Skip to main content Accessibility help

Edible insects are the future?

  • Arnold van Huis (a1)


The global increase in demand for meat and the limited land area available prompt the search for alternative protein sources. Also the sustainability of meat production has been questioned. Edible insects as an alternative protein source for human food and animal feed are interesting in terms of low greenhouse gas emissions, high feed conversion efficiency, low land use, and their ability to transform low value organic side streams into high value protein products. More than 2000 insect species are eaten mainly in tropical regions. The role of edible insects in the livelihoods and nutrition of people in tropical countries is discussed, but this food source is threatened. In the Western world, there is an increasing interest in edible insects, and examples are given. Insects as feed, in particular as aquafeed, have a large potential. Edible insects have about the same protein content as conventional meat and more PUFA. They may also have some beneficial health effects. Edible insects need to be processed and turned into palatable dishes. Food safety may be affected by toxicity of insects, contamination with pathogens, spoilage during conservation and allergies. Consumer attitude is a major issue in the Western world and a number of strategies are proposed to encourage insect consumption. We discuss research pathways to make insects a viable sector in food and agriculture: an appropriate disciplinary focus, quantifying its importance, comparing its nutritional value to conventional protein sources, environmental benefits, safeguarding food safety, optimising farming, consumer acceptance and gastronomy.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Edible insects are the future?
      Available formats

      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Edible insects are the future?
      Available formats

      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your <service> account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Edible insects are the future?
      Available formats


