Skip to main content
    • Aa
    • Aa

Recent advances in understanding the role of diet and obesity in the development of colorectal cancer

  • Elizabeth K. Lund (a1), Nigel J. Belshaw (a1), Giles O. Elliott (a1) and Ian T. Johnson (a1)

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of premature death in the UK and many developed countries. However, the risk of developing CRC is well recognised to be associated not only with diet but also with obesity and lack of exercise. While epidemiological evidence shows an association with factors such as high red meat intake and low intake of vegetables, fibre and fish, the mechanisms underlying these effects are only now being elucidated. CRC develops over many years and is typically characterised by an accumulation of mutations, which may arise as a consequence of inherited polymorphisms in key genes, but more commonly as a result of spontaneously arising mutations affecting genes controlling cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and DNA repair. Epigenetic changes are observed throughout the progress from normal morphology through formation of adenoma, and the subsequent development of carcinoma. The reasons why this accumulation of loss of homoeostatic controls arises are unclear but chronic inflammation has been proposed to play a central role. Obesity is associated with increased plasma levels of chemokines and adipokines characteristic of chronic systemic inflammation, and dietary factors such as fish oils and phytochemicals have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties as well as modulating established risk factors such as apoptosis and cell proliferation. There is also some evidence that diet can modify epigenetic changes. This paper briefly reviews the current state of knowledge in relation to CRC development and considers evidence for potential mechanisms by which diet may modify risk.

  • View HTML
    • Send article to Kindle

      To send this article to your Kindle, first ensure is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part of your Kindle email address below. Find out more about sending to your Kindle.

      Note you can select to send to either the or variations. ‘’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi. ‘’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.

      Find out more about the Kindle Personal Document Service.

      Recent advances in understanding the role of diet and obesity in the development of colorectal cancer
      Available formats
      Send article to Dropbox

      To send this article to your Dropbox account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Dropbox account. Find out more about sending content to Dropbox.

      Recent advances in understanding the role of diet and obesity in the development of colorectal cancer
      Available formats
      Send article to Google Drive

      To send this article to your Google Drive account, please select one or more formats and confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies. If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your Google Drive account. Find out more about sending content to Google Drive.

      Recent advances in understanding the role of diet and obesity in the development of colorectal cancer
      Available formats
Corresponding author
*Corresponding author: Dr E.K. Lund, fax +44 16030507723, email
Linked references
Hide All

This list contains references from the content that can be linked to their source. For a full set of references and notes please see the PDF or HTML where available.

1. A Jemal , R Siegel , J Xu & E Ward (2010) Cancer statistics, 2010. CA Cancer J Clin 60, 277300.

2. DM Parkin , F Bray , J Ferlay (2005) Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 55, 74108.

3. DM Flood , NS Weiss , LS Cook (2000) Colorectal cancer incidence in Asian migrants to the United States and their descendants. Cancer Causes Control 11, 403411.

4. TJ Key , NE Allen , EA Spencer (2002) The effect of diet on risk of cancer. Lancet 360, 861868.

5. B Armstrong & R Doll (1975) Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. Int J Cancer 15, 617631.

8. B Modan (1977) Role of diet in cancer etiology. Cancer 40,4 Suppl., 18871891.

10. E Giovannucci , A Ascherio , EB Rimm (1995) Physical activity, obesity, and risk for colon cancer and adenoma in men. Ann Intern Med 122, 327334.

11. Y Ning , L Wang & EL Giovannucci (2010) A quantitative analysis of body mass index and colorectal cancer: findings from 56 observational studies. Obes Rev 11, 1930.

12. B Vogelstein , ER Fearon , SR Hamilton (1988) Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development. N Engl J Med 319, 525532.

13. J Jiricny & G Marra (2003) DNA repair defects in colon cancer. Curr Opin Genet Dev 13, 6169.

14. P Calabrese & D Shibata (2010) A simple algebraic cancer equation: calculating how cancers may arise with normal mutation rates. BMC Cancer 10, 3.

