Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

Analysis of cellular responses to free radicals: focus on exercise and skeletal muscle

  • Scott K. Powers (a1) and Shannon L. Lennon (a1)
Abstract

Muscular exercise results in an increased production of radicals and other forms of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent evidence suggests that radicals and other ROS are an underlying aetiology in exercise-induced disturbances in muscle redox status. These exercise-induced redox disturbances in skeletal muscle are postulated to contribute to both muscle fatigue and/or exercise-induced muscle injury. To defend against ROS, muscle cells contain complex cellular defence mechanisms to reduce the risk of oxidative injury. Two major classes (enzymic and non-enzymic) of endogenous protective mechanisms work together to reduce the harmful effects of oxidants in the cell. Primary antioxidant enzymes include superoxide dismutase (EC 1.15.1.1; SOD), GSH peroxidase (EC 1.11.1.9; GPX), and catalase (EC 1.11.1.6); these enzymes are responsible for removing superoxide radicals, H2O2 and organic hydroperoxides, and H2O2 respectively. Important non-enzymic antioxidants include vitamins E and C, β-carotene, GSH and ubiquinones. Vitamin E, β-carotene and ubiquinone are located in lipid regions of the cell, whereas GSH and vitamin C are in aqueous compartments of the cell. Regular endurance training promotes an increase in both total SOD and GPX activity in actively-recruited skeletal muscles. High-intensity exercise training has been shown to be generally superior to low-intensity exercise in the upregulation of muscle SOD and GPX activities. Also, training-induced upregulation of antioxidant enzymes is limited to highly-oxidative skeletal muscles. The effects of endurance training on non-enzymic antioxidants remain a relatively uninvestigated area.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure coreplatform@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Analysis of cellular responses to free radicals: focus on exercise and skeletal muscle
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Analysis of cellular responses to free radicals: focus on exercise and skeletal muscle
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Analysis of cellular responses to free radicals: focus on exercise and skeletal muscle
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding Author: Professor Scott K. Powers, fax +1 352 392 0316, email spowers@hhp.ufl.edu
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

F Aberg , EL Appelkvist , G Dallner & L Ernster (1992) Distribution and redox state of ubiquinones in rat and human tissues. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 295, 230234.

R Armstrong & R Phelps (1984) Muscle fiber type composition of the rat hindlimb. American Journal of Anatomy 171, 259272.

JK Barclay & M Hansel (1991) Free radicals may contribute to oxidative skeletal muscle fatigue. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 69, 279284.

RE Beyer , P Morales-Corral , B Ramp , KR Kreitman , MJ Falzon , SY Rhee , TW Kuhn , M Stein , MJ Rosenwasser & KJ Cartwright (1984) Elevation of tissue coenzyme Q (ubiquinone) and cytochrome C concentrations by endurance exercise in the rat. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 234, 323329.

DK Bowles , CE Torgan , S Ebner , JP Kehrer , JL Ivy & JW Staines (1991) Effects of acute, submaximal exercise on skeletal muscle vitamin E. Free Radical Research Communications 14, 139143.

GW Burton & KU Ingold (1989) Vitamin E as an in vitro and in vivo antioxidant. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 570, 722.

GW Burton & MG Traber (1990) Vitamin E: antioxidant activity, biokinetics, and bioavailability. Annual Review of Nutrition 10, 357382.

D Criswell , S Powers , S Dodd , J Lawler , W Edwards , K Renshler & S Grinton (1993) High intensity training-induced changes in skeletal muscle antioxidant activity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 25, 11351140.

KJ Davies , AT Quintanilha , GA Brooks & L Packer (1982) Free radicals and tissue damage produced by exercise. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 107, 11981205.

J Hammeren , S Powers , J Lawler , D Criswell , D Martin , D Lowenthal & M Pollock (1992) Exercise training-induced alterations in skeletal muscle oxidative and antioxidant enzyme activity in senescent rats. International Journal of Sports Medicine 13, 412416.

M Higuchi , LJ Cartier , M Chen & JO Holloszy (1985) Superoxide dismutase and catalase in skeletal muscle: adaptive response to exercise. Journal of Gerontology 40, 281286.

M Jackson (1998) Free radical mechanisms in exercise-related muscle damage. In Oxidative Stress in Skeletal Muscle, pp. 7586 [AZ Reznick , L Packer , CK Sen , JO Holloszy and MJ Jackson , editors]. Basel: Birkhauser Verlag.

MJ Jackson , RH Edwards & MC Symons (1985) Electron spin resonance studies of intact mammalian skeletal muscle. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 847, 185190.

DR Janero (1991) Therapeutic potential of vitamin E against myocardial ischemic-reperfusion injury. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 10, 315324.

LL Ji (1995a) Exercise and oxidative stress: role of the cellular antioxidant systems. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews 23, 135166.

LL Ji (1995b) Oxidative stress during exercise: implication of antioxidant nutrients. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 18, 10791086.

LL Ji , F Stratman & H Lardy (1988) Antioxidant enzyme systems in rat liver and skeletal muscle. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 263, 150160.

VE Kagan , RA Bakalova , EE Serbinova & TS Stoytchev (1990) Fluorescence measurements of incorporation and hydrolysis of tocopherol and tocopheryl esters in biomembranes. Methods in Enzymology 186, 355367.

VE Kagan , A Shvedova , E Serbinova , S Khan , C Swanson , R Powell & L Packer (1992) Dihydrolipoic acid-a universal antioxidant both in the membrane and in the aqueous phase. Reduction of peroxyl, ascorbyl and chromanoxyl radicals. Biochemistry and Pharmacology 44, 16371649.

J Karlsson , L Lin & C Sylven (1996) Muscle ubiquinone in healthy physically active males. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 156, 169172.

J Lawler , S Powers & D Criswell (1993) Inducibility of NADP-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase with endurance training in skeletal muscle. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 149, 177181.

A Meister & ME Anderson (1983) Glutathione. Annual Reviews of Biochemistry 52, 711760.

E Nashawati , A Dimarco & G Supinski (1993) Effects produced by infusion of a free radical-generating solution into the diaphragm. American Review of Respiratory Disease 147, 6065.

GP Novelli , G Bracciotti & S Falsini (1990) Spin-trappers and vitamin E prolong endurance to muscle fatigue in mice. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 8, 913.

L Oberly , Clair D St , A Autor & T Oberly (1987) Increase in manganese superoxide dismutase activity in the mouse heart after X-irradiation. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 254, 6980.

S Oh-ishi , T Kizaki , T Ookawara , T Sakurai , T Izawa , N Nagata & H Ohno (1997b) Endurance training improves the resistance of rat diaphragm to exercise-induced oxidative stress. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 156, 15791585.

Y Oyanuagui (1984) Reevaluation of assay methods and establishment of kit for superoxide dismutase activity. Analytical Biochemistry 142, 290296.

L Packer (1994) Antioxidant properties of lipoic acid and its therapeutic effects in prevention of diabetes complications and cataracts. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 738, 257264.

L Packer , A Almada & L Rothfuss (1989) Modulation of tissue vitamin E levels by physical exercise. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 570, 311321.

JE Packer , TF Slater & RL Willson (1979) Direct observation of a free radical interaction between vitamin E and vitamin C. Nature 278, 737738.

S Powers , D Criswell , J Lawler , D Martin , L Ji , R Herb & G Dudley (1994b) Regional training-induced alterations in diaphragmatic oxidative and antioxidant enzymes. Respiration Physiology 95, 227237.

S Powers , C Ji & C Leeuwenburgh (1999) Exercise training-induced alterations in skeletal muscle antioxidant capacity: a brief review. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise(In the Press).

MB Reid , DS Stokic , SM Koch , FA Khawli & AA Leis (1994) N-acetylcysteine inhibits muscle fatigue in humans. Journal of Clinical Investigation 94, 24682474.

A Salminen & V Vihko (1983) Endurance training reduces the susceptibility of mouse skeletal muscle to lipid peroxidation in vitro. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 117, 109113.

P Venditti & Meo S Di (1996) Antioxidants, tissue damage, and endurance in trained and untrained young male rats. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 331, 6368.

P Venditti & Meo S Di (1997) Effect of training on antioxidant capacity, tissue damage, and endurance of adult male rats. International Journal of Sports Medicine 18, 497502.

J Vina , J Sastre , M Asensi & L Packer (1995) Assay of blood glutathione oxidation during physical exercise. Methods in Enzymology 251, 237243.

H Vincent , S Powers , H Demirel , J Coombes & H Naito (1999) Exercise training protects against contraction-induced lipid peroxidation in the diaphragm. European Journal of Applied Physiology 79, 268273.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords: