Appel, LJ, Miller, ER, Seidler, AJ & Whelton, PK (1992) Does supplementation of diet with ‘fish oil’ reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis of controlled following coronary angioplasty. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 8, 186–192.
Aslan, A & Triadafilopoulos, G (1992) Fish oil fatty acid supplementation in active ulcerative colitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. American Journal of Gastroenterology 87, 432–437.
Belluzzi, A, Brignola, C, Campieri, M, Camporesi, EP, Gionchetti, P, Rizzello, F, Belloli, C, De Simone, G, Boschi, S, Miglioli, M & Barbara, L (1994) Effects of a new fish oil derivative on fatty acid phospholipid-membrane pattern in a group of Crohn's disease patients. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 39, 2589–2594.
Belluzzi, A, Brignola, C, Campieri, M, Pera, A, Boschi, S & Miglioli, M (1996) Effect of an enteric-coated fish oil preparation on relapses in Crohn's disease. New England Journal of Medicine 334, 1557–1616.
Best, WR, Becktel, JM, Singleton, JW & Kern, F (1976) Development of a Crohn's disease activity index. Gastroenterology 70, 439–444.
Brignola, C, De Simone, G, Belloli, C, Iannone, P, Belluzzi, A, Gionchetti, P, Campieri, M & Barbara, L (1994) Steroid treatment in active Crohn's disease: a comparison between two regimens of different duration. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 8, 465–468.
Brignola, C, Iannone, P, Belloli, C, De Simone, G, Bassein, L, Gionchetti, P, Belluzzi, A, Campieri, M & Barbara, L (1994) Prediction of relapse in patients with Crohn's disease in remission: a simplified index using laboratory tests, enhanced by clinical characteristics. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 6, 955–961.
Budiarso, IT (1990) Fish oil versus olive oil (letter). Lancet 336, 1313–1314.
Calder, PC (1997) N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cytokine production in health and disease. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 41, 203–234.
El Boustani, S, Colette, C, Monnier, L, Descomps, B, Crastes De Paulet, A & Mendy, F (1987) Enteral absorption in man of eicosapentaenoic acid in different chemical forms. Lipids 22, 711–714.
Endres, S, Ghorbani, R, Kelly, VE, Georgilis, K, Lonnemann, G, Van Der Meer, JW, Cannon, JG, Rogers, TS, Klempner, MS & Weber, PC (1989) The effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids on the synthesis of interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor by mononuclear cells. New England Journal of Medicine 320, 265–270.
Endres, S & Von Schacky, C (1996) N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and human cytokine synthesis. Current Opinion in Lipidology 7, 48–52.
Ford-Hutchinson, AW (1980) Leukotriene B, a potent chemokinetic and aggregating substance released from polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Nature 286, 264.
French, MA, Parrot, AM, Kielo, ES, Rajotte, RV, Wang, LC, Thomson, AB & Clandinin, MT (1997) Polyunsaturated fat in the diet may improve intestinal function in patients with CD. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1360, 262–270.
Grimble, RF (1996) Interaction between nutrient, proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation. Clinical Science 91, 121–129.
Hawthorne, AB, Daneshmend, , Hawkey, CJ, Belluzzi, A, Everitt, SJ, Holmes, GK, Malkinson, C, Shaheen, MZ & Willars, JE (1992) Treatment of ulcerative colitis with fish oil supplementation: a prospective 12 months randomized controlled trial. Gut 33, 922–928.
Jaschoenek, K, Clemens, MR & Scheurlen, M (1991) Decreased responsiveness of platelets to a stable prostacyclin analogue in patients with Crohn's disease. Reversal by n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Thrombosis Research 63, 667–672.
Kromann, N & Green, A (1980) Epidemiological studies in the Upernavik district, Greenland: incidence of some chronic diseases 1950–1974. Acta Medica Scandinavica 208, 401–406.
Kunzel, U & Bertsch, S (1990) Klinsche Erfahrungen mit einem standardiserten Fischolkonzentrat. Feldstudie mit 3 958 hyperlipamischen Patienten in der Praxis des niedergelassenen Arztes (Clinical experiences with a standardised fish oil concentrate. Field studies with 3 958 hyperlipaemic patients in the practice of an established physician). Fortschritte der Medizin 108, 437–442.
Lauritsen, K, Laursen, LS, Bukhave, K & Raskmadsen, J (1989) Inflammatory intermediaries in inflammatory bowel disease. International Journal of Colorectal Disease 4, 75–90.
Lawson, LD & Hughes, BG (1988) Human absorption of fish oil fatty acids as triacylglycerols, free acids, or ethyl esters. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 152, 328–335.
Lee, TH, Hoover, RL, Williams, D, Sperling, RI, Ravalese J, 3rd, Spur, BW, Robinson, DR, Corey, EJ, Lewis, RA & Austen, KF (1985) Effect of a dietary enrichment with eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acids on in vitro polymorphonuclear and monocyte leukotriene generation and polymorphonuclear leukocyte function. New England Journal of Medicine 312, 1217–1224.
Loeschke, K, Ueberschaer, B, Pietsch, A, Gruber, E, Ewe, K, Wiebecke, B, Heldwein, W & Lorenz, R (1996) N-3 fatty acids retard early relapse in ulcerative colitis. Digestive Diseases and Sciences 41, 2087–2094.
Lorenz, R, Weber, PC, Szimnau, P, Heldwein, W, Strasser, T & Loeschke, K (1989) Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids from fish oil in chronic inflammatory bowel disease – a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial. Journal International de Medecine 225, Suppl., 225–232.
Lorenz-Meyer, H, Bauer, P, Nicolay, C, Schulz, B, Purrmann, J, Fleig, WE, Scheurlen, C, Koop, I, Pudel, V & Carr, L. (1996) Omega-3 fatty acids and carbohydrate diet for maintenance of remission in Crohn's disease. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 31, 778–785.
Mccall, TB, O'Leary, D & Bloomfield, J (1989) Therapeutic potential of fish oil in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 3, 415–424.
Matè, J, Castanos, J, Garcia-Samaniego Pajares, JM (1993) Does dietaryfish oil maintain the remission of Crohn's disease (CD): a study case control. Gastroenterology 100, A-228 Abstr.
O'Connors, GT, Malenka, DJ, Olmstead, EM, Johnson, PS & Hennekens, CH (1992) A meta-analysis of randomized trials of fish oil in prevention of restenosis following coronary angioplasty. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 8, 186–192.
Oliveira, FL, Rumsey, SC, Schlotzer, E, Hansen, I, Carpentier, YA & Deckelbaum, RJ (1997) Triglyceride hydrolysis of soy oil vs fish oil emulsions. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 21, 224–229.
Payan, DG, Wong, MYS, Chernov-Rogan, T, Valone, FH, Pickett, WC, Blake, VA, Gold, WM & Goetzl, EJ (1986) Alterations in human leukocyte function induced by ingestion of eicosapenatenoic acid. Journal of Clinical Immunology 6, 402–410.
Petroni, A, Blasevich, M, Papini, N, Salami, M, Sala, A & Galli, C (1997) Inhibition of leukocyte leukotriene-B4 production by an olive oil-derived phenol identified by mass-spectrometry. Thrombosis Research 87, 315–322.
Petroni, A, Blasevich, M, Salami, M, Papini, N, Montedoro, GF & Galli, C (1995) Inhibition of platelet aggregation and eicosanoids production by phenolic components of olive oil. Thrombosis Research 78, 151–160.
Rampton, DS & Collins, CE (1993) Review article: thromboxanes in inflammatory bowel disease-pathogenic and therapeutic implications. Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics 7, 357–367.
Salomon, P, Asher, A, Kornbluth, , & Janowitz, HD (1990) Treatment of ulcerative colitis with fish oil n-3 fatty acid: an open trial. Journal of Clinical Gastroenteroenterology 12, 157–161.
Shoda, R, Matsueda, K, Yamato, S & Umeda, N (1996) Epidemiologic analysis of Crohn disease in Japan: increased dietary intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and animal protein relates to the increased incidence of Crohn disease in Japan. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 63, 741–745.
Stenson, WF, Cort, D, Rodgers, J, Burakoff, R, Deschryver-Kecskemeti, K, Gramlich, TL & Beeken, W (1992) Dietary supplementation with fish oil in ulcerative colitis. Annals of Internal Medicine 116, 609–614.
Vanderhoof, JA, Park, JHY, Herrington, MK & Adrian, TE (1994) Effects of dietary menhaden oil mucosal adaptation after small bowel resection in rats. Gastroenterology 106, 94–99.
Wakefield, AJ, Sawyerr, AM, Dhillon, AP, Pittilo, RM, Rowles, PM, Lewis, AA & Pounder, RE (1989) Pathogenesis of Crohn'sdisease: multifocal gastrointestinal infarction. Lancet i, 1057–1062.