Skip to main content
×
Home

Plenary Lecture 1 Dietary strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity: Conference on ‘Over- and undernutrition: challenges and approaches’

  • Barbara J. Rolls (a1)
Abstract

Obesity is a rapidly-growing public health problem that is related in part to the foods available in the eating environment. Properties of foods such as portion size and energy density (kJ/g) have robust effects on energy intake; large portions of energy-dense foods promote excess consumption and this effect starts in early childhood. Studies show, however, that in both adults and children these food characteristics can also be used strategically to moderate energy intake, as well as to improve diet quality. Dietary energy density can be reduced by increasing intake of water-rich foods such as vegetables and fruits. Their high water content allows individuals to eat satisfying portions of food while decreasing energy intake. Filling up at the start of a meal with vegetables or fruit and increasing the proportion of vegetables in a main course have been found to control hunger and moderate energy intake. Data from several clinical trials have also demonstrated that reducing dietary energy density by the addition of water-rich foods is associated with substantial weight loss even though participants eat greater amounts of food. Population-based assessments indicate that beginning in childhood there is a relationship between consuming large portions of energy-dense foods and obesity. These data suggest that the promotion of diets that are reduced in energy density should be an important component of future efforts to both prevent and treat obesity.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure no-reply@cambridge.org is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations. ‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Plenary Lecture 1 Dietary strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Plenary Lecture 1 Dietary strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity
      Available formats
      ×
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Plenary Lecture 1 Dietary strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity
      Available formats
      ×
Copyright
Corresponding author
Corresponding author: Professor Barbara J. Rolls, fax +1 814 863 8574, email bjr4@psu.edu
References
Hide All
1.de Graaf C, Hulshof T, Weststrate JA et al. (1992) Short-term effects of different amounts of protein, fats, and carbohydrates on satiety. Am J Clin Nutr 55, 3338.
2.Rolls BJ, Hetherington M & Burley VJ (1988) The specificity of satiety: the influence of foods of different macronutrient content on the development of satiety. Physiol Behav 43, 145153.
3.Ledikwe JH & Rolls BJ (2008) Properties of foods and beverages that influence energy intake and body weight. In Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease, 2nd ed., pp. 469481 [Coulston A and Boushey C, editors]. Burlington, MA: Elsevier Inc.
4.Nielsen SJ & Popkin BM (2003) Patterns and trends in food portion sizes, 1977–1998. JAMA 289, 450453.
5.Smiciklas-Wright H, Mitchell DC, Mickle SJ et al. (2003) Foods commonly eaten in the United States, 1989–1991 and 1994–1996: are the portion sizes changing? J Am Diet Assoc 103, 4147.
6.Young LR & Nestle M (2002) The contribution of expanding portion sizes to the US obesity epidemic. Am J Public Health 92, 246249.
7.Young LR & Nestle M (2007) Portion sizes and obesity: responses of fast-food companies. J Public Health Policy 28, 238248.
8.Ledikwe JH, Ello-Martin JA & Rolls BJ (2005) Portion sizes and the obesity epidemic. J Nutr 135, 905909.
9.Rolls BJ, Morris EL & Roe LS (2002) Portion size of food affects energy intake in normal-weight and overweight men and women. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 12071213.
10.Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Meengs JS et al. (2004) Increasing the portion size of a sandwich increases energy intake. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 367372.
11.Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Kral TVE et al. (2004) Increasing the portion size of a packaged snack increases energy intake in men and women. Appetite 42, 6369.
12.Diliberti N, Bordi P, Conklin MT et al. (2004) Increased portion size leads to increased energy intake in a restaurant meal. Obes Res 12, 562568.
13.Kelly MT, Wallace JM, Robson PJ et al. (2009) Increased portion size leads to a sustained increase in energy intake over 4 d in normal-weight and overweight men and women. Br J Nutr 16, 18.
14.Rolls BJ, Roe LS & Meengs JS (2006) Reductions in portion size and energy density of foods are additive and lead to sustained decreases in energy intake. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 1117.
15.Rolls BJ, Roe LS & Meengs JS (2006) Larger portion sizes lead to sustained increase in energy intake over two days. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 543549.
16.Bray GA, Flatt JP, Volaufova J et al. (2008) Corrective responses in human food intake identified from an analysis of 7-d food-intake records. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 15041510.
17.Rolls BJ, Roe LS & Meengs JS (2007) The effect of large portion sizes on energy intake is sustained for 11 days. Obesity 15, 15351543.
18.Jeffery RW, Rydell S, Dunn CL et al. (2007) Effects of portion size on chronic energy intake. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act 4, 27.
19.McConahy KL, Smiciklas-Wright H, Birch LL et al. (2002) Food portions are positively related to energy intake and body weight in early childhood. J Pediatr 140, 340347.
20.Fisher JO & Kral TV (2008) Super-size me: portion size effects on young children's eating. Physiol Behav 94, 3947.
21.Lioret S, Volatier JL, Lafay L et al. (2009) Is food portion size a risk factor of childhood overweight? Eur J Clin Nutr 63, 382391.
22.Rolls BJ, Engell D & Birch LL (2000) Serving portion size influences 5-year-old but not 3-year old children's food intakes. J Am Diet Assoc 100, 232234.
23.Fisher JO (2007) Effects of age on children's intake of large and self-selected food portions. Obesity 15, 403412.
24.Leahy KE, Birch LL, Fisher JO et al. (2008) Reductions in entrée energy density increase children's vegetable intake and reduce energy intake. Obesity 16, 15591565.
25.Kral TVE, Roe LS & Rolls BJ (2004) Combined effects of energy density and portion size on energy intake in women. Am J Clin Nutr 79, 962968.
26.Fisher JO, Rolls BJ & Birch LL (2003) Children's bite size and intake of an entreé are greater with large portions than with age-appropriate or self-selected portions. Am J Clin Nutr 77, 11641170.
27.Birch LL, McPhee L, Shoba BC et al. (1987) Clean up your plate: effects of child feeding practices on the conditioning of meal size. Learn Motiv 18, 301317.
28.Rolls BJ, Roe LS & Meengs JS (2008) Does filling half the plate with vegetables moderate energy intake? Obesity 16, S154.
29.Berg C, Lappas G, Wolk A et al. (2009) Eating patterns and portion size associated with obesity in a Swedish population. Appetite 52, 2126.
30.Rolls BJ (2003) The supersizing of America: portion size and the obesity epidemic. Nutr Today 38, 4253.
31.Vermeer WM, Steenhuis IH & Seidell JC (2009) From the point-of-purchase perspective: a qualitative study of the feasibility of interventions aimed at portion-size. Health Policy 90, 7380.
32.Coelho do Vale R, Pieters R & Zeelenberg M (2008) Flying under the radar: Perverse package size effects on consumption self-regulation. J Consum Res 35, 380390.
33.Scott ML, Nowlis SM, Mandel N et al. (2008) The effects of reduced food size and package size on the consumption behavior of restrained and unrestrained eaters. J Consum Res 35, 391405.
34.Heymsfield SB, van Mierlo CA, van der Knaap HC et al. (2003) Weight management using a meal replacement strategy: meta and pooling analysis from six studies. Int J Obes (Lond) Relat Metab Disord 27, 537549.
35.Rolls BJ, Castellanos VH, Halford JC et al. (1998) Volume of food consumed affects satiety in men. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 11701177.
36.Kissileff HR, Gruss LP, Thornton J et al. (1984) The satiating efficiency of foods. Physiol Behav 32, 319332.
37.Himaya A & Louis-Sylvestre J (1998) The effect of soup on satiation. Appetite 30, 199210.
38.Rolls BJ, Fedoroff IC, Guthrie JF et al. (1990) Effects of temperature and mode of presentation of juice on hunger, thirst and food intake in humans. Appetite 15, 199208.
39.Rolls BJ, Bell EA & Thorwart ML (1999) Water incorporated into a food but not served with a food decreases energy intake in lean women. Am J Clin Nutr 70, 448455.
40.Flood JE & Rolls BJ (2007) Soup preloads in a variety of forms reduce meal energy intake. Appetite 49, 626634.
41.Rolls BJ, Roe LS & Meengs JS (2004) Salad and satiety: energy density and portion size of a first course salad affect energy intake at lunch. J Am Diet Assoc 104, 15701576.
42.Duncan KH, Bacon JA & Weinsier RL (1983) The effects of high and low energy density diets on satiety, energy intake, and eating time of obese and nonobese subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 37, 763767.
43.Bell EA, Castellanos VH, Pelkman CL et al. (1998) Energy density of foods affects energy intake in normal-weight women. Am J Clin Nutr 67, 412420.
44.Bell EA & Rolls BJ (2001) Energy density of foods affects energy intake across multiple levels of fat content in lean and obese women. Am J Clin Nutr 73, 10101018.
45.Rolls BJ, Bell EA, Castellanos VH et al. (1999) Energy density but not fat content of foods affected energy intake in lean and obese women. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 863871.
46.Birch LL & Deysher M (1985) Conditioned and unconditioned caloric compensation: evidence for self-regulation of food intake in young children. Learn Motiv 16, 341355.
47.Birch LL & Deysher M (1986) Caloric compensation and sensory specific satiety: evidence for self-regulation of food intake by young children. Appetite 7, 323331.
48.Hetherington M, Wood C & Lyburn SC (2000) Response to energy dilution in the short term: evidence of nutritional wisdom in young children? Nutr Neurosci 3, 321329.
49.Cecil JE, Palmer CN, Wrieden W et al. (2005) Energy intakes of children after preloads: adjustment, not compensation. Am J Clin Nutr 82, 302308.
50.Fisher JO, Liu Y, Birch LL et al. (2007) Effects of portion size and energy density on young children's intake at a meal. Am J Clin Nutr 86, 174179.
51.Leahy KE, Birch LL & Rolls BJ (2008) Reducing the energy density of an entrée decreases children's energy intake at lunch. J Am Diet Assoc 108, 4148.
52.Leahy KE, Birch LL & Rolls BJ (2008) Reducing the energy density of multiple meals decreases the energy intake of preschool-age children. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 14591468.
53.Kral TVE & Rolls BJ (2004) Energy density and portion size: their independent and combined effects on energy intake. Physiol Behav 82, 131138.
54.Rolls BJ, Roe LS, Beach AM et al. (2005) Provision of foods differing in energy density affects long-term weight loss. Obes Res 13, 10521060.
55.Ello Martin JA, Roe LS, Ledikwe JH et al. (2007) Dietary energy density in the treatment of obesity: a year-long trial comparing 2 weight-loss diets. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 14651477.
56.Ledikwe JH, Rolls BJ, Smiciklas-Wright H et al. (2007) Reductions in dietary energy density are associated with weight loss in overweight and obese participants in the PREMIER trial. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 12121221.
57.Greene LF, Malpede CZ, Henson CS et al. (2006) Weight maintenance 2 years after participation in a weight loss program promoting low-energy density foods. Obesity 14, 17951801.
58.Lowe MR, Tappe KA, Annunziato RA et al. (2008) The effect of training in reduced energy density eating and food self-monitoring accuracy on weight loss maintenance. Obesity 16, 20162023.
59.Sacks FM, Bray GA, Carey VJ et al. (2009) Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl J Med 360, 859873.
60.Ledikwe JH, Blanck HM, Kettel-Khan L et al. (2006) Dietary energy density is associated with energy intake and weight status in US adults. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 13621368.
61.Savage JS, Marini M & Birch LL (2008) Dietary energy density predicts women's weight change over 6 y. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 677684.
62.Ledikwe JH, Blanck HM, Khan LK et al. (2006) Low-energy-density diets are associated with high diet quality in adults in the United States. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 11721180.
63.Kant AK & Graubard BI (2005) Energy density of diets reported by American adults: association with food group intake, nutrient intake, and body weight. Int J Obes (Lond) 29, 950956.
64.Bes-Rastrollo M, van Dam RM, Martinez-Gonzalez MA et al. (2008) Prospective study of dietary energy density and weight gain in women. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 769777.
65.Cox DN & Mela DJ (2000) Determination of energy density of freely selected diets: methodological issues and implications. Int J Obes (Lond) Relat Metab Disord 24, 4954.
66.Ledikwe JH, Blanck HM, Kettel-Khan L et al. (2005) Dietary energy density determined by eight calculation methods in a nationally representative United States population. J Nutr 135, 273278.
67.Birch LL & Ventura AK (2009) Preventing childhood obesity: what works? Int J Obes (Lond) 33, S74S81.
68.Epstein LH, Gordy CC, Raynor HA et al. (2001) Increasing fruit and vegetable intake and decreasing fat and sugar intake in families at risk for childhood obesity. Obes Res 9, 171178.
69.Epstein LH, Paluch RA, Beecher MD et al. (2008) Increasing healthy eating vs. reducing high energy-dense foods to treat pediatric obesity. Obesity 16, 318326.
70.McCaffrey TA, Rennie KL, Kerr MA et al. (2008) Energy density of the diet and change in body fatness from childhood to adolescence; is there a relation? Am J Clin Nutr 87, 12301237.
71.Johnson L, Mander AP, Jones LR et al. (2008) Energy-dense, low-fiber, high-fat dietary pattern is associated with increased fatness in childhood. Am J Clin Nutr 87, 846854.
72.Johnson L, Mander AP, Jones LR et al. (2008) A prospective analysis of dietary energy density at age 5 and 7 years and fatness at 9 years among UK children. Int J Obes (Lond) 32, 586593.
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords:

Metrics

Altmetric attention score

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 6
Total number of PDF views: 98 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 255 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 22nd November 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.