddan, N., Alexander, D. J., Mellor, E. & McMahon, M. (1991). A randomised study of the effects of osmolality and heparin with hydrocortisone on thrombophlebitis in peripheral intravenous nutrition. Clinical Nutrition 10, 309314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mansell, P. I., Fellows, I. W., MacDonald, I. A. & Allison, S. P. (1990). Restoration of normal thermal regulation following weight gain in undernourished patients. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 76, 817829.Google Scholar
Meydani, S. N. (1996). Effect of (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids on cytokine production and their biological function. Nutrition 12, S8S14.Google Scholar
Minuto, F. (1989). Insulin like growth factor 1 in human malnutrition: Relationship with some body composition and nutritional parameters. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 13, 392396.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Moore, F. A., Feliciano, D. V., Andrassy, R. J., McCardle, A. H., Booth, F. V., Wagner, T. B., Kellum, J. M., Welling, R. E. & Moore, E. E. (1992). Early enteral feeding, compared with parenteral, reduces post-operative septic complications. The results of a meta analysis. Annals of Surgery 216, 172183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Muller, J. M., Brenner, U., Dienst, C. & Pichlmaier, H. (1982). Pre-operative parenteral feeding in patients with gastrointestinal carcinoma Lancet i, 6871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Olin, A. O., Osterberg, B., Hadell, K., Armyr, I., Jerstrom, S. & Ljungqvist, O. (1996). Energy enriched hospital food to improve energy intake in elderly patients. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 20, 9397.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Park, R. H. R., Allison, M. C., Lang, J. & Russell, R. (1992). Randomised comparison of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy and nasogastric tube feeding in patients with persisting neurological dysphagia. British Medical Journal 304, 14061409.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Payne-James, J. (1995). Enteral nutrition: Tubes and techniques of delivery. In Artificial Nutritional Support in Clinical Practice, pp. 197214 [Payne-James, J., Grimble, G. and Silk, D., editors]. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
Payne-James, J., De Gara, C. J., Grimble, G. K. & Silk, D. B. A. (1995). Artificial nutritional support in hospitals in the United Kingdom – 1994: 3rd National Survey. Clinical Nutrition 14, 329335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Payne-James, J. & Khawaja, H. T. (1993). First choice for total parenteral nutrition: The peripheral route. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 17, 468471.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Petersson, B., Hultzman, E., Andersson, K. & Wernerman, J. (1995). Human skeletal muscle protein: Effect of malnutrition, elective surgery and total parenteral nutrition. Clinical Science 88, 479484.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Pinchcofsky, G. D. & Kaminski, N. V. (1985). Increasing malnutrition during hospitalisation: Documentation by nutritional screening programme. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 4, 471479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Reilly, E. N., Martineau, J. K., Moran, A. & Kennedy, H. (1995). Nutritional screening – evaluation and implementation of a simple nutritional risk score. Clinical Nutrition 14, 269274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sitges-Serra, A., Franch-Arcas, G. (1995). Nutrition assessment. Artificial Nutritional Support in Clinical Practice, pp. 127136 [Payne-James, J., Grimble, G. and Silk, D. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
Solomon, S. N. & Kirby, D. S. (1990). The refeeding syndrome: A review. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 14, 9095.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Studley, H. O. (1936). Percentage of weight loss – a basic indicator of surgical risk in patients with chronic peptic ulcer. Journal of the American Medical Association 106, 458460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tighe, M. J., Wong, C., Martin, I. G. & McMahon, M. J. (1995). Do heparin, hydrocortisone, and glyceryl trinitrate influence thrombophlebitis during full intravenous nutrition via a peripheral vein?. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 19, 507509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tracey, K. J. (1992). TNF and other cytokines in the metabolism of septic shock and cachexia. Clinical Nutrition 11, 111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Tremel, G., Kienle, B., Weilemann, L. S., Stehle, P. & Furst, P. (1994). Glutamine dipeptide - supplemented parenteral nutrition maintains intestinal function in the critically ill. Gastroenterology 107, 15951601.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Unterman, T. G. & Vazuez, R. M. (1985). Usefulness of somatomedin-C in nutritional assessment. American Journal of Medicine 78, 228233.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Van der Hulst, R. R. W. J., Van Kreel, B. K., Van Meyenfeld, M. F., Brummer, R. J. M., Adrends, J. W., Duetz, N. E. P. & Soetars, P. B. (1993). Glutamine and the preservation of gut integrity. Lancet 341, 13631365.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Veterans Affairs Total Parenteral Nutrition Co-operative Study Group (1991). Pre-operative total parenteral nutrition in surgical patients. New England Journal of Medicine 325, 525532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Von Meyenfield, M. F., Meijerink, W. J. H. J., Rouflard, M. J., Buil-Maassen, N. T. H. J. & Soeters, P. B. (1992). Perioperative nutritional support - a randomised clinical trial. Clinical Nutrition 11, 180186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Webb, A. E., Newman, L. A., Taylor, M. & Keogh, J. B. (1989). Hand grip dynamometry as a predictor of postoperative complications. Reappraisal using age standardised grip strengths. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 13, 3033.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Weisdorf, S. A., Lysne, J., Wynd, D., Haake, R. J., Sharp, H. L., Goldman, A., Schissel, K., McGlave, P. B., Ramsay, N. K. & Kersey, J. H. (1987). Positive effect ol prophylactic total parenteral nutrition on long-term outcome of bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation 43, 833838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wernerman, J. & Tucker, H. N. (1994). Future nutritional goal in the intensive care unit. Organ Metabolism and Nutrition: Ideas for Future Critical Care, pp. 481495 [Kinney, J. M. and Tucker, H. N., editors]. New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
Wicks, C., Gimson, A., Lavianos, V., Lombard, M., Panos, M., MacMathuna, T., Tudor, M., Andrews, K. & Westerby, D. (1992). Assessment of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy feeding tube as part of an integrated approach to enteral feeding. Gut 33, 613616.CrossRefGoogle ScholarPubMed
Widdowson, E. M. (1971). Intra-uterine growth retardation in a pig – organ size and cellular development at birth and after growth to maturity. Biology of the Neonate 19, 329340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Willard, M. D., Gilsdorf, R. B. & Price, R. A. (1980). Protein-calorie malnutrition in a community hospital. Journal of the American Medical Association 243, 17201722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Windsor, J. A. & Hill, G. L. (1988). Risk factors for post operative pneumonia. The importance of protein depletion. Annals of Surgery 17, 181185.Google Scholar
Witcher, J. T. & Evans, S. W. (1990). Cytokines in disease. Clinical Chemistry 36, 12691281.Google Scholar
Yagi, M., Tani, T., Hashimoto, T., Shimisu, K., Nagakawa, T., Miwa, K. & Miyazaki, I. (1996). Four cases of selenium deficiency in four cases of post-operative long-term enteral nutrition. Nutrition 12, 4043.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zador, D. A. & Truswell, A. S. (1987). Nutritional status on admission to a general surgical ward in a Sydney hospital. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 17, 234240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Zeigler, T. R., Young, L. S. & Benfell, K. (1992). Clinical and metabolic efficacy of glutamine supplemented parenteral nutrition after bone marrow transplantation. A randomised double blind control study. Annals of Internal Medicine 116, 821828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Full text views

Full text views reflects PDF downloads, PDFs sent to Google Drive, Dropbox and Kindle and HTML full text views.

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 149 *
View data table for this chart

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd January 2021. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Hostname: page-component-76cb886bbf-2crfx Total loading time: 0.518 Render date: 2021-01-23T14:38:04.352Z Query parameters: { "hasAccess": "1", "openAccess": "0", "isLogged": "0", "lang": "en" } Feature Flags: { "shouldUseShareProductTool": true, "shouldUseHypothesis": true, "isUnsiloEnabled": true, "metricsAbstractViews": false, "figures": false, "newCiteModal": false }

Send article to Kindle

To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

Disease and malnutrition in British hospitals
Available formats

Send article to Dropbox

To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

Disease and malnutrition in British hospitals
Available formats

Send article to Google Drive

To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

Disease and malnutrition in British hospitals
Available formats

Reply to: Submit a response

Your details

Conflicting interests

Do you have any conflicting interests? *