Corresponding author

Corresponding author: A. van Huis, email


Hide All
1. Bodenheimer, FS (1951) Insects as Human Food: A Chapter of the Ecology of Man, pp. 352. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk, Publishers.
2. DeFoliart, G (2012) The human use of insects as a food resource: a bibliographic account in progress.
3. Van Huis, A (2003) Insects as food in sub-Saharan Africa. Insect Sci Appl 23, 163185.
4. Yen, AL (2015) Insects as food and feed in the Asia Pacific region: current perspectives and future directions. J. Insects Food Feed 1, 3355.
5. Yhoung-Aree, J & Viwatpanich, K (2005) Edible insects in the Laos PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. In Ecological Implications of Minilivestock: Potential of Insects, Rodents, Frogs, and Snails, pp. 415440. [Paoletti, MG, editor] Enfield, New Hampshire: Science Publishers, Inc.
6. Ramos-Elorduy, J & Moreno, JMP (1989) Los insectos comestibles en el México antiguo (estudio etnoentomológico), pp. 108. AGT Editor, México.
7. Costa-Neto, EM (2015) Anthropo-entomophagy in Latin America: an overview of the importance of edible insects to local communities. J Insects Food Feed 1, 1723.
8. Meyer-Rochow, VB & Changkija, S (1997) Uses of insects as human food in Papua New Guinea, Australia and North-East India: cross-cultural considerations and cautious conclusions. Ecol Food Nutr 36, 159185.
9. Yen, AL (2005) Insects and other invertebrate foods of the Australian aborigines. In Ecological Implications of Minilivestock: Potential of Insects, Rodents, Frogs and Snails, pp. 367388 [Paoletti, MG, editor]. Enfield, New Hampshire: Science Publishers, Inc.
10. Jongema, Y (2015) List of edible insect species of the world. The Netherlands: Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University; available at http://wwwentwurnl/UK/Edible+insects/Worldwide+species+list/.
11. Alexandratos, N & Bruinsma, J (2012) World agriculture towards 2030/2050: The 2012 Revision. Global Perspective Studies Team ESA Working Paper No 12-03. Agricultural Development Economics Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
12. Rosegrant, MW, Tokgoz, S & Bhandary, P (2012) The new normal? A tighter global agricultural supply and demand relation and its implications for food security. Am J Agric Econ 95, 303309.
13. Tilman, D & Clark, M (2014) Global diets link environmental sustainability and human health. Nature 515, 518522.
14. Steinfeld, H, Gerber, P, Wassenaar, T et al. (editors) (2006) CdH. Livestock's Long Shadow. Environmental Issues and Options, pp. 319. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
15. Van Huis, A (2013) Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security. Annu Rev Entomol 58, 563583.
16. Kirkpatrick, TW (1957) Insect Life in the Tropics. London: William Clowes and Sons Ltd.
17. Looy, H, Dunkel, FV & Wood, JR (2014) How then shall we eat? Insect-eating attitudes and sustainable foodways. Agric Hum Values 31, 131141.
18. Hamilton, AJ, Basset, Y, Benke, KK et al. (2010) Quantifying uncertainty in estimation of tropical arthropod species richness. Am Nat 176, 9095.
19. Van Lenteren, JC (2006) Ecosystem services to biological control of pests: why are they ignored? Proc Neth Entomol Soc Meet 17, 103111.
20. Losey, JE & Vaughan, M (2006) The economic value of ecological services provided by insects. BioScience 56, 311323.
21. DeFoliart, GR (1999) Insects as food: why the western attitude is important. Annu Rev Entomol 44, 2150.
22. Yen, AL (2009) Edible insects: traditional knowledge or western phobia? (Special Issue: Trends on the edible insects in Korea and abroad.). Entomol Res 39, 289298.
23. Burlingame, B, Dernini, S (2012) Sustainable diets and biodiversity. Directions and solutions for policy, research and action. In Proceedings of the International Scientific Symposium on Biodiversity and Sustainable Diets United Against Hunger, 3–5 November 2010, Rome: FAO Headquarters.
24. Gerber, PJ, Steinfeld, H, Henderson, B et al. (2013) Tackling Climate Change Through Livestock – A Global Assessment of Emissions and Mitigation Opportunities. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
25. Beusen, AHW, Bouwman, AF, Heuberger, PSC et al. (2008) Bottom-up uncertainty estimates of global ammonia emissions from global agricultural production systems. Atmos Environ 42, 60676077.
26. Eisler, MC, Lee, MR, Tarlton, JF et al. (2014) Agriculture: steps to sustainable livestock. Nature 507, 3234.
27. UNFCCC (2010) Decision 1/CP16: the Cancun agreements: outcome of the work of the ad hoc working group on long-term cooperative action under the Convention United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). UNFCCC document FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add1.
28. Hedenus, F, Wirsenius, S & Johansson, DA (2014) The importance of reduced meat and dairy consumption for meeting stringent climate change targets. Clim Change 124, 7991.
29. Van der Spiegel, M, Noordam, MY & Van der Fels-Klerx, HJ (2013) Safety of novel protein sources (insects, microalgae, seaweed, duckweed, and rapeseed) and legislative aspects for their application in food and feed production. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Safety 12, 662678.
30. Oonincx, DGAB, Van Itterbeeck, J, Heetkamp, MJW et al. (2010) An exploration on greenhouse gas and ammonia production by insect species suitable for animal or human consumption. PLos ONE 5, e14445.
31. Oonincx, DGAB & de Boer, DM (2012) Environmental impact of the production of mealworms as a protein source for humans—a life cycle assessment. PLoS ONE 7, e51145.
32. Abbasi, T, Abbasi, T & Abbasi, SA (2015) Reducing the global environmental impact of livestock production: the minilivestock option. J Cleaner Prod 112, 17541766.
33. Van Huis, A, Van Itterbeeck, J, Klunder, H et al. (2013) Edible Insects: Future Prospects for Food and Feed Security. FAO Forestry Paper 171, pp. 187. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
34. Randrianandrasana, M & Berenbaum, MR (2015) Edible non-crustacean arthropods in rural communities of Madagascar. J Ethnobiol 35, 354383.
35. Bukkens, SGF (1997) The nutritional value of edible insects. Ecol Food Nutr 36, 287319.
36. Ghazoul, J (2006) Mopani Woodlands and the Mopane Worm: Enhancing Rural Livelihoods and Resource Sustainability. Final Technical Report. London: DFID.
37. Styles, CV (1994) The big value in mopane worms. Farmer's Weekly 22, 2022.
38. Dzerefos, C & Witkowski, EF (2015) Crunchtime: sub-Saharan stinkbugs, a dry season delicacy and cash cow for impoverished rural communities. Food Sec 7, 919925.
39. Muafor, FJ, Gnetegha, AA, Gall, PL et al. (2015) Exploitation, trade and farming of palm weevil grubs in Cameroon. Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Working Paper 178, Bogor, Indonesia.
40. Payne, CLR. Wild harvesting declines as pesticides and imports rise: the collection and consumption of insects in contemporary rural Japan. J Insects Food Feed 2015;1, 5765.
41. Ramos-Elorduy, J (2006) Threatened edible insects in Hidalgo, Mexico and some measures to preserve them. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2, 51 (online journal). doi: 10.1186/1746-4269-2-51
42. Mufandaedza, E, Moyo, DZ & Makoni, P (2015) Management of non-timber forest products harvesting: rules and regulations governing (Imbrasia belina) access in South-Eastern Lowveld of Zimbabwe. Afr J Agric Res 10, 15211530.
43. Van Itterbeeck, J & Van Huis, A (2012) Environmental manipulation for edible insect procurement: a historical perspective. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 8, 17.
44. Holt, VM (1995) Why Not Eat Insects?, pp. 67. Oxford: Thornton's. Text reset from the original 1885 edition by Daniel H Meeuws, Oxford July/August 1993.
45. DeFoliart, G, Dunkel, FV & Gracer, D (2009) The Food Insects Newsletter: Chronicle of a Changing Culture, pp. 414. Salt Lake City, UT, USA: Aardvark Global Publishing.
46. Van Huis, A & Vantomme, P (2014) Conference report: insects to feed the World. Food Chain 4, 184192.
47. Ramos-Elorduy, J (1998) Creepy Crawly Cuisine: the Gourmet Guide to Edible Insects, pp 150. Rochester, Vermont: Park Street Press.
48. Van Huis, A, Gurp, HV & Dicke, M (2014) The Insect Cookbook. New York: Columbia University Press.
49. EDI (2015) Verordnung des EDI über Lebensmittel tierischer Herkunft Artikel 9, 10 Absatz 4 Buchstabe a, 14 Absatz 1 und 35 Absätze 4 und 5 der Lebensmittel- und Gebrauchsgegenständeverordnung Das Eidgenössische Departement des Innern (EDI). http://tinyurlcom/ojryfut.
50. FASFC/SHC (2014) Food Safety Aspects of Insects Intended for Human Consumption. Scientific Committee of the Federal Agency for the Safety of the Food Chain (FASFC; Sci Com dossier 2014/04) validated by the Superior Health Council (SHC; dossier no 9160) Brussels: FASFC.
51. FAO (2011) Global Food Losses and Food Waste—Extent, Causes and Prevention. Rome: FAO.
52. FAO (2014) The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture: Opportunities and Challenges. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
53. Msangi, S, Kobayashi, M, Batka, M et al. (2013) Fish to 2030: Prospects for Fisheries and Aquaculture. World Bank Report No 83177-GLB. Washington, DC: World Bank.
54. Lock, ER, Arsiwalla, T & Waagbø, R (2015) Insect larvae meal as an alternative source of nutrients in the diet of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) postsmolt. Aquacult Nutr. (Epublication ahead of print version).
55. Sánchez-Muros, MJ, de Haro, C, Sanz, A et al. (2015) Nutritional evaluation of Tenebrio molitor meal as fishmeal substitute for tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) diet. Aquacult Nutr (Epublication ahead of print version).
56. Oluokun, J (2000) Upgrading the nutritive value of full-fat soyabeans meal for broiler production with either fishmeal or Black soldier fly larvae meal (Hermetia illucens). Niger J Anim Sci 3 (available at
57. Awoniyi, TAM, Aletor, VA & Aina, JM (2003) Performance of broiler-chickens fed on maggot meal in place of fishmeal. Int J Poult Sci 2, 271274.
58. Ogunjil, J, Kloas, W, Wirth, M, et al. (2006) Housefly maggot meal (magmeal): an emerging substitute of fishmeal in tilapia diets. In Conference on International Agricultural Research for Development Deutscher Tropentag 2006 Stuttgart-Hohenheim, 11–13 October 2006.
59. Sing, K, Kamarudin, M, Wilson, J et al. (2014). Evaluation of blowfly (Chrysomya megacephala) maggot meal as an effective, sustainable replacement for fishmeal in the diet of farmed juvenile red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.). Pak Vet J 34, 288292.
60. Mbunwen, FNH, Onyimonyi, AE, Nwoga, CC et al. (2011) Biological value of maggot meal as a replacement for fishmeal in the diets of African giant snail (Achatina spp.). Hatchings J Life Sci 5, 821825.
61. Idowu, AB, Amusan, AAS & Oyediran, AG (2003) The response of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings (Burchell 1822) to the diet containing Housefly maggot (Musca domestica) (L). Niger J Anim Prod 30, 139144.
62. Madu, CT & Ufodike, EBC (2003) Growth and survival of catfish (Clarias anguillaris) juveniles fed live tilapia and maggot as unconventional diets. J Aquat Sci 18, 4752.
63. Aniebo, AO, Erondu, ES & Owen, OJ (2009) Replacement of fish meal with maggot meal in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) diets (Sustitución de harina de pescado con harina de larvas en dietas para el bagre Africano (Clarias gariepinus)). Revista Científica UDO Agrícola 9, 653656.
64. Kareem, AO & Ogunremi, JB (2012) Growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fed compounded rations and maggots. J Environ Issues Agric 4, 15.
65. Kurbanov, AR, Milusheva, RY, Rashidova, SS et al. (2015) Effect of replacement of fish meal with silkworm (Bombyx mori) pupa protein on the growth of Clarias gariepinus fingerling. Int J Fish Aquat Stud 2, 2527.
66. Fasakin, EA, Balogun, AM & Ajayi, OO (2003) Evaluation of full-fat and defatted maggot meals in the feeding of clariid catfish Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Aquacult Res 34, 733738.
67. Ng, WK, Liew, FL, Ang, LP et al. (2001) Potential of mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) as an alternative protein source in practical diets for African catfish, Clarias gariepinus . Aquacult Res 32, Suppl. 1, 273280.
68. St-Hilaire, S, Sheppard, C, Tomberlin, JK et al. (2007) Fly prepupae as a feedstuff for Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss . J World Aquacult Soc 38, 5967.
69. Sealey, WM, Gaylord, TG, Barrows, FT et al. (2011) Sensory analysis of Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched Black soldier fly prepupae, Hermetia illucens . J World Aquacult Soc 42, 3445.
70. Hanboonsong, Y, Jamjanya, T & Durst, PB (2013) Six-legged Livestock: Edible Insect Farming, Collection and Marketing in Thailand. Bangkok: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.
71. Monzenga Lokela, JC (2015) Ecologie appliquée de Rhynchophorus phoenicis Fabricius (Dryophthoridae : Coleoptera) : phénologie et optimisation des conditions d’élevage à Kisangani, R.D.Congo. Thèse présentée par Jean Claude Monzenga Lokela en vue de l'obtention du grade de docteur en sciences agronomiques et ingénierie biologique, février 2015 Université Catholique de Louvain, Faculté des bioingénieurs, Biodiversity Research Centre, Earth and Life Institute.
72. Durst, PB & Hanboonsong, Y (2015) Small-scale production of edible insects for enhanced food security and rural livelihoods: experience from Thailand and Lao People's Democratic Republic. J Insects Food Feed 1, 2531.
73. Caparros Megido, R, Alabi, T, Nieus, C et al. (2016) Optimisation of a cheap and residential small-scale production of edible crickets with local by-products as an alternative protein-rich human food source in Ratanakiri Province, Cambodia. J Sci Food Agric 96, 627632.