16. H Lamlum , A Papadopoulou , M Ilyas (2000) APC mutations are sufficient for the growth of early colorectal adenomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97, 22252228.

17. K Trautmann , JP Terdiman , AJ French (2006) Chromosomal instability in microsatellite-unstable and stable colon cancer. Clin Cancer Res 12, 63796385.

18. WM Grady & S Markowitz (2000) Genomic instability and colorectal cancer. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 16, 6267.

19. MS Pino & DC Chung (2010) The chromosomal instability pathway in colon cancer. Gastroenterology 138, 20592072.

20. SJ Duthie (2011) Epigenetic modifications and human pathologies: cancer and cardiovascular disease. Proc Nutr Soc 70, 4756.

21. WM Grady & JM Carethers (2008) Genomic and epigenetic instability in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Gastroenterology 135, 10791099.

24. NJ Belshaw , N Pal , HS Tapp (2010) Patterns of DNA methylation in individual colonic crypts reveal aging and cancer-related field defects in the morphologically normal mucosa. Carcinogenesis 31, 11581163.

25. S Maegawa , G Hinkal , HS Kim (2010) Widespread and tissue specific age-related DNA methylation changes in mice. Genome Res 20, 332340.

27. T Kawasaki , K Nosho , M Ohnishi (2007) Correlation of beta-catenin localization with cyclooxygenase-2 expression and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer. Neoplasia 9, 569577.

28. MC Fantini & F Pallone (2008) Cytokines: from gut inflammation to colorectal cancer. Curr Drug Targets 9, 375380.

29. RJ Hambly , CJ Rumney , M Cunninghame (1997) Influence of diets containing high and low risk factors for colon cancer on early stages of carcinogenesis in human flora-associated (HFA) rats. Carcinogenesis 18, 15351539.

30. PT Campbell , K Curtin , CM Ulrich (2009) Mismatch repair polymorphisms and risk of colon cancer, tumour microsatellite instability and interactions with lifestyle factors. Gut 58, 661667.

31. MB Wallace & R Kiesslich (2010) Advances in endoscopic imaging of colorectal neoplasia. Gastroenterology 138, 21402150.

32. S Knasmuller , DM DeMarini , IT Johnson (2009) Chemoprevention of Cancer and DNA Damage by Dietary Factors. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

33. MT Liong (2008) Roles of probiotics and prebiotics in colon cancer prevention: Postulated mechanisms and in-vivo evidence. Int J Mol Sci 9, 854863.

34. E Sancho , E Batlle & H Clevers (2004) Signaling pathways in intestinal development and cancer. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 20, 695723.

35. E Vincan & N Barker (2008) The upstream components of the Wnt signalling pathway in the dynamic EMT and MET associated with colorectal cancer progression. Clin Exp Metastasis 25, 657663.

36. J Behrens (2005) The role of the Wnt signalling pathway in colorectal tumorigenesis. Biochem Soc Trans 33, 672675.

37. A Kipp , A Banning , EM van Schothorst (2009) Four selenoproteins, protein biosynthesis, and Wnt signalling are particularly sensitive to limited selenium intake in mouse colon. Mol Nutr Food Res 53, 15611572.

38. M Bordonaro , DL Lazarova & AC Sartorelli (2008) Butyrate and Wnt signaling: a possible solution to the puzzle of dietary fiber and colon cancer risk? Cell Cycle 7, 11781183.

39. A Ruzzo , F Graziano , E Canestrari (2010) Molecular predictors of efficacy to anti-EGFR agents in colorectal cancer patients. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 10, 6879.

40. DL Reidy , E Vakiani , MG Fakih (2010) Randomized, phase II study of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibitor IMC-A12, with or without cetuximab, in patients with cetuximab- or panitumumab-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol 28, 42404246.

41. M Jhawer , S Goel , AJ Wilson (2008) PIK3CA mutation/PTEN expression status predicts response of colon cancer cells to the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor cetuximab. Cancer Res 68, 19531961.

