Skip to main content
×
Home

Edible insects are the future?

  • Arnold van Huis (a1)
Abstract

The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Edible insects are the future?
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Edible insects are the future?
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Edible insects are the future?
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: A. van Huis, email arnold.vanhuis@wur.nl
References
Hide All
1. Bodenheimer FS (1951) Insects as Human Food: A Chapter of the Ecology of Man, pp. 352. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk, Publishers.
2. DeFoliart G (2012) The human use of insects as a food resource: a bibliographic account in progress. http://www.food-insects.com/
3. Van Huis A (2003) Insects as food in sub-Saharan Africa. Insect Sci Appl 23, 163185.
4. Yen AL (2015) Insects as food and feed in the Asia Pacific region: current perspectives and future directions. J. Insects Food Feed 1, 3355.
5. Yhoung-Aree J & Viwatpanich K (2005) Edible insects in the Laos PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. In Ecological Implications of Minilivestock: Potential of Insects, Rodents, Frogs, and Snails, pp. 415440. [Paoletti MG, editor] Enfield, New Hampshire: Science Publishers, Inc.
6. Ramos-Elorduy J & Moreno JMP (1989) Los insectos comestibles en el México antiguo (estudio etnoentomológico), pp. 108. AGT Editor, México.
7. Costa-Neto EM (2015) Anthropo-entomophagy in Latin America: an overview of the importance of edible insects to local communities. J Insects Food Feed 1, 1723.
8. Meyer-Rochow VB & Changkija S (1997) Uses of insects as human food in Papua New Guinea, Australia and North-East India: cross-cultural considerations and cautious conclusions. Ecol Food Nutr 36, 159185.
9. Yen AL (2005) Insects and other invertebrate foods of the Australian aborigines. In Ecological Implications of Minilivestock: Potential of Insects, Rodents, Frogs and Snails, pp. 367388 [Paoletti MG, editor]. Enfield, New Hampshire: Science Publishers, Inc.
10. Jongema Y (2015) List of edible insect species of the world. The Netherlands: Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University; available at http://wwwentwurnl/UK/Edible+insects/Worldwide+species+list/.
11. Alexandratos N & Bruinsma J (2012) World agriculture towards 2030/2050: The 2012 Revision. Global Perspective Studies Team ESA Working Paper No 12-03. Agricultural Development Economics Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
12. Rosegrant MW, Tokgoz S & Bhandary P (2012) The new normal? A tighter global agricultural supply and demand relation and its implications for food security. Am J Agric Econ 95, 303309.
13. Tilman D & Clark M (2014) Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health. Nature 515, 518522.
14. Steinfeld H, Gerber P, Wassenaar T et al. (editors) (2006) CdH. Livestock's Long Shadow. Environmental Issues and Options, pp. 319. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
15. Van Huis A (2013) Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security. Annu Rev Entomol 58, 563583.
16. Kirkpatrick TW (1957) Insect Life in the Tropics. London: William Clowes and Sons Ltd.
17. Looy H, Dunkel FV & Wood JR (2014) How then shall we eat? Insect-eating attitudes and sustainable foodways. Agric Hum Values 31, 131141.
18. Hamilton AJ, Basset Y, Benke KK et al. (2010) Quantifying uncertainty in estimation of tropical arthropod species richness. Am Nat 176, 9095.
19. Van Lenteren JC (2006) Ecosystem services to biological control of pests: why are they ignored? Proc Neth Entomol Soc Meet 17, 103111.
20. Losey JE & Vaughan M (2006) The economic value of ecological services provided by insects. BioScience 56, 311323.
21. DeFoliart GR (1999) Insects as food: why the western attitude is important. Annu Rev Entomol 44, 2150.
22. Yen AL (2009) Edible insects: traditional knowledge or western phobia? (Special Issue: Trends on the edible insects in Korea and abroad.). Entomol Res 39, 289298.
23. Burlingame B, Dernini S (2012) Sustainable diets and biodiversity. Directions and solutions for policy, research and action. In Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium on Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets United Against Hunger, 3–5 November 2010, Rome: FAO Headquarters.
24. Gerber PJ, Steinfeld H, Henderson B et al. (2013) Tackling Climate Change Through Livestock – A Global Assessment of Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
25. Beusen AHW, Bouwman AF, Heuberger PSC et al. (2008) Bottom-up uncertainty estimates of global ammonia emissions from global agricultural production systems. Atmos Environ 42, 60676077.
26. Eisler MC, Lee MR, Tarlton JF et al. (2014) Agriculture: steps to sustainable livestock. Nature 507, 3234.
27. UNFCCC (2010) Decision 1/CP16: the Cancun agreements: outcome of the work of the ad hoc working group on long-term cooperative action under the Convention United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). UNFCCC document FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add1.
28. Hedenus F, Wirsenius S & Johansson DA (2014) The importance of reduced meat and dairy consumption for meeting stringent climate change targets. Clim Change 124, 7991.
29. Van der Spiegel M, Noordam MY & Van der Fels-Klerx HJ (2013) Safety of novel protein sources (insects, microalgae, seaweed, duckweed, and rapeseed) and legislative aspects for their application in food and feed production. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Safety 12, 662678.
30. Oonincx DGAB, Van Itterbeeck J, Heetkamp MJW et al. (2010) An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption. PLos ONE 5, e14445.
31. Oonincx DGAB & de Boer DM (2012) Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans—a life cycle assessment. PLoS ONE 7, e51145.
32. Abbasi T, Abbasi T & Abbasi SA (2015) Reducing the global environmental impact of livestock production: the minilivestock option. J Cleaner Prod 112, 17541766.
33. Van Huis A, Van Itterbeeck J, Klunder H et al. (2013) Edible Insects: Future Prospects for Food and Feed Security. FAO Forestry Paper 171, pp. 187. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
34. Randrianandrasana M & Berenbaum MR (2015) Edible non-crustacean arthropods in rural communities of Madagascar. J Ethnobiol 35, 354383.
35. Bukkens SGF (1997) The nutritional value of edible insects. Ecol Food Nutr 36, 287319.
36. Ghazoul J (2006) Mopani Woodlands and the Mopane Worm: Enhancing Rural Livelihoods and Resource Sustainability. Final Technical Report. London: DFID.
37. Styles CV (1994) The big value in mopane worms. Farmer's Weekly 22, 2022.
38. Dzerefos C & Witkowski EF (2015) Crunchtime: sub-Saharan stinkbugs, a dry season delicacy and cash cow for impoverished rural communities. Food Sec 7, 919925.
39. Muafor FJ, Gnetegha AA, Gall PL et al. (2015) Exploitation, trade and farming of palm weevil grubs in Cameroon. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Working Paper 178, Bogor, Indonesia.
40. Payne CLR. Wild harvesting declines as pesticides and imports rise: the collection and consumption of insects in contemporary rural Japan. J Insects Food Feed 2015;1, 5765.
41. Ramos-Elorduy J (2006) Threatened edible insects in Hidalgo, Mexico and some measures to preserve them. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2, 51 (online journal). doi: 10.1186/1746-4269-2-51
42. Mufandaedza E, Moyo DZ & Makoni P (2015) Management of non-timber forest products harvesting: rules and regulations governing (Imbrasia belina) access in South-Eastern Lowveld of Zimbabwe. Afr J Agric Res 10, 15211530.
43. Van Itterbeeck J & Van Huis A (2012) Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 8, 17.
44. Holt VM (1995) Why Not Eat Insects?, pp. 67. Oxford: Thornton's. Text reset from the original 1885 edition by Daniel H Meeuws, Oxford July/August 1993.
45. DeFoliart G, Dunkel FV & Gracer D (2009) The Food Insects Newsletter: Chronicle of a Changing Culture, pp. 414. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Aardvark Global Publishing.
46. Van Huis A & Vantomme P (2014) Conference report: insects to feed the World. Food Chain 4, 184192.
47. Ramos-Elorduy J (1998) Creepy Crawly Cuisine: the Gourmet Guide to Edible Insects, pp 150. Rochester, Vermont: Park Street Press.
48. Van Huis A, Gurp HV & Dicke M (2014) The Insect Cookbook. New York: Columbia University Press.
49. EDI (2015) Verordnung des EDI über Lebensmittel tierischer Herkunft Artikel 9, 10 Absatz 4 Buchstabe a, 14 Absatz 1 und 35 Absätze 4 und 5 der Lebensmittel- und Gebrauchsgegenständeverordnung Das Eidgenössische Departement des Innern (EDI). http://tinyurlcom/ojryfut.
50. FASFC/SHC (2014) Food Safety Aspects of Insects Intended for Human Consumption. Scientific Committee of the Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC; Sci Com dossier 2014/04) validated by the Superior Health Council (SHC; dossier no 9160) Brussels: FASFC.
51. FAO (2011) Global Food Losses and Food Waste—Extent, Causes and Prevention. Rome: FAO.
52. FAO (2014) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture: Opportunities and Challenges. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
53. Msangi S, Kobayashi M, Batka M et al. (2013) Fish to 2030: Prospects for Fisheries and Aquaculture. World Bank Report No 83177-GLB. Washington, DC: World Bank.
54. Lock ER, Arsiwalla T & Waagbø R (2015) Insect larvae meal as an alternative source of nutrients in the diet of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) postsmolt. Aquacult Nutr. (Epublication ahead of print version).
55. Sánchez-Muros MJ, de Haro C, Sanz A et al. (2015) Nutritional evaluation of Tenebrio molitor meal as fishmeal substitute for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) diet. Aquacult Nutr (Epublication ahead of print version).
56. Oluokun J (2000) Upgrading the nutritive value of full-fat soyabeans meal for broiler production with either fishmeal or Black soldier fly larvae meal (Hermetia illucens). Niger J Anim Sci 3 (available at http://www.ajol.info/index.php/tjas/article/view/49768).
57. Awoniyi TAM, Aletor VA & Aina JM (2003) Performance of broiler-chickens fed on maggot meal in place of fishmeal. Int J Poult Sci 2, 271274.
58. Ogunjil J, Kloas W, Wirth M, et al. (2006) Housefly maggot meal (magmeal): an emerging substitute of fishmeal in tilapia diets. In Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development Deutscher Tropentag 2006 Stuttgart-Hohenheim, 11–13 October 2006.
59. Sing K, Kamarudin M, Wilson J et al. (2014). Evaluation of blowfly (Chrysomya megacephala) maggot meal as an effective, sustainable replacement for fishmeal in the diet of farmed juvenile red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.). Pak Vet J 34, 288292.
60. Mbunwen FNH, Onyimonyi AE, Nwoga CC et al. (2011) Biological value of maggot meal as a replacement for fishmeal in the diets of African giant snail (Achatina spp.). Hatchings J Life Sci 5, 821825.
61. Idowu AB, Amusan AAS & Oyediran AG (2003) The response of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (Burchell 1822) to the diet containing Housefly maggot (Musca domestica) (L). Niger J Anim Prod 30, 139144.
62. Madu CT & Ufodike EBC (2003) Growth and survival of catfish (Clarias anguillaris) juveniles fed live tilapia and maggot as unconventional diets. J Aquat Sci 18, 4752.
63. Aniebo AO, Erondu ES & Owen OJ (2009) Replacement of fish meal with maggot meal in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) diets (Sustitución de harina de pescado con harina de larvas en dietas para el bagre Africano (Clarias gariepinus)). Revista Científica UDO Agrícola 9, 653656.
64. Kareem AO & Ogunremi JB (2012) Growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fed compounded rations and maggots. J Environ Issues Agric 4, 15.
65. Kurbanov AR, Milusheva RY, Rashidova SS et al. (2015) Effect of replacement of fish meal with silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupa protein on the growth of Clarias gariepinus fingerling. Int J Fish Aquat Stud 2, 2527.
66. Fasakin EA, Balogun AM & Ajayi OO (2003) Evaluation of full-fat and defatted maggot meals in the feeding of clariid catfish Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Aquacult Res 34, 733738.
67. Ng WK, Liew FL, Ang LP et al. (2001) Potential of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) as an alternative protein source in practical diets for African catfish, Clarias gariepinus . Aquacult Res 32, Suppl. 1, 273280.
68. St-Hilaire S, Sheppard C, Tomberlin JK et al. (2007) Fly prepupae as a feedstuff for Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss . J World Aquacult Soc 38, 5967.
69. Sealey WM, Gaylord TG, Barrows FT et al. (2011) Sensory analysis of Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched Black soldier fly prepupae, Hermetia illucens . J World Aquacult Soc 42, 3445.
70. Hanboonsong Y, Jamjanya T & Durst PB (2013) Six-legged Livestock: Edible Insect Farming, Collection and Marketing in Thailand. Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
71. Monzenga Lokela JC (2015) Ecologie appliquée de Rhynchophorus phoenicis Fabricius (Dryophthoridae : Coleoptera) : phénologie et optimisation des conditions d’élevage à Kisangani, R.D.Congo. Thèse présentée par Jean Claude Monzenga Lokela en vue de l'obtention du grade de docteur en sciences agronomiques et ingénierie biologique, février 2015 Université Catholique de Louvain, Faculté des bioingénieurs, Biodiversity Research Centre, Earth and Life Institute.
72. Durst PB & Hanboonsong Y (2015) Small-scale production of edible insects for enhanced food security and rural livelihoods: experience from Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic. J Insects Food Feed 1, 2531.
73. Caparros Megido R, Alabi T, Nieus C et al. (2016) Optimisation of a cheap and residential small-scale production of edible crickets with local by-products as an alternative protein-rich human food source in Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia. J Sci Food Agric 96, 627632.
74. Ramos-Elorduy J, Gonzalez EA, Hernandez AR et al. (2002) Use of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to recycle organic wastes and as feed for broiler chickens. J Econ Entomol 95, 214220.
75. Van Broekhoven S, Oonincx DGAB, Van Huis A et al. (2015) Growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of three edible mealworm species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on diets composed of organic by-products. J Insect Physiol 73 (online version). doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2014.12.005.
76. Lundy ME & Parrella MP (2015) Crickets are not a free lunch: protein capture from scalable organic side-streams via high-density populations of Acheta domesticus . PLoS ONE 10, e0118785.
77. Finke MD & Oonincx D (2014) Chapter 17—insects as food for insectivores. In Mass Production of Beneficial Organisms, pp. 583616 [Shapiro-Ilan JAM-RGRI, editor]. San Diego: Academic Press.
78. Rumpold BA & Schlüter OK (2013) Nutritional composition and safety aspects of edible insects. Mol Nutr Food Res 57, 802823.
79. Yi L, Lakemond CMM, Sagis LMC et al. (2013) Extraction and characterisation of protein fractions from five insect species. Food Chem 141, 33413348.
80. Ekpo KE & Onigbinde AO (2005) Nutritional potentials of the larva of Rhynchophorus phoenicis (F). Pak J Nutr 4, 287.
81. DeFoliart G (1992) Insect as human food; Gene DeFoliart discusses some nutritional and economic aspects. Crop Prot 11, 395399.
82. Gibson RS (2015) Dietary-induced zinc deficiency in low income countries: challenges and solutions The Avanelle Kirksey Lecture at Purdue University. Nutr Today 50, 4955.
83. McLean E, Cogswell M, Egli I et al. (2009) Worldwide prevalence of anaemia, WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System, 1993–2005. Public Health Nutr 12, 444454.
84. Christensen DL, Orech FO, Mungai MN et al. (2006) Entomophagy among the Luos of Kenya: a potential mineral source? Int J Food Sci Nutr 57, 198203.
85. Bauserman M, Lokangaka A, Gado J et al. (2015) A cluster-randomized trial determining the efficacy of caterpillar cereal as a locally available and sustainable complementary food to prevent stunting and anaemia. Public Health Nutr 18, 17851792.
86. Skau JK, Touch B, Chhoun C et al. (2015) Effects of animal source food and micronutrient fortification in complementary food products on body composition, iron status, and linear growth: a randomized trial in Cambodia. Am J Clin Nutr 101, 742751.
87. Piel FB, Hay SI, Gupta S et al. (2013) Global burden of sickle cell anaemia in children under five, 2010–2050: modelling based on demographics, excess mortality, and interventions. PLoS Med 10, e1001484.
88. Kalonda EM, Mbayo MK, Kanangila AB et al. (2015) Evaluation of antisickling activity of some insect extracts from Katanga in Democratic Republic of the Congo. J Adv Med Life Sci 3. ISSN: .
89. Yoon Y-I, Chung MY, Hwang J-S, Han MS et al. (2015) Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) larvae confer resistance to obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet. Nutrients 7, 19781991.
90. Ushakova NA, Kovalzon VM, Bastrakov AI et al. (2015) The ability of Alphitobius diaperinus homogenates immobilized on plant sorbent to block the development of mouse parkinsonism. Dokl Biochem Biophys 461, 9497.
91. Kinyuru JN, Kenji GM, Njoroge SM et al. (2010) Effect of processing methods on the in vitro protein digestibility and vitamin content of edible winged termite (Macrotermes subhylanus) and grasshopper (Ruspolia differens). Food Bioprocess Technol 3, 778782.
92. Aguilar-Miranda ED, Lopez MG, Escamilla-Santana C et al. (2002) Characteristics of maize flour tortilla supplemented with ground Tenebrio molitor larvae. J. Agric. Food Chem 50, 192195.
93. Hwang S-Y & Choi S-K (2015) Quality characteristics of muffins containing Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor). Korean J Culinary Res 21, 104115.
94. Dzerefos CM, Witkowski ETF & Toms R (2013) Comparative ethnoentomology of edible stinkbugs in southern Africa and sustainable management considerations. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 9, 20.
95. Sani I, Haruna M, Abdulhamid A et al. (2014) Assessment of nutritional quality and mineral composition of dried edible Zonocerus variegatus (grasshopper). J Food Dairy Technol 2, 16.
96. Idowu AB & Idowu OA (2015). Pharmacological properties of the repellent secretion of Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Prygomorphidae). 2015, 6.
97. Seignobos C, Deguine J-P & Aberlenc H-P (1996) Les Mofus et leurs insectes. In: Journal d'agriculture traditionnelle et de botanique appliquée. Ethnozoologie 38, 125187.
98. Mujuru FM, Kwiri R, Clarice Nyambi CW et al. (2014) Microbiological quality of Gonimbrasia belina processed under different traditional practices in Gwanda, Zimbabwe. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 3, 10851094.
99. Gurnari G (2015). Safety Protocols in the Food Industry and Emerging Concerns. AG, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
100. Klunder HC, Wolkers-Rooijackers J, Korpela JM et al. (2012) Microbiological aspects of processing and storage of edible insects. Food Control 26, 628631.
101. Pennisi E (2015) All in the (bigger) family revised arthropod tree marries crustacean and insect fields. Sci Total Environ 347, 220221.
102. Srinroch C, Srisomsap C, Chokchaichamnankit D et al. (2015) Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens. Food Chem 184, 160166.
103. Verhoeckx KCM, Van Broekhoven S, den Hartog-Jager CF et al. (2014) House dust mite (Der p 10) and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins. Food Chem Toxicol 65, 364373.
104. Phiriyangkul P, Srinroch C, Srisomsap C et al. (2015) Effect of food thermal processing on allergenicity proteins in Bombay locust (Patanga succincta). Int J Food Eng 1, 2328.
105. Pener MP (2014) Allergy to locusts and acridid grasshoppers: a review. J Orthoptera Res 23, 5967.
106. Belluco S, Losasso C, Maggioletti M et al. (2013) Edible insects in a food safety and nutritional perspective: a critical review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Safety 12, 296313.
107. Stamer A (2015) Insect proteins—a new source for animal feed. EMBO Rep. 16, 676680.
108. Ramaswamy SB (2015) Setting the table for a hotter, flatter, more crowded earth: insects on the menu? J Insects Food Feed 1, 171178.
109. Mcgranahan G & Satterthwaite D (2014) Working Paper Urbanisation Concepts and Trends. London: Working Paper International Institute for Environment and Development.
110. Ruby MB, Rozin P & Chan C (2015) Determinants of willingness to eat insects in the USA and India. J Insects Food Feed 1, 215225.
111. Rozin P, Guillot L, Fincher K et al. (2013) Glad to be sad, and other examples of benign masochism. Judg Decis Making 8, 439447.
112. Verbeke W (2015) Profiling consumers who are ready to adopt insects as a meat substitute in a Western society. Food Qual Preference 39, 147155.
113. Tan HSG, Fischer ARH, Tinchan P et al. (2015) Insects as food: exploring cultural exposure and individual experience as determinants of acceptance. Food Qual Preference 42, 7889.
114. Lensvelt EJS & Steenbekkers LPA (2014) Exploring consumer acceptance of entomophagy: a survey and experiment in Australia and the Netherlands. Ecol Food Nutr 53, 543561.
115. Fischer ARH & Frewer LJ (2009) Consumer familiarity with foods and the perception of risks and benefits. Food Qual Preference 20, 576585.
116. Ayieko MA, Oriamo V & Nyambuga IA (2010) Processed products of termites and lake flies: improving entomophagy for food security within the Lake Victoria region. Afr J Food Agric Nutr Dev 10, 20852098.
117. Caparros Megido R, Sablon L, Geuens M et al. (2014) Edible insects acceptance by Belgian consumers: promising attitude for entomophagy development. J Sens Stud 29, 1420.
118. Deroy O, Reade B & Spence C (2015) The insectivore's dilemma, and how to take the West out of it. Food Qual Preference 44, 4455.
119. Malaisse F (1997). Se Nourir en Forêt Claire Africaine: Approche Écologique et Nutritionnelle, pp. 384. Gembloux:Les Presses Agronomiques de Gembloux.
120. Nowak V, Persijn D, Rittenschober D et al. (2014) Review of food composition data for edible insects. Food Chem 193, 3946.
121. Miglietta PP, Leo FD, Ruberti M & Massari S (2015) Mealworms for food: a water footprint perspective. Water, 7, 61906203.
122. Katayama N, Ishikawa Y, Takaoki M et al. (2008) Entomophagy: a key to space agriculture. Adv Space Res 41, 701705.
123. Tong L, Yu X & Liu H (2011) Insect food for astronauts: gas exchange in silkworms fed on mulberry and lettuce and the nutritional value of these insects for human consumption during deep space flights. Bull Entomol Res 101, 613622.
124. Yang Y, Tang L, Tong L et al. (2009) Silkworms culture as a source of protein for humans in space. Adv Space Res 43, 12361242.
125. Jones RS (2015) Space diet: daily mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) harvest on a multigenerational spaceship. J Interdiscip Sci Top. Available at https://physics.le.ac.uk/jist/index.php/JIST/article/view/108/64.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 247
Total number of PDF views: 1225 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 2484 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 24th November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.