74. Ramos-Elorduy, J, Gonzalez, EA, Hernandez, AR et al. (2002) Use of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to recycle organic wastes and as feed for broiler chickens. J Econ Entomol 95, 214220.
75. Van Broekhoven, S, Oonincx, DGAB, Van Huis, A et al. (2015) Growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of three edible mealworm species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on diets composed of organic by-products. J Insect Physiol 73 (online version). doi: 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2014.12.005.
76. Lundy, ME & Parrella, MP (2015) Crickets are not a free lunch: protein capture from scalable organic side-streams via high-density populations of Acheta domesticus . PLoS ONE 10, e0118785.
77. Finke, MD & Oonincx, D (2014) Chapter 17—insects as food for insectivores. In Mass Production of Beneficial Organisms, pp. 583616 [Shapiro-Ilan JAM-RGRI, editor]. San Diego: Academic Press.
78. Rumpold, BA & Schlüter, OK (2013) Nutritional composition and safety aspects of edible insects. Mol Nutr Food Res 57, 802823.
79. Yi, L, Lakemond, CMM, Sagis, LMC et al. (2013) Extraction and characterisation of protein fractions from five insect species. Food Chem 141, 33413348.
80. Ekpo, KE & Onigbinde, AO (2005) Nutritional potentials of the larva of Rhynchophorus phoenicis (F). Pak J Nutr 4, 287.
81. DeFoliart, G (1992) Insect as human food; Gene DeFoliart discusses some nutritional and economic aspects. Crop Prot 11, 395399.
82. Gibson, RS (2015) Dietary-induced zinc deficiency in low income countries: challenges and solutions The Avanelle Kirksey Lecture at Purdue University. Nutr Today 50, 4955.
83. McLean, E, Cogswell, M, Egli, I et al. (2009) Worldwide prevalence of anaemia, WHO Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Information System, 1993–2005. Public Health Nutr 12, 444454.
84. Christensen, DL, Orech, FO, Mungai, MN et al. (2006) Entomophagy among the Luos of Kenya: a potential mineral source? Int J Food Sci Nutr 57, 198203.
85. Bauserman, M, Lokangaka, A, Gado, J et al. (2015) A cluster-randomized trial determining the efficacy of caterpillar cereal as a locally available and sustainable complementary food to prevent stunting and anaemia. Public Health Nutr 18, 17851792.
86. Skau, JK, Touch, B, Chhoun, C et al. (2015) Effects of animal source food and micronutrient fortification in complementary food products on body composition, iron status, and linear growth: a randomized trial in Cambodia. Am J Clin Nutr 101, 742751.
87. Piel, FB, Hay, SI, Gupta, S et al. (2013) Global burden of sickle cell anaemia in children under five, 2010–2050: modelling based on demographics, excess mortality, and interventions. PLoS Med 10, e1001484.
88. Kalonda, EM, Mbayo, MK, Kanangila, AB et al. (2015) Evaluation of antisickling activity of some insect extracts from Katanga in Democratic Republic of the Congo. J Adv Med Life Sci 3. ISSN: .
89. Yoon, Y-I, Chung, MY, Hwang, J-S, Han, MS et al. (2015) Allomyrina dichotoma (Arthropoda: Insecta) larvae confer resistance to obesity in mice fed a high-fat diet. Nutrients 7, 19781991.
90. Ushakova, NA, Kovalzon, VM, Bastrakov, AI et al. (2015) The ability of Alphitobius diaperinus homogenates immobilized on plant sorbent to block the development of mouse parkinsonism. Dokl Biochem Biophys 461, 9497.
91. Kinyuru, JN, Kenji, GM, Njoroge, SM et al. (2010) Effect of processing methods on the in vitro protein digestibility and vitamin content of edible winged termite (Macrotermes subhylanus) and grasshopper (Ruspolia differens). Food Bioprocess Technol 3, 778782.
92. Aguilar-Miranda, ED, Lopez, MG, Escamilla-Santana, C et al. (2002) Characteristics of maize flour tortilla supplemented with ground Tenebrio molitor larvae. J. Agric. Food Chem 50, 192195.
93. Hwang, S-Y & Choi, S-K (2015) Quality characteristics of muffins containing Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor). Korean J Culinary Res 21, 104115.
94. Dzerefos, CM, Witkowski, ETF & Toms, R (2013) Comparative ethnoentomology of edible stinkbugs in southern Africa and sustainable management considerations. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 9, 20.
95. Sani, I, Haruna, M, Abdulhamid, A et al. (2014) Assessment of nutritional quality and mineral composition of dried edible Zonocerus variegatus (grasshopper). J Food Dairy Technol 2, 16.
96. Idowu, AB & Idowu, OA (2015). Pharmacological properties of the repellent secretion of Zonocerus variegatus (Orthoptera: Prygomorphidae). 2015, 6.
97. Seignobos, C, Deguine, J-P & Aberlenc, H-P (1996) Les Mofus et leurs insectes. In: Journal d'agriculture traditionnelle et de botanique appliquée. Ethnozoologie 38, 125187.