42. HH Zhang , F Walker , S Kiflemariam (2009) Selective inhibition of proliferation in colorectal carcinoma cell lines expressing mutant APC or activated B-Raf. Int J Cancer 125, 297307.

43. D Cunningham , Y Humblet , S Siena (2004) Cetuximab monotherapy and cetuximab plus irinotecan in irinotecan-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 351, 337345.

44. J Jakubikova , J Sedlak , R Mithen (2005) Role of PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways in sulforaphane- and erucin-induced phase II enzymes and MRP2 transcription, G2/M arrest and cell death in Caco-2 cells. Biochem Pharmacol 69, 15431552.

45. A Ferrand , C Bertrand , G Portolan (2005) Signaling pathways associated with colonic mucosa hyperproliferation in mice overexpressing gastrin precursors. Cancer Res 65, 27702777.

46. A Kaneda , CJ Wang , R Cheong (2007) Enhanced sensitivity to IGF-II signaling links loss of imprinting of IGF2 to increased cell proliferation and tumor risk. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104, 2092620931.

47. J Chen & XF Huang (2009) The signal pathways in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer and preventive implications. Cancer Biol Ther 8, 13131317.

48. SL Harris & AJ Levine (2005) The p53 pathway: positive and negative feedback loops. Oncogene 24, 28992908.

49. EB Pasquale (2005) Eph receptor signalling casts a wide net on cell behaviour. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6, 462475.

50. E Batlle , J Bacani , H Begthel (2005) EphB receptor activity suppresses colorectal cancer progression. Nature 435, 11261130.

51. C Friedenreich , T Norat , K Steindorf (2006) Physical activity and risk of colon and rectal cancers: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15, 23982407.

52. BJ John , S Irukulla , AM Abulafi (2006) Systematic review: adipose tissue, obesity and gastrointestinal diseases. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 23, 1511–1123.

53. IT Johnson & EK Lund (2007) Review article: nutrition, obesity and colorectal cancer. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 26, 161181.

54. G Gonullu , H Kahraman , A Bedir (2010) Association between adiponectin, resistin, insulin resistance, and colorectal tumors. Int J Colorectal Dis 25, 205212.

55. P Moayyedi (2008) The epidemiology of obesity and gastrointestinal and other diseases: an overview. Dig Dis Sci 53, 22932299.

56. D Tripathy , P Mohanty , S Dhindsa (2003) Elevation of free fatty acids induces inflammation and impairs vascular reactivity in healthy subjects. Diabetes 52, 28822887.

57. CB Clish , E Davidov , M Oresic (2004) Integrative biological analysis of the APOE*3-leiden transgenic mouse. OMICS 8, 3–13.

58. ML Slattery , K Curtin , C Sweeney (2007) Diet and lifestyle factor associations with CpG island methylator phenotype and BRAF mutations in colon cancer. Int J Cancer 120, 656663.

59. K Nosho , K Shima , N Irahara (2009) SIRT1 histone deacetylase expression is associated with microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer. Mod Pathol 22, 922932.

60. E Giraldo , JJ Garcia , MD Hinchado (2009) Exercise intensity-dependent changes in the inflammatory response in sedentary women: role of neuroendocrine parameters in the neutrophil phagocytic process and the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. Neuroimmunomodulation 16, 237244.

61. LK Stewart , MG Flynn , WW Campbell (2007) The influence of exercise training on inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39, 17141719.

62. MJ Puglisi & ML Fernandez (2008) Modulation of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and adiponectin by diet, exercise, and weight loss. J Nutr 138, 22932296.

63. L Liu , W Zhuang , RQ Wang (2011) Is dietary fat associated with the risk of colorectal cancer? A meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies. Eur J Nutr (In the Press).

64. DD Alexander , CA Cushing , KA Lowe (2009) Meta-analysis of animal fat or animal protein intake and colorectal cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 14021409.

65. DD Alexander & CA Cushing (2011) Red meat and colorectal cancer: a critical summary of prospective epidemiologic studies. Obes Rev (In the Press).

