Skip to main content
×
Home
    • Aa
    • Aa

The physiological-psychological dichotomy in the study of food intake

  • Marion M. Hetherington (a1)
Abstract

Human food intake is driven by necessity. We eat to live, but as Brillat-Savarin and others have noted throughout history, in affluent societies eating is a pleasure and becomes more than a means to an end.Eating signifies lifestyle choice and it has considerable meaning in our society beyond the acquisition of essential energy and nutrients. Thus, it is that the study of human food intake, particularly food choice, in contrast to food intake in other animals, tends to be skewed towards measures of behavioural, social and environmental influences rather than on precise physiological processes reflecting metabolism and nutrient partitioning. The dichotomy between physiological and psychological measures is a false one, since all behaviours are necessarily expressed through physiological systems. However, in the field of human food intake research the dichotomy refers to the divergent strands of interest in either psychological or physiological processes underlying intake and appetite. The present review considers both psychological and physiological measures in promoting our understanding of the human appetite system. The overall conclusion is that the burgeoning interest in identifying appetite suppressant drugs to combat obesity and in genotyping alongside behavioural phenotyping will close the gap between psychological and physiological perspectives on human food intake.

    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      The physiological-psychological dichotomy in the study of food intake
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      The physiological-psychological dichotomy in the study of food intake
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      The physiological-psychological dichotomy in the study of food intake
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Professor Marion M. Hetherington, fax +44 151 794 2945, email m.m.hetherington@liverpool.ac.uk
References
Hide All
Anderson AS, Adamson A, Hetherington M, Foster E, Porteous L & Higgins C (2001) Results from a school-based nutrition education intervention aimed at increasing fruit and vegetable intake in primary-school aged children. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60, 143A.
Bell EA & Rolls BJ (2001) Energy density of foods affects energy intake across multiple levels of fat content in lean and obese women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73, 10101018.
Bellisle F, Guy-Grand B & LeMagnen J (2000) Chewing and swallowing as indices of the stimulation to eat during meals in humans: effects revealed by the edogram method and video recordings. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24, 223228.
Bellisle F & LeMagnen J (1980) The analysis of human feeding patterns: the edogram. Appetite 1, 141150.
Bernstein IL (1999) Food aversion learning: a risk factor for nutritional problems in the elderly? Physiology and Behavior 66, 199201.
Birch LL (1981) Generalization of a modified food preference. Child Development 52, 755758.
Birch LL & Davison KK (2001) Family environmental factors influencing the developing behavioral controls of food intake and childhood overweight. Psychiatric Clinics of North America 48, 893907.
Birch LL & Fisher JO (1998) Development of eating behaviors among children and adolescents. Pediatrics 101, 539549.
Birch LL, McPhee L, Shoba BC, Pirok E & Steinberg L (1987) What kind of exposure reduces children's food neophobia? Looking v. tasting. Appetite 9, 171178.
Birch LL, Zimmerman SI & Hind H (1980) The influence of social-affective context on the formation of children's food preferences. Child Development 51, 856961.
Black AE & TJ Cole (2001) Biased over- or under-reporting is characteristic of individuals whether over time or by different assessment methods. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 101, 7080.
Blundell J (1975) Physiological Psychology. London: Methuen.
Blundell JE (1995) The Psychobiological Approach to Appetite and Weight Control. Eating Disorders and Obesity: A Comprehensive Handbook, pp. 1320 [Brownell KD and Fairburn CG, editors]. New York: Guilford Press.
Blundell JE, Goodson S & Halford CC (2001) Regulation of appetite: role of leptin in signalling systems for drive and satiety. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 25, Suppl. 1, S29-S34.
Campfield LA, Smith FJ, Rosenbaum M & Hirsch J (1996) Human eating: evidence for a physiological basis using a modified paradigm. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 20, 133137.
Cannon WB & Washburn AL (1912) An explanation of hunger. American Journal of Physiology 29, 441454.
Carlson NR (2000) Physiology of Behavior .Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Cornell CE, Rodin J & Weingarten H (1989) Stimulus-induced eating when satiated. Physiology and Behavior 45, 695704.
de Castro JM (1994) Family and friends produce greater social facilitation of food intake than other companions. Physiology and Behavior 56, 445455.
de Castro JM (1997) Socio-cultural determinants of meal size and frequency. British Journal of Nutrition 77, Suppl. 1, S39-S55.
de Castro JM (1998) Prior day's intake has macronutrient-specific delayed negative feedback effects on the spontaneous food intake of free-living humans. Journal of Nutrition 128, 6167.
de Castro JM (2000) Eating behavior: lessons from the real world of humans. Nutrition 16, 800813.
Eastwood H, Brown KM, Markovic D & Pieri LF (2002) Variation in the ESR1 and ESR2 genes and genetic susceptibility to anorexia nervosa. Molecular Psychiatry 7, 8689.
Engell DK, Kramer M, Zarin D, Birch L & Rolls B (1995) Effects of serving size on food intake in children and adults. Obesity Research Suppl. 3, 381.
Epstein LH, Paluch R, Smith DS & Sayette M (1997) Allocation of attentional resources during habituation to food cues. Psychophysiology 34, 5964.
Epstein LH, Rodefer JS, Wisniewski L & Caggiula AR (1992) Habituation and dishabituation of human salivary response. Physiology and Behavior 51, 945950.
Flatt JP (1998) What do we most need to learn about food intake regulation? Obesity Research 6, 307310.
Foltin RW, Haney M, Comer CD & Fischman MW (1996) Effect of fluoxetine on food intake of humans living in a residential laboratory. Appetite 27, 165181.
Foster E, Adamson AJ, Porteous LEG, Higgins C, Hetherington MM & Anderson AS (2001) The consumption of fruits and vegetables by Scottish children of primary school age. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60, 64A.
French SJ & Cecil JE (2001) Oral, gastric and intestinal influences on human feeding. Physiology and Behavior 74, 729734.
Geliebter A & Hashim SA (2001) Gastric capacity in normal, obese, and bulimic women. Physiology and Behavior 74, 743746.
Geliebter A, Melton PM, McCray RS, Gallaher DR, Gage D & Hashim SA (1992) Gastric capacity, gastric emptying, and test-meal intake in normal and bulimic women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56 656661.
Goran MI, Poehlman ET & Danforth E Jr (1994) Experimental reliability of the doubly labeled water technique. American Journal of Physiology 266, E510-E515.
Goris AH, Westerterp-Plantenga MS & Westerterp KR (2000) Undereating and underrecording of habitual food intake in obese men: selective underreporting of fat intake. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 71, 130134.
Grice DE, Halmi KA, Fichter MM, Strober M, Woodside DB, Treasure JT, Kaplan AS, Magistretti PJ, Goldman D, Bulik CM, Kaye WH & Berrettini WH (2002) Evidence for a susceptibility gene for anorexia nervosa on chromosome 1. American Journal of Human Genetics 70, 787792.
Halford JC (2001) Pharmacology of appetite suppression; implication for the treatment of obesity. Current Drug Targets 2, 353370.
Hayes N (1994) Foundations of Psychology. London: Routledge.
Hetherington MM, Cameron F, Wallis DJ & Pirie LM (2001) Stimulation of appetite by alcohol. Physiology and Behavior 74, 283289.
Hetherington MM, Regan MF & Pirie L (1997) Use of brain potential indices to explore sensory-specific satiety. Appetite 29, 398.
Hetherington M & Rolls BJ (1987) Methods of investigating human eating behavior. Feeding and Drinking, pp. 77109 [Toates FM and Rowland NE, editors]. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science.
Hetherington MM & Rolls BJ (1996) Sensory-specific satiety: theoretical framework and central characteristics. The Psychology of Eating, pp. 267290 [ED Capaldi, editor]. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Hetherington M, Rolls BJ & Burley VJ (1989) The time course of sensory-specific satiety. Appetite 12, 5768.
Hetherington MM, Spalter AR, Bernat AS, Nelson ML & Gold PW (1993) Eating pathology in bulimia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders 13, 1324.
Higgins C, Hetherington MM, Anderson AS, Porteous LEG, Foster E & Adamson AJ (2001) Children's understanding of fruits and vegetables - implications for nutrition education. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 60, 2A.
Jordan HA, Wieland WF, Zebley SP, Stellar E & Stunkard AJ (1966) Direct measurement of food intake in man: a method for the objective study of eating behavior. Psychosomatic Medicine 28, 836842.
Kaye WH (1997) Anorexia nervosa, obsessional behavior, and serotonin. Psychopharmacology Bulletin 33, 335344.
Kissileff HR, Klingsberg G & Van Itallie TB (1980) Universal eating monitor for continuous recording of solid or liquid consumption in man. American Journal of Physiology 238, R14-R22.
Krassner HA, Brownell KD & Stunkard AJ (1979) Cleaning the plate, food left by overweight and normal weight persons. Behaviour Research and Therapy 17, 155156.
Kuikka JT, Tammela L, Karhunnen L, Rissanen A, Bergstrom KA, Naukkarinen H, Vanninen E, Karhu J, Lappalainen R, Repo-Tiihonen E, Tiihonen J & Uusitupa M (2001) Reduced serotonin transporter binding in binge eating women. Psychopharmacology 155, 310314.
LeBlanc J (2000) Nutritional implications of cephalic phase thermogenic responses. Appetite 34, 214216.
Lee VM & Linden RW (1991) An olfactory-parotid salivary reflex in humans? Experimental Physiology 76, 347355.
McCarthy MI (2002) Susceptibility gene discovery for common metabolic and endocrine traits. Journal of Molecular Endocrinology 28, 117.
McGuirk J, Goodall E, Silverstone T & Willner P (1991) Differential effects of d-fenfluramine, l-fenfluramine and d-amphetamine on the microstructure of human eating behaviour. Behavioral Pharmacology 2, 113119.
Mattes RD (2000) Nutritional implications of the cephalic-phase salivary response. Appetite 34, 177183.
Mayer J (1953) Glucostatic mechanisms of the regulation of food intake. New England Journal of Medicine 249, 1316.
Meiselman HL (1992) Methodology and theory in human eating research. Appetite 19, 4955.
Melanson KJ, Westerterp-Plantenga MS, Campfield LA & Saris WHM (1999) Appetite and blood glucose profiles in humans after glycogen-depleting exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 87, 947954.
Moskowitz H (1985) New Directions for Product Testing and Sensory Analysis of Foods. Westport, CT: Food and Nutrition Press.
Muhlheim LS, Allison DB, Heshka S & Heymsfield SB (1998) Do unsuccessful dieters intentionally underreport food intake? International Journal of Eating Disorders 24, 259266.
Nacmias B, Ricca V, Tedde A, Mezzani B, Rotella CM & Sorbi S (1999) 5-HT2A receptor gene polymorphisms in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Neuroscience Letters 277, 134136.
Nederkoorn C, de Wit T, Smulders FT & Jansen A (2001) Experimental comparison of different techniques to measure saliva. Appetite 37, 251252.
Nederkoorn C, Smulders FT & Jansen A (2000) Cephalic phase responses, craving and food intake in normal subjects. Appetite 35, 4555.
O'Doherty J, Rolls ET, Francis S, Bowtell R, McGlone F, Kobal G, Renner B & Ahne G (2000) Sensory-specific satiety-related olfactory activation of the human orbitofrontal cortex. Neuroreport 11, 399403.
Owen WP, Halmi KA, Gibbs J & Smith GP (1985) Satiety responses in eating disorders. Psychiatric Research 19, 279284.
Poppitt SD, Swann D, Black AE & Prentice AM (1998) Assessment of selective under-reporting of food intake by both obese and non-obese women in a metabolic facility. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 22, 303311.
Porikos KP, Sullivan AC, McGhee B & Van Itallie TB (1980) An experimental model for assessing effects of anorectics on spontaneous food intake of obese subjects. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics 27, 815822.
Raynor HA & Epstein H (2001) Dietary variety, energy regulation, and obesity. Psychological Bulletin 127, 325341.
Rogers PJ (1999) Eating habits and appetite control: a psychobiological perspective. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society 58, 5967.
Rolls BJ, Bell EA & Thorwart ML (1999) Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 70, 448455.
Rolls BJ, Castellanos VH, Halford JC, Kilara A, Panyam D, Pelkman CL, Smith GP & Thorwart ML (1998) Volume of food consumed affects satiety in men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 67, 11701177.
Rolls BJ, Engell D & Birch LL (2000) Serving portion size influences 5-year-old but not 3-year-old children's food intakes. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 100, 232234.
Rolls BJ, Rolls ET, Rowe EA & Sweeney K (1981) Sensory specific satiety in man. Physiology and Behavior 27, 137142.
Rolls ET & Rolls JH (1997) Olfactory sensory-specific satiety in humans. Physiology and Behavior 61, 461473.
Shide DJ & Rolls BJ (1991) Social facilitation of caloric intake in humans by friends but not by strangers. International Journal of Obesity 15, Suppl. 3, 8.