98. Mujuru, FM, Kwiri, R, Clarice Nyambi, CW et al. (2014) Microbiological quality of Gonimbrasia belina processed under different traditional practices in Gwanda, Zimbabwe. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 3, 10851094.
99. Gurnari, G (2015). Safety Protocols in the Food Industry and Emerging Concerns. AG, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
100. Klunder, HC, Wolkers-Rooijackers, J, Korpela, JM et al. (2012) Microbiological aspects of processing and storage of edible insects. Food Control 26, 628631.
101. Pennisi, E (2015) All in the (bigger) family revised arthropod tree marries crustacean and insect fields. Sci Total Environ 347, 220221.
102. Srinroch, C, Srisomsap, C, Chokchaichamnankit, D et al. (2015) Identification of novel allergen in edible insect, Gryllus bimaculatus and its cross-reactivity with Macrobrachium spp. allergens. Food Chem 184, 160166.
103. Verhoeckx, KCM, Van Broekhoven, S, den Hartog-Jager, CF et al. (2014) House dust mite (Der p 10) and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins. Food Chem Toxicol 65, 364373.
104. Phiriyangkul, P, Srinroch, C, Srisomsap, C et al. (2015) Effect of food thermal processing on allergenicity proteins in Bombay locust (Patanga succincta). Int J Food Eng 1, 2328.
105. Pener, MP (2014) Allergy to locusts and acridid grasshoppers: a review. J Orthoptera Res 23, 5967.
106. Belluco, S, Losasso, C, Maggioletti, M et al. (2013) Edible insects in a food safety and nutritional perspective: a critical review. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Safety 12, 296313.
107. Stamer, A (2015) Insect proteins—a new source for animal feed. EMBO Rep. 16, 676680.
108. Ramaswamy, SB (2015) Setting the table for a hotter, flatter, more crowded earth: insects on the menu? J Insects Food Feed 1, 171178.
109. Mcgranahan, G & Satterthwaite, D (2014) Working Paper Urbanisation Concepts and Trends. London: Working Paper International Institute for Environment and Development.
110. Ruby, MB, Rozin, P & Chan, C (2015) Determinants of willingness to eat insects in the USA and India. J Insects Food Feed 1, 215225.
111. Rozin, P, Guillot, L, Fincher, K et al. (2013) Glad to be sad, and other examples of benign masochism. Judg Decis Making 8, 439447.
112. Verbeke, W (2015) Profiling consumers who are ready to adopt insects as a meat substitute in a Western society. Food Qual Preference 39, 147155.
113. Tan, HSG, Fischer, ARH, Tinchan, P et al. (2015) Insects as food: exploring cultural exposure and individual experience as determinants of acceptance. Food Qual Preference 42, 7889.
114. Lensvelt, EJS & Steenbekkers, LPA (2014) Exploring consumer acceptance of entomophagy: a survey and experiment in Australia and the Netherlands. Ecol Food Nutr 53, 543561.
115. Fischer, ARH & Frewer, LJ (2009) Consumer familiarity with foods and the perception of risks and benefits. Food Qual Preference 20, 576585.
116. Ayieko, MA, Oriamo, V & Nyambuga, IA (2010) Processed products of termites and lake flies: improving entomophagy for food security within the Lake Victoria region. Afr J Food Agric Nutr Dev 10, 20852098.
117. Caparros Megido, R, Sablon, L, Geuens, M et al. (2014) Edible insects acceptance by Belgian consumers: promising attitude for entomophagy development. J Sens Stud 29, 1420.
118. Deroy, O, Reade, B & Spence, C (2015) The insectivore's dilemma, and how to take the West out of it. Food Qual Preference 44, 4455.
119. Malaisse, F (1997). Se Nourir en Forêt Claire Africaine: Approche Écologique et Nutritionnelle, pp. 384. Gembloux:Les Presses Agronomiques de Gembloux.
120. Nowak, V, Persijn, D, Rittenschober, D et al. (2014) Review of food composition data for edible insects. Food Chem 193, 3946.
121. Miglietta, PP, Leo, FD, Ruberti, M & Massari, S (2015) Mealworms for food: a water footprint perspective. Water, 7, 61906203.
122. Katayama, N, Ishikawa, Y, Takaoki, M et al. (2008) Entomophagy: a key to space agriculture. Adv Space Res 41, 701705.
123. Tong, L, Yu, X & Liu, H (2011) Insect food for astronauts: gas exchange in silkworms fed on mulberry and lettuce and the nutritional value of these insects for human consumption during deep space flights. Bull Entomol Res 101, 613622.
124. Yang, Y, Tang, L, Tong, L et al. (2009) Silkworms culture as a source of protein for humans in space. Adv Space Res 43, 12361242.
125. Jones, RS (2015) Space diet: daily mealworm (Tenebrio molitor) harvest on a multigenerational spaceship. J Interdiscip Sci Top. Available at


Related content

Powered by UNSILO

Edible insects are the future?

  • Arnold van Huis (a1)


Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed.