This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.
3.W Savino (2006) The thymus is a common target organ in infectious diseases. PLoS Pathogens 2, 472–483.
4.M Ciofani & JC Zúñiga-Pflücker (2007) The thymus as an inductive site for T lymphopoiesis. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 23, 463–493.
5.W Savino , DA Mendes da Cruz , JS Silva (2002) Intrathymic T cell migration: a combinatorial interplay of extracellular matrix and chemokines? Trends Immunol 23, 305–313.
6W Savino , DA Mendes-da-Cruz , S Smaniotto . (2004) Control of thymocyte migration: an interplay of distinct cellular interactions. J Leukocyte Biol 75, 951–961.
7.W Savino & M Dardenne (2000) Neuroendocrine control of thymus physiology. Endocr Rev 21, 412–443.
8.HT Petrie & JC Züniga-Pflucker (2007) Zoned out: functional maing of stromal signaling microenvironments in the thymus. Annu Rev Immunol 25, 649–679.
9.K Mitsumori , K Takegawa , T Shimo . (1996) Morphometric and immunohistochemical studies on atrophic changes in lympho-hematopoietic organs of rats treated with piperonyl butoxide or subjected to dietary restriction. Arch Toxicol 70, 809–814.
10.JS Lyra , K Madi , CT Maeda . (1993) Thymic extracellular matrix in human malnutrition. J Pathol 171, 231–236.
12.P Aaby , C Marx , S Trautner . (2002) Thymus size at birth is associated with infant mortality: a community study from Guinea Bissau. Acta Pediatr 91, 698–703.
15.A Dhur , P Galan , JP Christides . (1991) Effect of folic acid deficiency upon lymphocyte subsets from lymphoid organs in mice. Comp Biochem Physiol A 98, 235–240.
17.M Nodera , H Yanagisawa & O Wada (2001) Increased apoptosis in a variety of tissues of zinc-deficient rats. Life Sci 69, 1639–1649.
18.S Cunningham-Rundles , DF McNeeley & A Moon (2005) Mechanisms of nutrient modulation of the immune response. J Allergy Clin Immunol 115, 1119–1128.
24.G Fernandes , N Nair , K Once . (1979) Impairment of cell mediated immunity function in dietary zinc deficiency in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 76, 457–461.
25.PJ Fraker , R Depascale-Jardieu , CM Zwickl . (1978) Regeneration of T-cell helper function in zinc-deficient adult mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 75, 5660–5664.
27.RS Beach , ME Gershwin & LS Hurley (1979) Altered thymic structure and mitogen responsiveness in postnatally zinc-deprived mice. Dev Comp Immunol 3, 725–738.
28.P Fraker , F Osati-Ashtiani , MA Wagner . (1995) Possible roles for glucocorticoids and apoptosis in the suppression of lymphopoiesis during zinc deficiency: a review. J Am Coll Nutr 14, 11–17.
31.M Baum , A Campa , S Lai , . (2003) Zinc status in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and illicit drug use. Clin Infect Dis 37, 117–123.
33.AJ Matousek de Abel de la Cruz , AJ Burguera , M Burguera . (1993) Changes in total content of iron, copper and zinc in serum, heart, liver, spleen and skeletal muscle tissues of rats infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Biol Trace Elem Res 37, 51–70.
35.MC Leite-de-Moraes , P Minoprio , M Dy . (1994) Endogenous IL-10 and IFN-g production controls thymic cell proliferation in mice acutely infected by Trypanosoma cruzi. Scand J Immunol 39, 51–58.
36.KS Barone , PC O'Brien & JR Stevenson (1993) Characterization and mechanisms of thymic atrophy in protein-malnourished mice: role of corticosterone. Cell Immunol 148, 226–233.
37.H Munzberg & MG Myers Jr.( 2005) Molecular and anatomical determinants of central leptin resistance. Nat Neurosci 8, 566–570.
39.IS Farooqi , G Matarese , GM Lord . (2002) Beneficial effects of leptin on obesity, T cell hyporesponsiveness, and neuroendocrine/metabolic dysfunction of human congenital leptin deficiency. J Clin Invest 110, 1093–1103.
40.JK Howard , GM Lord , G Matarese . (1999) Leptin protects mice from starvation-induced lymphoid atrophy and increases thymic cellularity in ob/ob mice. J Clin Invest 104, 1051–1059.
41.N Mito , H Yoshino , T Hosoda . (2004) Analysis of the effect of leptin on immune function in vivo using diet-induced obese mice. J Endocrinol 180, 167–173.
42.W Savino (2002) The thymus gland is a target in malnutrition. Eur J Clin Nutr 56 (Suppl 3), S46–S49.
43.W Savino , M Dardenne , LA Veloso . (2007) The thymus is a common target in malnutrition and infection. Br J Nutr 98, 11–16.
44.MC Leite de Moraes , M Hontebeyrie-Joskowicz , F Leboulanger . (1991) Studies on the thymus in Chagas’ disease. II. Thymocyte subset fluctuations in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected mice: relationship to stress. Scand J Immunol 33, 267–275.
45.E Corrêa-de-Santana , M Paez-Pereda , M Theodoropoulou . (2006) Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis during Trypanosoma cruzi acute infection in mice. J Neuroimmunol 173, 12–22.
46AR Perez , O Bottasso & W Savino (2009) The impact of infectious diseases upon neuroendocrine circuits. Neuroimmunomodulation 16, 96–105.
48.E Roggero , AR Pérez , M Tamae-Kakazu . (2006) Endogenous glucocorticoids cause thymus atrophy but are protective during acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection. J Endocrinol 190, 495–503.
49.A Mittal , B Woodward & RK Chandra (1988) Involution of thymic epithelium and low serum thymulin bioactivity in weanling mice subjected to severe food intake restriction or severe protein deficiency. Exp Mol Pathol 48, 226–235.
50.A Mittal & B Woodward (1985) Thymic epithelial cells of severely undernourished mice: accumulation of cholesteryl esters and absence of cytoplasmic vacuoles. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 178, 385–391.
51.W Savino , MC Leite de Moraes , M Hontebeyrie-Joskowicz . (1989) Studies on the thymus in Chagas’ disease. I. Changes in the thymic microenvironment in mice acutely infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Eur J Immunol 19, 1727–1733.
54M Dardenne , W Savino , S Wade (1984) In vivo and in vitro studies of thymulin in marginally zinc-deficient mice. Eur J Immunol 14, 454–458.
55.AS Prasad , S Meftah , J Abdallah . (1988) Serum thymulin in human zinc deficiency. J Clin Invest 82, 1202–1210.
58.GS Incefy , S Pahwa , R Pahwa . (1986) Low circulating thymulin-like activity in children with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. AIDS Res 2, 109–116.
60.V Cotta de Almeida , DA Mendes da Cruz , A Bonomo . (2003) Acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection modulates intrathymic contents of extracellular matrix ligands and receptors and alters thymocyte migration. Eur J Immunol 33, 2439–2448.
61.DA Mendes-da-Cruz , JS Silva , V Cotta-de-Almeida . (2006) Altered thymocyte migration during experimental acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection: combined role of fibronectin and the chemokines CXCL12 and CCL4. Eur J Immunol 36, 1486–1493.
62.W Savino , DMS Villa-Verde , DA Mendes-da-Cruz . (2007) Cytokines and cell adhesion receptors in the regulation of immunity to Trypanosoma cruzi. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 18, 107–124.
63.J de Meis , A Morrot , DA Farias-de-Oliveira (2009) Differential regional immune response in Chagas disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3, e417.
64.CF Andrade , J Gameiro , PR Nagib . (2008) Thymic alterations in Plasmodium berghei-infected mice. Cell Immunol 253, 1–4.
65.J Gameiro , PRA Nagib , CF Andrade . (2010) Changes in cell migration-related molecules expressed by thymic microenvironment during experimental Plasmodium berghei infection: consequences on thymocyte development. Immunology 129, 248–256.
66W Savino , M Dardenne (2010) Pleiotropic modulation of thymic functions by growth hormone: from physiology to therapy. Curr Opinion Pharmacol 10, 434–442.