Silverstone T, Fincham J & Brydon J (1980) A new technique for the continuous measurement of food intake in man. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 33, 18521855.
Smith GP (1996) The direct and indirect controls of meal size. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 20, 4146.
Smith GP (1997) Eating and the American Zeitgeist. Appetite 29, 191200.
Smith GP (2000) The controls of eating, brain meanings of food stimuli. Progress in Brain Research 122, 173186.
Speakman JR, Nair KS & Goran MI (1993) Revised equations for calculating CO2 production from doubly labeled water in humans. American Journal of Physiology 264, E912-E917.
Steiner J (1977) Facial expressions of the neonate infant indicating the hedonics of food-related chemical stimuli. Taste and Development: The Genesis of Sweet Preference, pp. 176189 [Weiffenbach JM, editor]. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
Steiner JE, Glaser D, Hawilo ME & Berridge KC (2001) Comparative expression of hedonic impact, affective reactions to taste by human infants and other primates. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 25, 5374.
Stubbs RJ (1999) Peripheral signals affecting food intake. Nutrition 15, 614625.
Stubbs RJ, Harbron CG, Murgatroyd PR & Prentice AM (1995a) Covert manipulation of dietary fat and energy density: effect on substrate flux and food intake in men eating ad libitum. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 316329.
Stubbs RJ, Ritz P, Coward WA & Prentice AM (1995b) Covert manipulation of the ratio of dietary fat to carbohydrate and energy density: effect on food intake and energy balance in free-living men eating ad libitum. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 62, 330337.
Tappe KA, Gerberg SE, Shide DJ, Andersen AE & Rolls BJ (1998) Videotape assessment of changes in aberrant meal-time behaviors in anorexia nervosa after treatment. Appetite 30, 171184.
Teff K (2000) Nutritional implications of the cephalic-phase reflexes: endocrine responses. Appetite 34, 206213.
Trayhurn P (2001) Biology of leptin - its implications and consequences for the treatment of obesity. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders 25 Suppl. 1, S26-S28.
Vickers SP, Dourish CT & Kennett GA (2001) Evidence that hypophagia induced by d-fenfluramine and d-norfenfluramine in the rat is mediated by 5-HT2C receptors. Neuropharmacology 41, 200209.
Vuckovic N, Ritenbaugh C, Taren DL & Tobar M (2000) A qualitative study of participants' experiences of dietary assessment. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 100, 10231028.
Walsh BT & Devlin M J (1995) Pharmacotherapy of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Addictive Behaviors 20, 757764.
Weingarten HP (1985) Stimulus control of eating, implications for a two-factor theory of hunger. Appetite 6, 387401.
Weingarten HP & Gowans S E (1991) Sensory control of eating: The meal as a stream of sensations. Smell and Taste in Health and Disease, pp. 381389 [Getchell TV, Doty RL, Bartoshuk LM, Pfaffmann C and Halpern BP, editors].New York: Raven Press.
Westerterp-Plantenga MS (2000) Eating behavior in humans, characterized by cumulative food intake curves - a review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24, 239248.
Westerterp-Plantenga MS, van Marken Lichtenbelt WD, Strobbe H & Schrauwen P (2002) Energy metabolism in humans at a lowered ambient temperature. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 56, 288296.
Wiggins S, Potter J & Wildsmith A (2001) Eating your words: discursive psychology and the reconstruction of eating practices. Journal of Health Psychology 6, 515.
Wilson AJ, Touyz SW, Dunn SM & Beumont PJV (1989) The Eating Behavior Rating Scale (EBRS), a measure of eating pathology in anorexia nervosa. International Journal of Eating Disorders 8, 583592.
Wisniewski L, Epstein LH & Caggiula AR (1992) Effect of food change on consumption, hedonics, and salivation. Physiology and Behavior 52, 2126.
Wooley OW & Wooley SC (1981) Relationship of salivation in humans to deprivation, inhibition and the encephalization of hunger. Appetite 2, 331350.
Yeomans MR (1996) Palatability and the micro-structure of feeding in humans, the appetizer effect. Appetite 27, 119133.
Yeomans MR (2000) Rating changes over the course of meals: what do they tell us about motivation to eat? Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 24, 249259.
Yeomans MR, Gray RW, Mitchell CJ & True S (1997) Independent effects of palatability and within-meal pauses on intake and appetite ratings in human volunteers. Appetite 29, 6176.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 9
Total number of PDF views: 263 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 307 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 23rd October 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.