This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
1.KA Youdim & JA Joseph (2001) A possible emerging role of phytochemicals in improving age-related neurological dysfunctions: a multiplicity of effects. Free Radic Biol Med 30, 583–594.
2.KA Youdim , JPE Spencer , H Schroeter & C Rice-Evans (2002) Dietary flavonoids as potential neuroprotectants. Biol Chem 383, 503–519.
3.RL Galli , B Shukitt-Hale , KA Youdim & JA Joseph (2002) Fruit polyphenolics and brain aging: nutritional interventions targeting age-related neuronal and behavioral deficits. Ann NY Acad Sci 959, 128–132.
4.K Unno , F Takabayashi , T Kishido & N Oku (2004) Suppressive effect of green tea catechins on morphologic and functional regression of the brain in aged mice with accelerated senescence (SAMP10). Exp Gerontol 39, 1027–1034.
7.Y Wang , L Wang , J Wu & J Cai (2006) The in vivo synaptic plasticity mechanism of EGb 761-induced enhancement of spatial learning and memory in aged rats. Br J Pharmacol 148, 147–153.
8.O Inanami , Y Watanabe , B Syuto , M Nakano , M Tsuji & M Kuwabara (1998) Oral administration of (-)catechin protects against ischemia-reperfusion-induced neuronal death in the gerbil. Free Radic Res 29, 359–365.
9.Y Luo , JV Smith , V Paramasivam , A Burdick , KJ Curry , JP Buford , I Khan , WJ Netzer , H Xu & P Butko (2002) Inhibition of amyloid-beta aggregation and caspase-3 activation by the Ginkgo biloba extract EGb761. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99, 12197–12202.
10.S Bastianetto , WH Zheng & R Quirion (2000) The Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) protects and rescues hippocampal cells against nitric oxide-induced toxicity: involvement of its flavonoid constituents and protein kinase C. J Neurochem 74, 2268–2277.
12.KP Datla , M Christidou , WW Widmer , HK Rooprai & DT Dexter (2001) Tissue distribution and neuroprotective effects of citrus flavonoid tangeretin in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Neuroreport 12, 3871–3875.
13.CA Rice-Evans , NJ Miller & G Paganga (1996) Structure-antioxidant activity relationships of flavonoids and phenolic acids. Free Radic Biol Med 20, 933–956.
14.SE Pollard , GG Kuhnle , D Vauzour , K Vafeiadou , X Tzounis , M Whiteman , C Rice-Evans & JPE Spencer (2006) The reaction of flavonoid metabolites with peroxynitrite. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 350, 960–968.
15.RJ Williams , JPE Spencer & C Rice-Evans (2004) Flavonoids: antioxidants or signalling molecules? Free Radic Biol Med 36, 838–849.
16.JPE Spencer , C Rice-Evans & RJ Williams (2003) Modulation of pro-survival Akt/PKB & ERK1/2 signalling cascades by quercetin and its in vivo metabolites underlie their action on neuronal viability. J Biol Chem 278, 34783–34793.
17.H Schroeter , C Boyd , JPE Spencer , RJ Williams , E Cadenas & C Rice-Evans (2002) MAPK signaling in neurodegeneration: influences of flavonoids and of nitric oxide. Neurobiol Aging 23, 861–880.
19.C Rice-Evans (2001) Flavonoid antioxidants. Curr Med Chem 8, 797–807.
20.C Rice-Evans (1995) Plant polyphenols: free radical scavengers or chain-breaking antioxidants? Biochem Soc Symp 61, 103–116.
21.JPE Spencer , H Schroeter , AR Rechner & C Rice-Evans (2001) Bioavailability of flavan-3-ols and procyanidins: gastrointestinal tract influences and their relevance to bioactive forms in vivo. Antioxid Redox Signal 3, 1023–1039.
23.JPE Spencer , G Chowrimootoo , R Choudhury , ES Debnam , SK Srai & C Rice-Evans (1999) The small intestine can both absorb and glucuronidate luminal flavonoids. FEBS Lett 458, 224–230.
26.JPE Spencer , GG Kuhnle , RJ Williams & C Rice-Evans (2003) Intracellular metabolism and bioactivity of quercetin and its in vivo metabolites. Biochem J 372, 173–181.
27.JPE Spencer , H Schroeter , AJ Crossthwaithe , G Kuhnle , RJ Williams & C Rice-Evans (2001) Contrasting influences of glucuronidation and O-methylation of epicatechin on hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death in neurons and fibroblasts. Free Radic Biol Med 31, 1139–1146.
28.Y Miyake , K Shimoi , S Kumazawa , K Yamamoto , N Kinae & T Osawa (2000) Identification and antioxidant activity of flavonoid metabolites in plasma and urine of eriocitrin-treated rats. J Agric Food Chem 48, 3217–3224.
29.J Terao , S Yamaguchi , M Shirai , M Miyoshi , JH Moon , S Oshima , T Inakuma , T Tsushida & Y Kato (2001) Protection by quercetin and quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucuronide of peroxynitrite-induced antioxidant consumption in human plasma low-density lipoprotein. Free Radic Res 35, 925–931.
30.M Shirai , JH Moon , T Tsushida & J Terao (2001) Inhibitory effect of a quercetin metabolite, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucuronide, on lipid peroxidation in liposomal membranes. J Agric Food Chem 49, 5602–5608.
31.N Yamamoto , JH Moon , T Tsushida , A Nagao & J Terao (1999) Inhibitory effect of quercetin metabolites and their related derivatives on copper ion-induced lipid peroxidation in human low-density lipoprotein. Arch Biochem Biophys 372, 347–354.
32.EL da Silva , MK Piskula , N Yamamoto , JH Moon & J Terao (1998) Quercetin metabolites inhibit copper ion-induced lipid peroxidation in rat plasma. FEBS Lett 430, 405–408.
33.L Letenneur , C Proust-Lima , A Le Gouge , JF Dartigues & P Barberger-Gateau (2007) Flavonoid intake and cognitive decline over a 10-year period. Am J Epidemiol 165, 1364–1371.
35.YB Lee , HJ Lee & HS Sohn (2005) Soy isoflavones and cognitive function. J Nutr Biochem 16, 641–649.
36.SE File , N Jarrett , E Fluck , R Duffy , K Casey & H Wiseman (2001) Eating soya improves human memory. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 157, 430–436.
37.H Kim , H Xia , L Li & J Gewin (2000) Attenuation of neurodegeneration-relevant modifications of brain proteins by dietary soy. Biofactors 12, 243–250.
38.SJ Birge (1996) Is there a role for estrogen replacement therapy in the prevention and treatment of dementia? J Am Geriatr Soc 44, 865–870.
39.VW Henderson (2006) Estrogen-containing hormone therapy and Alzheimer's disease risk: understanding discrepant inferences from observational and experimental research. Neuroscience 138, 1031–1039.
40.ML Casini , G Marelli , E Papaleo , A Ferrari , F D'Ambrosio & V Unfer (2006) Psychological assessment of the effects of treatment with phytoestrogens on postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study. Fertil Steril 85, 972–978.
41.D Kritz-Silverstein , Mühlen D Von , E Barrett-Connor & MA Bressel (2003) Isoflavones and cognitive function in older women: the SOy and Postmenopausal Health In Aging (SOPHIA) Study. Menopause 10, 196–202.
42.SE File , DE Hartley , S Elsabagh , R Duffy & H Wiseman (2005) Cognitive improvement after 6 weeks of soy supplements in postmenopausal women is limited to frontal lobe function. Menopause 12, 193–201.
43.R Zippel , M Balestrini , M Lomazzi & E Sturani (2000) Calcium and calmodulin are essential for Ras-GRF1-mediated activation of the Ras pathway by lysophosphatidic acid. Exp Cell Res 258, 403–408.
44.S Kreijkamp-Kaspers , L Kok , DE Grobbee , EH de Haan , A Aleman , JW Lampe & YT van der Schouw (2004) Effect of soy protein containing isoflavones on cognitive function, bone mineral density, and plasma lipids in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 292, 65–74.
46.S Kreijkamp-Kaspers , L Kok , DE Grobbee , EH de Haan , A Aleman & YT van der Schouw (2007) Dietary phytoestrogen intake and cognitive function in older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 62, 556–562.
47.S Barnes , B Boersma , R Patel , M Kirk , VM Darley-Usmar , H Kim & J Xu (2000) Isoflavonoids and chronic disease: mechanisms of action. Biofactors 12, 209–215.
49.H Schroeter , C Heiss , J Balzer , P Kleinbongard , CL Keen , NK Hollenberg , H Sies , C Kwik-Uribe , HH Schmitz & M Kelm (2006) (-)-Epicatechin mediates beneficial effects of flavanol-rich cocoa on vascular function in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103, 1024–1029.
50.ST Francis , K Head , PG Morris & IA Macdonald (2006) The effect of flavanol-rich cocoa on the fMRI response to a cognitive task in healthy young people. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 47, Suppl. 2, S215–S220.
51.ND Fisher , FA Sorond & NK Hollenberg (2006) Cocoa flavanols and brain perfusion. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 47, Suppl. 2, S210–S214.
52.DF Dinges (2006) Cocoa flavanols, cerebral blood flow, cognition, and health: going forward. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 47, Suppl. 2, S221–S223.
53.FH Gage (2000) Mammalian neural stem cells. Science 287, 1433–1438.
54.TD Palmer , AR Willhoite & FH Gage (2000) Vascular niche for adult hippocampal neurogenesis. J Comp Neurol 425, 479–494.
55.KM Harris & SB Kater (1994) Dendritic spines: cellular specializations imparting both stability and flexibility to synaptic function. Annu Rev Neurosci 17, 341–371.
56.H van Praag , MJ Lucero , GW Yeo (2007) Plant-derived flavanol (-)epicatechin enhances angiogenesis and retention of spatial memory in mice. J Neurosci 27, 5869–5878.
59.G Casadesus , B Shukitt-Hale , HM Stellwagen , X Zhu , HG Lee , MA Smith & JA Joseph (2004) Modulation of hippocampal plasticity and cognitive behavior by short-term blueberry supplementation in aged rats. Nutr Neurosci 7, 309–316.
60.B Shukitt-Hale , DE Smith , M Meydani & JA Joseph (1999) The effects of dietary antioxidants on psychomotor performance in aged mice. Exp Gerontol 34, 797–808.
62.P Goyarzu , DH Malin , FC Lau (2004) Blueberry supplemented diet: effects on object recognition memory and nuclear factor-kappa B levels in aged rats. Nutr Neurosci 7, 75–83.
63.JA Joseph , NA Denisova , G Arendash , M Gordon , D Diamond , B Shukitt-Hale & D Morgan (2003) Blueberry supplementation enhances signaling and prevents behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer disease model. Nutr Neurosci 6, 153–162.
64.C Andres-Lacueva , B Shukitt-Hale , RL Galli , O Jauregui , RM Lamuela-Raventos & JA Joseph (2005) Anthocyanins in aged blueberry-fed rats are found centrally and may enhance memory. Nutr Neurosci 8, 111–120.
65.MR Ramirez , I Izquierdo , RM do Carmo Bassols , JA Zuanazzi , D Barros & AT Henriques (2005) Effect of lyophilised Vaccinium berries on memory, anxiety and locomotion in adult rats. Pharmacol Res 52, 457–462.
66.YC Chan , K Hosoda , CJ Tsai , S Yamamoto & MF Wang (2006) Favorable effects of tea on reducing the cognitive deficits and brain morphological changes in senescence-accelerated mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 52, 266–273.
67.B Shukitt-Hale , A Carey , L Simon , DA Mark & JA Joseph (2006) Effects of Concord grape juice on cognitive and motor deficits in aging. Nutrition 22, 295–302.