66. CD Williams , JA Satia , LS Adair (2010) Associations of red meat, fat, and protein intake with distal colorectal cancer risk. Nutr Cancer 62, 701709.

67. EA Spencer , TJ Key , PN Appleby (2010) Meat, poultry and fish and risk of colorectal cancer: pooled analysis of data from the UK dietary cohort consortium. Cancer Causes Control 21, 14171425.

68. AJ Cross , LM Ferrucci , A Risch (2010) A large prospective study of meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: an investigation of potential mechanisms underlying this association. Cancer Res 70, 24062414.

69. MA Sanjoaquin , PN Appleby , EA Spencer (2004) Nutrition and lifestyle in relation to bowel movement frequency: a cross-sectional study of 20630 men and women in EPIC-Oxford. Public Health Nutr 7, 7783.

70. DD Alexander , AJ Miller , CA Cushing (2010) Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a quantitative review of prospective epidemiologic studies. Eur J Cancer Prev 19, 328341.

71. U Nothlings , JF Yamamoto , LR Wilkens (2009) Meat and heterocyclic amine intake, smoking, NAT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk in the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18, 20982106.

72. A Shin , MJ Shrubsole , JM Rice (2008) Meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms in relation to colorectal polyp risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 320329.

73. M Cotterchio , BA Boucher , M Manno (2008) Red meat intake, doneness, polymorphisms in genes that encode carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, and colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 30983107.

74. V Andersen , M Ostergaard , J Christensen (2009) Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1) and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study. BMC Cancer 9, 407.

75. K Kuriki , K Hirose , K Matsuo (2006) Meat, milk, saturated fatty acids, the Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms of the PPARgamma gene and colorectal cancer risk in Japanese. Cancer Sci 97, 12261235.

76. LR Ferguson (2010) Meat and cancer. Meat Sci 84, 308313.

77. S Rohrmann , S Hermann & J Linseisen (2009) Heterocyclic aromatic amine intake increases colorectal adenoma risk: findings from a prospective European cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 14181424.

78. W Zheng & SA Lee (2009) Well-done meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and cancer risk. Nutr Cancer 61, 437446.

79. SA Bingham (2000) Diet and colorectal cancer prevention. Biochem Soc Trans 28, 1216.

84. AM Joosen , GG Kuhnle , SM Aspinall (2009) Effect of processed and red meat on endogenous nitrosation and DNA damage. Carcinogenesis 30, 14021407.

85. AL Sesink , DS Termont , JH Kleibeuker (2001) Red meat and colon cancer: dietary haem-induced colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial hyperproliferation are inhibited by calcium. Carcinogenesis 22, 16531659.

86. J de Vogel , WB van-Eck , AL Sesink (2008) Dietary heme injures surface epithelium resulting in hyperproliferation, inhibition of apoptosis and crypt hyperplasia in rat colon. Carcinogenesis 29, 398403.

87. G Ou , V Baranov , E Lundmark , S Hammarstrom (2009) Contribution of intestinal epithelial cells to innate immunity of the human gut – studies on polarized monolayers of colon carcinoma cells. Scand J Immunol 69, 150161.

88. J de Vogel , DS Jonker-Termont , EM van Lieshout (2005) Green vegetables, red meat and colon cancer: chlorophyll prevents the cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects of haem in rat colon. Carcinogenesis 26, 387393.

89. T Norat , S Bingham , P Ferrari (2005) Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition. J Natl Cancer Inst 97, 906916.

90. S Raimondi , H Johansson , P Maisonneuve (2009) Review and meta-analysis on vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and cancer risk. Carcinogenesis 30, 11701180.

91. L Yin , N Grandi , E Raum (2009) Meta-analysis: longitudinal studies of serum vitamin D and colorectal cancer risk. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 30, 113125.

92. M Huncharek , J Muscat & B Kupelnick (2009) Colorectal cancer risk and dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy products: a meta-analysis of 26,335 cases from 60 observational studies. Nutr Cancer 61, 4769.

93. MY Wei , CF Garland , ED Gorham (2008) Vitamin D and prevention of colorectal adenoma: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 29582969.

94. EA Miller , TO Keku , JA Satia (2005) Calcium, vitamin D, and apoptosis in the rectal epithelium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14, 525528.

95. C Carroll , K Cooper , D Papaioannou (2010) Supplemental calcium in the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Ther 32, 789803.

96. ME Beildeck , M Islam , S Shah (2009) Control of TCF-4 expression by VDR and vitamin D in the mouse mammary gland and colorectal cancer cell lines. PLoS One 4, e7872.

97. J Thorne & MJ Campbell (2008) The vitamin D receptor in cancer. Proc Nutr Soc 67, 115127.

98. S Kure , K Nosho , Y Baba (2009) Vitamin D receptor expression is associated with PIK3CA and KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18, 27652772.

99. E Lund & E Kampman (2008) Protective effects of fish consumption in relation to gastrointestinal health. In Improving Seafood for the Consumer, pp. 116135 [ T Borresen , editor]. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead.

100. A Geelen , JM Schouten , C Kamphuis (2007) Fish consumption, n-3 fatty acids, and colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Epidemiol 166, 11161125.

101. CE Roynette , PC Calder , YM Dupertuis (2004) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and colon cancer prevention. Clin Nutr 23, 139151.

103. P Latham , EK Lund , JC Brown (2001) Effects of cellular redox balance on induction of apoptosis by eicosapentaenoic acid in HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and rat colon in vivo. Gut 49, 97–105.

105. NB Janakiram & CV Rao (2009) Role of lipoxins and resolvins as anti-inflammatory and proresolving mediators in colon cancer. Curr Mol Med 9, 565579.

106. PC Calder (2009) Fatty acids and immune function: relevance to inflammatory bowel diseases. Int Rev Immunol 28, 506534.

107. UN Das (2006) Essential fatty acids – a review. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 7, 467482.

108. CL Siezen , AI van Leeuwen , NR Kram (2005) Colorectal adenoma risk is modified by the interplay between polymorphisms in arachidonic acid pathway genes and fish consumption. Carcinogenesis 26, 449457.

110. JF Doleman , JJ Eady , RM Elliott (2010) Identification of the Eph receptor pathway as a novel target for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) modification of gene expression in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29). Nutr Metab (In the Press).

111. TE Fox , EG Van den Heuvel , CA Atherton (2004) Bioavailability of selenium from fish, yeast and selenate: a comparative study in humans using stable isotopes. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 343349.

112. Y Yamori , S Murakami , K Ikeda (2004) Fish and lifestyle-related disease prevention: experimental and epidemiological evidence for anti-atherogenic potential of taurine. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 31, Suppl. 2, S20S23.

113. LC Clark , GF Combs Jr. BW Turnbull (1996) Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group [see comments] [published erratum appears in JAMA 1997 May 21;277(19):1520]. JAMA 276, 19571963.

114. ET Jacobs , R Jiang , DS Alberts (2004) Selenium and colorectal adenoma: results of a pooled analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 96, 16691675.

115. N Xiang , R Zhao , G Song (2008) Selenite reactivates silenced genes by modifying DNA methylation and histones in prostate cancer cells. Carcinogenesis 29, 21752181.

117. R Zhao , N Xiang , FE Domann (2009) Effects of selenite and genistein on G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 61, 397407.

119. IT Johnson (2004) New approaches to the role of diet in the prevention of cancers of the alimentary tract. Mutat Res 551, 9–28.

120. JM Wong , R de Souza , CW Kendall (2006) Colonic health: fermentation and short chain fatty acids. J Clin Gastroenterol 40, 235243.

121. IT Johnson (2004) Micronutrients and cancer. Proc Nutr Soc 63, 587595.

122.The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (1994) The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N Engl J Med 330, 10291035.

123. GS Omenn , GE Goodman , MD Thornquist (1996) Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 334, 11501155.

124. IT Johnson & NJ Belshaw (2008) Environment, diet and CpG island methylation: epigenetic signals in gastrointestinal neoplasia. Food Chem Toxicol 46, 13461359.

125. RA Hubner & RS Houlston (2009) Folate and colorectal cancer prevention. Br J Cancer 100, 233239.

126. JB Mason , A Dickstein , PF Jacques (2007) A temporal association between folic acid fortification and an increase in colorectal cancer rates may be illuminating important biological principles: a hypothesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16, 13251329.

127. B Van Guelpen , J Hultdin , I Johansson (2006) Low folate levels may protect against colorectal cancer. Gut 55, 14611466.

128. E Lund (2003) Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: dietary sources and health benefits of glucosinolates. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 73, 135143.

129. A Lynn , A Collins , Z Fuller (2006) Cruciferous vegetables and colo-rectal cancer. Proc Nutr Soc 65, 135144.

130. TK Smith , EK Lund , RG Clarke (2005) Effects of Brussels sprout juice on the cell cycle and adhesion of human colorectal carcinoma cells (HT29) in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 53, 38953901.

131. TK Smith , EK Lund , ML Parker (2004) Allyl-isothiocyanate causes mitotic block, loss of cell adhesion and disrupted cytoskeletal structure in HT29 cells. Carcinogenesis 25, 14091415.

132. H Nian , B Delage , E Ho (2009) Modulation of histone deacetylase activity by dietary isothiocyanates and allyl sulfides: studies with sulforaphane and garlic organosulfur compounds. Environ Mol Mutagen 50, 213221.

134. LG Wang & JW Chiao (2010) Prostate cancer chemopreventive activity of phenethyl isothiocyanate through epigenetic regulation (review). Int J Oncol 37, 533539.

135. YH Kim , HS Kwon , DH Kim (2009) 3,3′-diindolylmethane attenuates colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis in mice. Inflamm Bowel Dis 15, 11641173.

136. MJ Tijhuis , PA Wark , JM Aarts (2005) GSTP1 and GSTA1 polymorphisms interact with cruciferous vegetable intake in colorectal adenoma risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14, 29432951.

137. F Kramer , IT Johnson , JF Doleman (2009) A comparison of the effects of soya isoflavonoids and fish oil on cell proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of oestrogen receptors alpha and beta in the mammary gland and colon of the rat. Br J Nutr 102, 2936.

138. L Yan , EL Spitznagel & MC Bosland (2010) Soy consumption and colorectal cancer risk in humans: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19, 148158.

140. SH Javid , AE Moran , AM Carothers (2005) Modulation of tumor formation and intestinal cell migration by estrogens in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis 26, 587595.

141. S Rajamanickam & R Agarwal (2008) Natural products and colon cancer: current status and future prospects. Drug Dev Res 69, 460471.

143. Y Li & TO Tollefsbol (2010) Impact on DNA methylation in cancer prevention and therapy by bioactive dietary components. Curr Med Chem 17, 21412151.

144. EP Moiseeva , GM Almeida , GD Jones (2007) Extended treatment with physiologic concentrations of dietary phytochemicals results in altered gene expression, reduced growth, and apoptosis of cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther 6, 30713079.

145. CW Xiao , J Mei & CM Wood (2008) Effect of soy proteins and isoflavones on lipid metabolism and involved gene expression. Front Biosci 13, 26602673.

148. R Egeberg , A Olsen , S Loft , J Christensen (2010) Intake of wholegrain products and risk of colorectal cancers in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. Br J Cancer 103, 730734.

149. P Haas , MJ Machado , AA Anton (2009) Effectiveness of whole grain consumption in the prevention of colorectal cancer: Meta-analysis of cohort studies. Int J Food Sci Nutr Mar 21: 113. Epublication ahead of print.

Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *



Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 14
Total number of PDF views: 100 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 229 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between September 2016 - 29th May 2017. This data will be updated every 24 hours.