Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Influences of weight loss on long-term diabetes outcomes: Symposium on ‘Diet and diabetes’

  • Lorna S. Aucott (a1)

Increasing rates of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) follow the obesity ‘epidemic’, with 86% of patients with T2DM being overweight and over half being obese. Literature has highlighted that being overweight or obese increases the risk of diabetes. Weight loss for obese patients is associated with clinical improvements, although this evidence is mostly from short-term studies. As part of a Health Technology Assessment systematic review the long-term (≥2 years) effects of weight loss on change in diabetes-related outcome measures for those with diabetes, or risk of developing diabetes for those without diabetes, was investigated in obese individuals. Eleven studies published between 1966 and 2001 fulfilled the inclusion criteria (Caucasian, BMI >28 kg/m2, adults, no eating disorders, weight loss and changes in diabetes-outcome measures). Results of these studies indicated that intentional weight loss reduces the risk of developing diabetes in the long term and those participants with T2DM often have reduced clinical symptoms and mortality risk. These results have been verified and enhanced by literature published since this review. A similar systematic review was conducted as part of a six-phase project, the PRevent Obesity GRowing Economic Synthesis Study. This review excluded BMI >34 kg/m2 and was restricted to lifestyle interventions (or intentional weight loss). Limited information relating to diabetes was gained, with only a non-significant increasing trend for mortality from diabetes for severe weight cycling practices being suggested. Other results indicated a relationship between weight loss and fasting plasma glucose, but because of the heterogeneity of participation groups and lack of definition in relation to diabetes this relationship was not formalised. In summary, weight loss is beneficial for long-term diabetes outcomes for overweight, obese and morbidly-obese participants. There is little research evidence for those individuals who are overweight or just obese, indicating areas of future research in terms of prevention of both obesity and diabetes.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Influences of weight loss on long-term diabetes outcomes
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Influences of weight loss on long-term diabetes outcomes
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Influences of weight loss on long-term diabetes outcomes
      Available formats
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: Dr Lorna Aucott, fax +44 1224 550925, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1.  PR Thomas (editor) (1995) Weighing the Options. Criteria for Evaluating Weight-Management Programs. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

4.  T Costacou & EJ Mayer-Davis (2003) Nutrition and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Annu Rev Nutr 23, 147170.

5.  C Daousi , IF Casson , GV Gill , IA MacFarlane , JP Wilding & JH Pinkney (2006) Prevalence of obesity in type 2 diabetes in secondary care: association with cardiovascular risk factors. Postgrad Med J 82, 280284.

6.  MJ Legato , A Gelzer , R Goland , SA Ebner , S Rajan , V Villagra & M Kosowski (2006) Gender-specific care of the patient with diabetes: review and recommendations. Gend Med 3, 131158.

7.  CA Maggio & FX Pi-Sunyer (2003) Obesity and type 2 diabetes. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 32, 805822.

8.  M Parillo & G Riccardi (2004) Diet composition and the risk of type 2 diabetes: epidemiological and clinical evidence. Br J Nutr 92, 719.

9.  NP Steyn , J Mann , PH Bennett , N Temple , P Zimmet , J Tuomilehto , J Lindstrom & A Louheranta (2004) Diet, nutrition and the prevention of type 2 diabetes. Public Health Nutr 7, 147165.

12.  ES Ford , DF Williamson & S Liu (1997) Weight change and diabetes incidence: findings from a national cohort of US adults. Am J Epidemiol 146, 214222.

13.  LL Moore , AJ Visioni , PW Wilson , RB D'Agostino , WD Finkle & RC Ellison (2000) Can sustained weight loss in overweight individuals reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus? Epidemiology 11, 269273.

14.  SG Wannamethee & AG Shaper (1999) Weight change and duration of overweight and obesity in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 22, 12661272.

15.  J Tuomilehto , J Lindstrom & J Eriksson (2001) Prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus by changes in lifestyle among subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. N Engl J Med 344, 13431350.

16.  RR Wing , E Venditti , JM Jakicic , BA Polley & W Lang (1998) Lifestyle intervention in overweight individuals with a family history of diabetes. Diabetes Care 21, 350359.

17.  SD Long , K O'Brien , KG MacDonald Jr, N Leggett-Frazier , MS Swanson , WJ Pories & JF Caro (1994) Weight loss in severely obese subjects prevents the progression of impaired glucose tolerance to type II diabetes. A longitudinal interventional study. Diabetes Care 17, 372375.

18.  CD Sjostrom , M Peltonen , H Wedel & L Sjostrom (2000) Differentiated long-term effects of intentional weight loss on diabetes and hypertension. Hypertension 36, 2025.

19.  WJ Pories , KG MacDonald Jr, EG Flickinger (1992) Is type II diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) a surgical disease? Ann Surg 215, 633643.

21.  DF Williamson , TJ Thompson , M Thun , D Flanders , E Pamuk & T Byers (2000) Intentional weight loss and mortality among overweight individuals with diabetes. Diabetes Care 23, 14991504.

22.  N Chaturvedi & JH Fuller (1995) Mortality risk by body weight and weight change in people with NIDDM. The WHO Multinational Study of Vascular Disease in Diabetes. Diabetes Care 18, 766774.

23.  EW Gregg , RB Gerzoff , TJ Thompson & DF Williamson (2004) Trying to lose weight, losing weight, and 9-year mortality in overweight U.S. adults with diabetes. Diabetes Care 27, 657662.

24.  CL Gillies , KR Abrams , PC Lambert , NJ Cooper , AJ Sutton , RT Hsu & K Khunti (2007) Pharmacological and lifestyle interventions to prevent or delay type 2 diabetes in people with impaired glucose tolerance: systematic review and meta-analysis. Br Med J 334, 299.

26.  JS Torgerson , J Hauptman , MN Boldrin & L Sjostrom (2004) XENical in the prevention of diabetes in obese subjects (XENDOS) study: a randomized study of orlistat as an adjunct to lifestyle changes for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in obese patients. Diabetes Care 27, 155161.

28. UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group (1998) Effect of intensive blood-glucose control with metformin on complications in overweight patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 34). Lancet 352, 854865.

30.  AE Field , T Byers , DJ Hunter , NM Laird , JE Manson , DF Williamson , WC Willett and GA Colditz (1999) Weight cycling, weight gain, and risk of hypertension in women. Am J Epidemiol 150, 573579.

34.  JL Chiasson , RG Josse , R Gomis , M Hanefeld , A Karasik , M Laakso & STOP-NIDDM Trial Research Group (2002) Acarbose for prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the STOP-NIDDM randomised trial. Lancet 359, 20722077.

35.  J Lindstrom , A Louheranta , M Mannelin , M Rastas , V Salminen , J Eriksson , M Uusitupa & J Tuomilehto for the Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group (2003) The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study (DPS, Lifestyle intervention and 3-year results on diet and physical activity. Diabetes Care 26, 32303236.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 11
Total number of PDF views: 107 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 183 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 20th September 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.