68.A Singh , PS Naidu & SK Kulkarni (2003) Reversal of aging and chronic ethanol-induced cognitive dysfunction by quercetin a bioflavonoid. Free Radic Res 37, 1245–1252.
69.CS Patil , VP Singh , PS Satyanarayan , NK Jain , A Singh & SK Kulkarni (2003) Protective effect of flavonoids against aging- and lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive impairment in mice. Pharmacology 69, 59–67.
70.H Wang , Y Hu & JZ Tsien (2006) Molecular and systems mechanisms of memory consolidation and storage. Prog Neurobiol 79, 123–135.
71.LR Squire & S Zola-Morgan (1991) The medial temporal lobe memory system. Science 253, 1380–1386.
72.LR Squire (2004) Memory systems of the brain: a brief history and current perspective. Neurobiol Learn Mem 82, 171–177.
73.LR Squire , CE Stark & RE Clark (2004) The medial temporal lobe. Annu Rev Neurosci 27, 279–306.
74.P Alvarez & LR Squire (1994) Memory consolidation and the medial temporal lobe: a simple network model. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91, 7041–7045.
76.SM Zola-Morgan & LR Squire (1990) The primate hippocampal formation: evidence for a time-limited role in memory storage. Science 250, 288–290.
77.LR Squire & P Alvarez (1995) Retrograde amnesia and memory consolidation: a neurobiological perspective. Curr Opin Neurobiol 5, 169–177.
78.EJ Weeber & JD Sweatt (2002) Molecular neurobiology of human cognition. Neuron 33, 845–848.
79.PK Dash , AN Moore , N Kobori & JD Runyan (2007) Molecular activity underlying working memory. Learn Mem 14, 554–563.
80.T Tully (1998) Toward a molecular biology of memory: the light's coming on! Nat Neurosci 1, 543–545.
81.TJ Carew (1996) Molecular enhancement of memory formation. Neuron 16, 5–8.
82.CR Bramham & DG Wells (2007) Dendritic mRNA: transport, translation and function. Nat Rev Neurosci 8, 776–789.
83.KC Martin , M Barad & ER Kandel (2000) Local protein synthesis and its role in synapse-specific plasticity. Curr Opin Neurobiol 10, 587–592.
84.RJ Kelleher III, A Govindarajan & S Tonegawa (2004) Translational regulatory mechanisms in persistent forms of synaptic plasticity. Neuron 44, 59–73.
85.AF Arnsten , BP Ramos , SG Birnbaum & JR Taylor (2005) Protein kinase A as a therapeutic target for memory disorders: rationale and challenges. Trends Mol Med 11, 121–128.
86.LP van der Heide , GM Ramakers & MP Smidt (2006) Insulin signaling in the central nervous system: learning to survive. Prog Neurobiol 79, 205–221.
87.DL Alkon , MK Sun & TJ Nelson (2007) PKC signaling deficits: a mechanistic hypothesis for the origins of Alzheimer's disease. Trends Pharmacol Sci 28, 51–60.
88.F Wei , CS Qiu , J Liauw , DA Robinson , N Ho , T Chatila & M Zhuo (2002) Calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV is required for fear memory. Nat Neurosci 5, 573–579.
89.JD Sweatt (2001) The neuronal MAP kinase cascade: a biochemical signal integration system subserving synaptic plasticity and memory. J Neurochem 76, 1–10.
90.JD Sweatt (2004) Mitogen-activated protein kinases in synaptic plasticity and memory. Curr Opin Neurobiol 14, 311–317.
91.S Impey , SR McCorkle , H Cha-Molstad , JM Dwyer , GS Yochum , JM Boss , S McWeeney , JJ Dunn , G Mandel & RH Goodman (2004) Defining the CREB regulon: a genome-wide analysis of transcription factor regulatory regions. Cell 119, 1041–1054.
92.A Barco , CH Bailey & ER Kandel (2006) Common molecular mechanisms in explicit and implicit memory. J Neurochem 97, 1520–1533.
93.R Bourtchuladze , B Frenguelli , J Blendy , D Cioffi , G Schutz & AJ Silva (1994) Deficient long-term memory in mice with a targeted mutation of the cAMP-responsive element-binding protein. Cell 79, 59–68.
94.T Tully , R Bourtchouladze , R Scott & J Tallman (2003) Targeting the CREB pathway for memory enhancers. Nat Rev Drug Discov 2, 267–277.
95.TA Pham , S Impey , DR Storm & MP Stryker (1999) CRE-mediated gene transcription in neocortical neuronal plasticity during the developmental critical period. Neuron 22, 63–72.
96.S Impey , DM Smith , K Obrietan , R Donahue , C Wade & DR Storm (1998) Stimulation of cAMP response element (CRE)-mediated transcription during contextual learning. Nat Neurosci 1, 595–601.
97.S Impey , M Mark , EC Villacres , S Poser , C Chavkin & DR Storm (1996) Induction of CRE-mediated gene expression by stimuli that generate long-lasting LTP in area CA1 of the hippocampus. Neuron 16, 973–982.
98.S Finkbeiner (2000) CREB couples neurotrophin signals to survival messages. Neuron 25, 11–14.
99.S Finkbeiner , SF Tavazoie , A Maloratsky , KM Jacobs , KM Harris & ME Greenberg (1997) CREB: a major mediator of neuronal neurotrophin responses. Neuron 19, 1031–1047.
100.NJ Abbott (2002) Astrocyte-endothelial interactions and blood-brain barrier permeability. J Anat 200, 629–638.
101.KA Youdim , MS Dobbie , G Kuhnle , AR Proteggente , NJ Abbott & C Rice-Evans (2003) Interaction between flavonoids and the blood-brain barrier: in vitro studies. J Neurochem 85, 180–192.
102.KA Youdim , B Shukitt-Hale & JA Joseph (2004) Flavonoids and the brain: interactions at the blood-brain barrier and their physiological effects on the central nervous system. Free Radic Biol Med 37, 1683–1693.
103.KA Youdim , MZ Qaiser , DJ Begley , CA Rice-Evans & NJ Abbott (2004) Flavonoid permeability across an in situ model of the blood-brain barrier. Free Radic Biol Med 36, 592–604.
105.B Sperker , JT Backman & HK Kroemer (1997) The role of beta-glucuronidase in drug disposition and drug targeting in humans. Clin Pharmacokinet 33, 18–31.
106.HK Kroemer & U Klotz (1992) Glucuronidation of drugs. A re-evaluation of the pharmacological significance of the conjugates and modulating factors. Clin Pharmacokinet 23, 292–310.
107.JH Lin & M Yamazaki (2003) Role of P-glycoprotein in pharmacokinetics: clinical implications. Clin Pharmacokinet 42, 59–98.
108.M Suganuma , S Okabe , M Oniyama , Y Tada , H Ito & H Fujiki (1998) Wide distribution of [3H](-)-epigallocatechin gallate, a cancer preventive tea polyphenol, in mouse tissue. Carcinogenesis 19, 1771–1776.
109.MM Abd El Mohsen , G Kuhnle , AR Rechner , H Schroeter , S Rose , P Jenner & CA Rice-Evans (2002) Uptake and metabolism of epicatechin and its access to the brain after oral ingestion. Free Radic Biol Med 33, 1693–1702.
110.S Talavera , C Felgines , O Texier , C Besson , A Gil-Izquierdo , JL Lamaison & C Remesy (2005) Anthocyanin metabolism in rats and their distribution to digestive area, kidney, and brain. J Agric Food Chem 53, 3902–3908.
112.B Halliwell , K Zhao & M Whiteman (2000) The gastrointestinal tract: a major site of antioxidant action? Free Radic Res 33, 819–830.
113.D Vauzour , K Vafeiadou , G Corona , SE Pollard , X Tzounis & JPE Spencer (2007) Champagne wine polyphenols protect primary cortical neurons against peroxynitrite-induced injury. J Agric Food Chem 55, 2854–2860.
114.K Vafeiadou , D Vauzour & JPE Spencer (2007) Neuroinflammation and its modulation by flavonoids. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 7, 211–224.
115.WF Matter , RF Brown & CJ Vlahos (1992) The inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase by quercetin and analogs. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 186, 624–631.
117.G Agullo , L Gamet-Payrastre , S Manenti , C Viala , C Remesy , H Chap & B Payrastre (1997) Relationship between flavonoid structure and inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase: a comparison with tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C inhibition. Biochem Pharmacol 53, 1649–1657.
118.L Gamet-Payrastre , S Manenti , MP Gratacap , J Tulliez , H Chap & B Payrastre (1999) Flavonoids and the inhibition of PKC and PI 3-kinase. Gen Pharmacol 32, 279–286.
119.AN Kong , R Yu , C Chen , S Mandlekar & T Primiano (2000) Signal transduction events elicited by natural products: role of MAPK and caspase pathways in homeostatic response and induction of apoptosis. Arch Pharm Res 23, 1–16.
120.H Schroeter , JPE Spencer , C Rice-Evans & RJ Williams (2001) Flavonoids protect neurons from oxidized low-density-lipoprotein-induced apoptosis involving c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), c-Jun and caspase-3. Biochem J 358, 547–557.
121.JPE Spencer (2007) The interactions of flavonoids within neuronal signalling pathways. Genes Nutr 2, 257–273.
122.G Conseil , H Baubichon-Cortay , G Dayan , JM Jault , D Barron & A Di Pietro (1998) Flavonoids: a class of modulators with bifunctional interactions at vicinal ATP- and steroid-binding sites on mouse P-glycoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95, 9831–9836.
123.A Di Pietro , C Godinot , ML Bouillant & DC Gautheron (1975) Pig heart mitochondrial ATPase: properties of purified and membrane-bound enzyme. Effects of flavonoids. Biochimie 57, 959–967.
124.A Barzilai & H Rahamimoff (1983) Inhibition of Ca2+-transport ATPase from synaptosomal vesicles by flavonoids. Biochim Biophys Acta 730, 245–254.
125.MP Revuelta , B Cantabrana & A Hidalgo (1997) Depolarization-dependent effect of flavonoids in rat uterine smooth muscle contraction elicited by CaCl2. Gen Pharmacol 29, 847–857.
126.SF Lee & JK Lin (1997) Inhibitory effects of phytopolyphenols on TPA-induced transformation, PKC activation, and c-jun expression in mouse fibroblast cells. Nutr Cancer 28, 177–183.
127.F Ursini , M Maiorino , P Morazzoni , A Roveri & G Pifferi (1994) A novel antioxidant flavonoid (IdB 1031) affecting molecular mechanisms of cellular activation. Free Radic Biol Med 16, 547–553.
128.S Kantengwa & BS Polla (1991) Flavonoids, but not protein kinase C inhibitors, prevent stress protein synthesis during erythrophagocytosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 180, 308–314.
129.M Rosenblat , P Belinky , J Vaya , R Levy , T Hayek , R Coleman , S Merchav & M Aviram (1999) Macrophage enrichment with the isoflavan glabridin inhibits NADPH oxidase-induced cell-mediated oxidation of low density lipoprotein. A possible role for protein kinase C. J Biol Chem 274, 13790–13799.
131.JH Medina , H Viola , C Wolfman , M Marder , C Wasowski , D Calvo & AC Paladini (1997) Overview – Flavonoids: a new family of benzodiazepine receptor ligands. Neurochem Res 22, 419–425.
132.K Dekermendjian , P Kahnberg , MR Witt , O Sterner , M Nielsen & T Liljefors (1999) Structure-activity relationships and molecular modeling analysis of flavonoids binding to the benzodiazepine site of the rat brain GABA(A) receptor complex. J Med Chem 42, 4343–4350.
133.PM Fischer & DP Lane (2000) Inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases as anti-cancer therapeutics. Curr Med Chem 7, 1213–1245.
134.YT Huang , JJ Hwang , PP Lee , FC Ke , JH Huang , CJ Huang , C Kandaswami , E Middleton Jr & MT Lee (1999) Effects of luteolin and quercetin, inhibitors of tyrosine kinase, on cell growth and metastasis-associated properties in A431 cells overexpressing epidermal growth factor receptor. Br J Pharmacol 128, 999–1010.
135.FV So , N Guthrie , AF Chambers , M Moussa & KK Carroll (1996) Inhibition of human breast cancer cell proliferation and delay of mammary tumorigenesis by flavonoids and citrus juices. Nutr Cancer 26, 167–181.
136.DR Green & JC Reed (1998) Mitochondria and apoptosis. Science 281, 1309–1312.
137.WG Tatton & CW Olanow (1999) Apoptosis in neurodegenerative diseases: the role of mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta 1410, 195–213.
138.L Goyal (2001) Cell death inhibition: keeping caspases in check. Cell 104, 805–808.
139.SM Srinivasula , R Hegde , A Saleh (2001) A conserved XIAP-interaction motif in caspase-9 and Smac/DIABLO regulates caspase activity and apoptosis. Nature 410, 112–116.
140.H Schroeter , P Bahia , JPE Spencer , O Sheppard , M Rattray , C Rice-Evans & RJ Williams (2007) (-)-Epicatechin stimulates ERK-dependent cyclic AMP response element activity and upregulates GLUR2 in cortical neurons. J Neurochem 101, 1596–1606.
141.P Maher , T Akaishi & K Abe (2006) Flavonoid fisetin promotes ERK-dependent long-term potentiation and enhances memory. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103, 16568–16573.
142.D Vauzour , K Vafeiadou , C Rice-Evans , RJ Williams & JPE Spencer (2007) Activation of pro-survival Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathways underlie the anti-apoptotic effects of flavanones in cortical neurons. J Neurochem 103, 1355–1367.
143.Y Levites , T Amit , MB Youdim & S Mandel (2002) Involvement of protein kinase C activation and cell survival/cell cycle genes in green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin 3-gallate neuroprotective action. J Biol Chem 277, 30574–30580.
145.SE Pollard , M Whiteman & JPE Spencer (2006) Modulation of peroxynitrite-induced fibroblast injury by hesperetin: a role for intracellular scavenging and modulation of ERK signalling. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 347, 916–923.
146.EH Walker , ME Pacold , O Perisic , L Stephens , PT Hawkins , MP Wymann & RL Williams (2000) Structural determinants of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition by wortmannin, LY294002, quercetin, myricetin, and staurosporine. Mol Cell 6, 909–919.
147.KA Jacobson , S Moro , JA Manthey , PL West & XD Ji (2002) Interactions of flavones and other phytochemicals with adenosine receptors. Adv Exp Med Biol 505, 163–171.
148.GA Johnston (2005) GABA(A) receptor channel pharmacology. Curr Pharm Des 11, 1867–1885.
149.N Adachi , S Tomonaga , T Tachibana , DM Denbow & M Furuse (2006) (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate attenuates acute stress responses through GABAergic system in the brain. Eur J Pharmacol 531, 171–175.
150.YS Han , S Bastianetto , Y Dumont & R Quirion (2006) Specific plasma membrane binding sites for polyphenols, including resveratrol, in the rat brain. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 318, 238–245.
151.AP Nifli , A Bosson-Kouame , N Papadopoulou , C Kogia , M Kampa , C Castagnino , C Stournaras , J Vercauteren & E Castanas (2005) Monomeric and oligomeric flavanols are agonists of membrane androgen receptors. Exp Cell Res 309, 329–339.
152.CM Klinge , KA Blankenship , KE Risinger , S Bhatnagar , EL Noisin , WK Sumanasekera , L Zhao , DM Brey & RS Keynton (2005) Resveratrol and estradiol rapidly activate MAPK signaling through estrogen receptors alpha and beta in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem 280, 7460–7468.
153.MD Conkright , E Guzman , L Flechner , AI Su , JB Hogenesch & M Montminy (2003) Genome-wide analysis of CREB target genes reveals a core promoter requirement for cAMP responsiveness. Mol Cell 11, 1101–1108.
154.X Tao , S Finkbeiner , DB Arnold , AJ Shaywitz & ME Greenberg (1998) Ca2+ influx regulates BDNF transcription by a CREB family transcription factor-dependent mechanism. Neuron 20, 709–726.
155.PB Shieh , SC Hu , K Bobb , T Timmusk & A Ghosh (1998) Identification of a signaling pathway involved in calcium regulation of BDNF expression. Neuron 20, 727–740.
156.CR Bramham & E Messaoudi (2005) BDNF function in adult synaptic plasticity: the synaptic consolidation hypothesis. Prog Neurobiol 76, 99–125.
157.SL Patterson , LM Grover , PA Schwartzkroin & M Bothwell (1992) Neurotrophin expression in rat hippocampal slices: a stimulus paradigm inducing LTP in CA1 evokes increases in BDNF & NT-3 mRNAs. Neuron 9, 1081–1088.
158.K Thomas & A Davies (2005) Neurotrophins: a ticket to ride for BDNF. Curr Biol 15, R262–R264.
159.S Peng , J Wuu , EJ Mufson & M Fahnestock (2005) Precursor form of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor are decreased in the pre-clinical stages of Alzheimer's disease. J Neurochem 93, 1412–1421.
160.B Michalski & M Fahnestock (2003) Pro-brain-derived neurotrophic factor is decreased in parietal cortex in Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res Mol Brain Res 111, 148–154.
161.MF Egan , M Kojima , JH Callicott (2003) The BDNF val66met polymorphism affects activity-dependent secretion of BDNF and human memory and hippocampal function. Cell 112, 257–269.
162.S Linnarsson , A Bjorklund & P Ernfors (1997) Learning deficit in BDNF mutant mice. Eur J Neurosci 9, 2581–2587.
163.JS Mu , WP Li , ZB Yao & XF Zhou (1999) Deprivation of endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor results in impairment of spatial learning and memory in adult rats. Brain Res 835, 259–265.
164.L Minichiello , M Korte , D Wolfer , R Kuhn , K Unsicker , V Cestari , C Rossi-Arnaud , HP Lipp , T Bonhoeffer & R Klein (1999) Essential role for TrkB receptors in hippocampus-mediated learning. Neuron 24, 401–414.
165.S Wullschleger , R Loewith & MN Hall (2006) TOR signaling in growth and metabolism. Cell 124, 471–484.
166.PC Ferriola , V Cody & E Middleton Jr (1989) Protein kinase C inhibition by plant flavonoids. Kinetic mechanisms and structure-activity relationships. Biochem Pharmacol 38, 1617–1624.
167.GM Schratt , EA Nigh , WG Chen , L Hu & ME Greenberg (2004) BDNF regulates the translation of a select group of mRNAs by a mammalian target of rapamycin-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathway during neuronal development. J Neurosci 24, 7366–7377.
168.Y Yin , GM Edelman & PW Vanderklish (2002) The brain-derived neurotrophic factor enhances synthesis of Arc in synaptoneurosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99, 2368–2373.
170.J Soule , E Messaoudi & CR Bramham (2006) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and control of synaptic consolidation in the adult brain. Biochem Soc Trans 34, 600–604.
171.GL Lyford , K Yamagata , WE Kaufmann , CA Barnes , LK Sanders , NG Copeland , DJ Gilbert , NA Jenkins , AA Lanahan & PF Worley (1995) Arc, a growth factor and activity-regulated gene, encodes a novel cytoskeleton-associated protein that is enriched in neuronal dendrites. Neuron 14, 433–445.
172.L Reznichenko , T Amit , MB Youdim & S Mandel (2005) Green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate induces neurorescue of long-term serum-deprived PC12 cells and promotes neurite outgrowth. J Neurochem 93, 1157–1167.