1.Jemal A, Siegel R, Xu J & Ward E (2010) Cancer statistics, 2010. CA Cancer J Clin 60, 277–300.
2.Parkin DM, Bray F, Ferlay J et al. (2005) Global cancer statistics, 2002. CA Cancer J Clin 55, 74–108.
3.Flood DM, Weiss NS, Cook LS et al. (2000) Colorectal cancer incidence in Asian migrants to the United States and their descendants. Cancer Causes Control 11, 403–411.
4.Key TJ, Allen NE, Spencer EA et al. (2002) The effect of diet on risk of cancer. Lancet 360, 861–868.
5.Armstrong B & Doll R (1975) Environmental factors and cancer incidence and mortality in different countries, with special reference to dietary practices. Int J Cancer 15, 617–631.
6.Phillips RL (1975) Role of life-style and dietary habits in risk of cancer among seventh-day adventists. Cancer Res 35, 3513–3522.
7.Maclennan R & Jensen OM (1977) Dietary fibre, transit-time, faecal bacteria, steroids, and colon cancer in two Scandinavian populations. Report from the International Agency for Research on Cancer Intestinal Microecology Group. Lancet 2, 207–211.
8.Modan B (1977) Role of diet in cancer etiology. Cancer 40,4 Suppl., 1887–1891.
9.WCRF/AICR (2007) Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective. Washington, DC: WCRF/AICR.
10.Giovannucci E, Ascherio A, Rimm EB et al. (1995) Physical activity, obesity, and risk for colon cancer and adenoma in men. Ann Intern Med 122, 327–334.
11.Ning Y, Wang L & Giovannucci EL (2010) A quantitative analysis of body mass index and colorectal cancer: findings from 56 observational studies. Obes Rev 11, 19–30.
12.Vogelstein B, Fearon ER, Hamilton SR et al. (1988) Genetic alterations during colorectal-tumor development. N Engl J Med 319, 525–532.
13.Jiricny J & Marra G (2003) DNA repair defects in colon cancer. Curr Opin Genet Dev 13, 61–69.
14.Calabrese P & Shibata D (2010) A simple algebraic cancer equation: calculating how cancers may arise with normal mutation rates. BMC Cancer 10, 3.
15.Fearon ER & Jones PA (1992) Progressing toward a molecular description of colorectal cancer development. FASEB J 6, 2783–2790.
16.Lamlum H, Papadopoulou A, Ilyas M et al. (2000) APC mutations are sufficient for the growth of early colorectal adenomas. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97, 2225–2228.
17.Trautmann K, Terdiman JP, French AJ et al. (2006) Chromosomal instability in microsatellite-unstable and stable colon cancer. Clin Cancer Res 12, 6379–6385.
18.Grady WM & Markowitz S (2000) Genomic instability and colorectal cancer. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 16, 62–67.
19.Pino MS & Chung DC (2010) The chromosomal instability pathway in colon cancer. Gastroenterology 138, 2059–2072.
20.Duthie SJ (2011) Epigenetic modifications and human pathologies: cancer and cardiovascular disease. Proc Nutr Soc 70, 47–56.
21.Grady WM & Carethers JM (2008) Genomic and epigenetic instability in colorectal cancer pathogenesis. Gastroenterology 135, 1079–1099.
22.Belshaw NJ, Elliott GO, Williams EA et al. (2004) Use of DNA from human stools to detect aberrant CpG island methylation of genes implicated in colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 13, 1495–1501.
23.Issa JP, Ahuja N, Toyota M et al. (2001) Accelerated age-related CpG island methylation in ulcerative colitis. Cancer Res 61, 3573–3577.
24.Belshaw NJ, Pal N, Tapp HS et al. (2010) Patterns of DNA methylation in individual colonic crypts reveal aging and cancer-related field defects in the morphologically normal mucosa. Carcinogenesis 31, 1158–1163.
25.Maegawa S, Hinkal G, Kim HS et al. (2010) Widespread and tissue specific age-related DNA methylation changes in mice. Genome Res 20, 332–340.
26.Ahuja N, Li Q, Mohan AL et al. (1998) Aging and DNA methylation in colorectal mucosa and cancer. Cancer Res 58, 5489–5494.
27.Kawasaki T, Nosho K, Ohnishi M et al. (2007) Correlation of beta-catenin localization with cyclooxygenase-2 expression and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancer. Neoplasia 9, 569–577.
28.Fantini MC & Pallone F (2008) Cytokines: from gut inflammation to colorectal cancer. Curr Drug Targets 9, 375–380.
29.Hambly RJ, Rumney CJ, Cunninghame M et al. (1997) Influence of diets containing high and low risk factors for colon cancer on early stages of carcinogenesis in human flora-associated (HFA) rats. Carcinogenesis 18, 1535–1539.
30.Campbell PT, Curtin K, Ulrich CM et al. (2009) Mismatch repair polymorphisms and risk of colon cancer, tumour microsatellite instability and interactions with lifestyle factors. Gut 58, 661–667.
31.Wallace MB & Kiesslich R (2010) Advances in endoscopic imaging of colorectal neoplasia. Gastroenterology 138, 2140–2150.
32.Knasmuller S, DeMarini DM, Johnson IT et al. (2009) Chemoprevention of Cancer and DNA Damage by Dietary Factors. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
33.Liong MT (2008) Roles of probiotics and prebiotics in colon cancer prevention: Postulated mechanisms and in-vivo evidence. Int J Mol Sci 9, 854–863.
34.Sancho E, Batlle E & Clevers H (2004) Signaling pathways in intestinal development and cancer. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol 20, 695–723.
35.Vincan E & Barker N (2008) The upstream components of the Wnt signalling pathway in the dynamic EMT and MET associated with colorectal cancer progression. Clin Exp Metastasis 25, 657–663.
36.Behrens J (2005) The role of the Wnt signalling pathway in colorectal tumorigenesis. Biochem Soc Trans 33, 672–675.
37.Kipp A, Banning A, van Schothorst EM et al. (2009) Four selenoproteins, protein biosynthesis, and Wnt signalling are particularly sensitive to limited selenium intake in mouse colon. Mol Nutr Food Res 53, 1561–1572.
38.Bordonaro M, Lazarova DL & Sartorelli AC (2008) Butyrate and Wnt signaling: a possible solution to the puzzle of dietary fiber and colon cancer risk? Cell Cycle 7, 1178–1183.
39.Ruzzo A, Graziano F, Canestrari E et al. (2010) Molecular predictors of efficacy to anti-EGFR agents in colorectal cancer patients. Curr Cancer Drug Targets 10, 68–79.
40.Reidy DL, Vakiani E, Fakih MG et al. (2010) Randomized, phase II study of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor inhibitor IMC-A12, with or without cetuximab, in patients with cetuximab- or panitumumab-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. J Clin Oncol 28, 4240–4246.
41.Jhawer M, Goel S, Wilson AJ et al. (2008) PIK3CA mutation/PTEN expression status predicts response of colon cancer cells to the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor cetuximab. Cancer Res 68, 1953–1961.
42.Zhang HH, Walker F, Kiflemariam S et al. (2009) Selective inhibition of proliferation in colorectal carcinoma cell lines expressing mutant APC or activated B-Raf. Int J Cancer 125, 297–307.
43.Cunningham D, Humblet Y, Siena S et al. (2004) Cetuximab monotherapy and cetuximab plus irinotecan in irinotecan-refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 351, 337–345.
44.Jakubikova J, Sedlak J, Mithen R et al. (2005) Role of PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK signaling pathways in sulforaphane- and erucin-induced phase II enzymes and MRP2 transcription, G2/M arrest and cell death in Caco-2 cells. Biochem Pharmacol 69, 1543–1552.
45.Ferrand A, Bertrand C, Portolan G et al. (2005) Signaling pathways associated with colonic mucosa hyperproliferation in mice overexpressing gastrin precursors. Cancer Res 65, 2770–2777.
46.Kaneda A, Wang CJ, Cheong R et al. (2007) Enhanced sensitivity to IGF-II signaling links loss of imprinting of IGF2 to increased cell proliferation and tumor risk. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104, 20926–20931.
47.Chen J & Huang XF (2009) The signal pathways in azoxymethane-induced colon cancer and preventive implications. Cancer Biol Ther 8, 1313–1317.
48.Harris SL & Levine AJ (2005) The p53 pathway: positive and negative feedback loops. Oncogene 24, 2899–2908.
49.Pasquale EB (2005) Eph receptor signalling casts a wide net on cell behaviour. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6, 462–475.
50.Batlle E, Bacani J, Begthel H et al. (2005) EphB receptor activity suppresses colorectal cancer progression. Nature 435, 1126–1130.
51.Friedenreich C, Norat T, Steindorf K et al. (2006) Physical activity and risk of colon and rectal cancers: the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 15, 2398–2407.
52.John BJ, Irukulla S, Abulafi AM et al. (2006) Systematic review: adipose tissue, obesity and gastrointestinal diseases. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 23, 1511–1123.
53.Johnson IT & Lund EK (2007) Review article: nutrition, obesity and colorectal cancer. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 26, 161–181.
54.Gonullu G, Kahraman H, Bedir A et al. (2010) Association between adiponectin, resistin, insulin resistance, and colorectal tumors. Int J Colorectal Dis 25, 205–212.
55.Moayyedi P (2008) The epidemiology of obesity and gastrointestinal and other diseases: an overview. Dig Dis Sci 53, 2293–2299.
56.Tripathy D, Mohanty P, Dhindsa S et al. (2003) Elevation of free fatty acids induces inflammation and impairs vascular reactivity in healthy subjects. Diabetes 52, 2882–2887.
57.Clish CB, Davidov E, Oresic M et al. (2004) Integrative biological analysis of the APOE*3-leiden transgenic mouse. OMICS 8, 3–13.
58.Slattery ML, Curtin K, Sweeney C et al. (2007) Diet and lifestyle factor associations with CpG island methylator phenotype and BRAF mutations in colon cancer. Int J Cancer 120, 656–663.
59.Nosho K, Shima K, Irahara N et al. (2009) SIRT1 histone deacetylase expression is associated with microsatellite instability and CpG island methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer. Mod Pathol 22, 922–932.
60.Giraldo E, Garcia JJ, Hinchado MD et al. (2009) Exercise intensity-dependent changes in the inflammatory response in sedentary women: role of neuroendocrine parameters in the neutrophil phagocytic process and the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. Neuroimmunomodulation 16, 237–244.
61.Stewart LK, Flynn MG, Campbell WW et al. (2007) The influence of exercise training on inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein. Med Sci Sports Exerc 39, 1714–1719.
62.Puglisi MJ & Fernandez ML (2008) Modulation of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and adiponectin by diet, exercise, and weight loss. J Nutr 138, 2293–2296.
63.Liu L, Zhuang W, Wang RQ et al. (2011) Is dietary fat associated with the risk of colorectal cancer? A meta-analysis of 13 prospective cohort studies. Eur J Nutr (In the Press).
64.Alexander DD, Cushing CA, Lowe KA et al. (2009) Meta-analysis of animal fat or animal protein intake and colorectal cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1402–1409.
65.Alexander DD & Cushing CA (2011) Red meat and colorectal cancer: a critical summary of prospective epidemiologic studies. Obes Rev (In the Press).
66.Williams CD, Satia JA, Adair LS et al. (2010) Associations of red meat, fat, and protein intake with distal colorectal cancer risk. Nutr Cancer 62, 701–709.
67.Spencer EA, Key TJ, Appleby PN et al. (2010) Meat, poultry and fish and risk of colorectal cancer: pooled analysis of data from the UK dietary cohort consortium. Cancer Causes Control 21, 1417–1425.
68.Cross AJ, Ferrucci LM, Risch A et al. (2010) A large prospective study of meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: an investigation of potential mechanisms underlying this association. Cancer Res 70, 2406–2414.
69.Sanjoaquin MA, Appleby PN, Spencer EA et al. (2004) Nutrition and lifestyle in relation to bowel movement frequency: a cross-sectional study of 20630 men and women in EPIC-Oxford. Public Health Nutr 7, 77–83.
70.Alexander DD, Miller AJ, Cushing CA et al. (2010) Processed meat and colorectal cancer: a quantitative review of prospective epidemiologic studies. Eur J Cancer Prev 19, 328–341.
71.Nothlings U, Yamamoto JF, Wilkens LR et al. (2009) Meat and heterocyclic amine intake, smoking, NAT1 and NAT2 polymorphisms, and colorectal cancer risk in the multiethnic cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18, 2098–2106.
72.Shin A, Shrubsole MJ, Rice JM et al. (2008) Meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms in relation to colorectal polyp risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 320–329.
73.Cotterchio M, Boucher BA, Manno M et al. (2008) Red meat intake, doneness, polymorphisms in genes that encode carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, and colorectal cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 3098–3107.
74.Andersen V, Ostergaard M, Christensen J et al. (2009) Polymorphisms in the xenobiotic transporter Multidrug Resistance 1 (MDR1) and interaction with meat intake in relation to risk of colorectal cancer in a Danish prospective case-cohort study. BMC Cancer 9, 407.
75.Kuriki K, Hirose K, Matsuo K et al. (2006) Meat, milk, saturated fatty acids, the Pro12Ala and C161T polymorphisms of the PPARgamma gene and colorectal cancer risk in Japanese. Cancer Sci 97, 1226–1235.
76.Ferguson LR (2010) Meat and cancer. Meat Sci 84, 308–313.
77.Rohrmann S, Hermann S & Linseisen J (2009) Heterocyclic aromatic amine intake increases colorectal adenoma risk: findings from a prospective European cohort study. Am J Clin Nutr 89, 1418–1424.
78.Zheng W & Lee SA (2009) Well-done meat intake, heterocyclic amine exposure, and cancer risk. Nutr Cancer 61, 437–446.
79.Bingham SA (2000) Diet and colorectal cancer prevention. Biochem Soc Trans 28, 12–16.
80.Lund EK, Fairweather-Tait SJ, Wharf SG et al. (2001) Chronic exposure to high levels of dietary iron fortification increases lipid peroxidation in the mucosa of the rat large intestine. J Nutr 131, 2928–2931.
81.Lund EK, Wharf SG, Fairweather-Tait SJ et al. (1999) Oral ferrous sulfate supplements increase the free radical-generating capacity of feces from healthy volunteers. Am J Clin Nutr 69, 250–255.
82.Lund EK, Wharf SG, Fairweather-Tait SJ et al. (1998) Increases in the concentrations of available iron in response to dietary iron supplementation are associated with changes in crypt cell proliferation in rat large intestine. Journal of Nutrition 128, 175–179.
83.Bingham SA, Hughes R & Cross AJ (2002) Effect of white versus red meat on endogenous N-nitrosation in the human colon and further evidence of a dose response. J Nutr 132, 3522S–3525S.
84.Joosen AM, Kuhnle GG, Aspinall SM et al. (2009) Effect of processed and red meat on endogenous nitrosation and DNA damage. Carcinogenesis 30, 1402–1407.
85.Sesink AL, Termont DS, Kleibeuker JH et al. (2001) Red meat and colon cancer: dietary haem-induced colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial hyperproliferation are inhibited by calcium. Carcinogenesis 22, 1653–1659.
86.de Vogel J, van-Eck WB, Sesink AL et al. (2008) Dietary heme injures surface epithelium resulting in hyperproliferation, inhibition of apoptosis and crypt hyperplasia in rat colon. Carcinogenesis 29, 398–403.
87.Ou G, Baranov V, Lundmark E, Hammarstrom S et al. (2009) Contribution of intestinal epithelial cells to innate immunity of the human gut – studies on polarized monolayers of colon carcinoma cells. Scand J Immunol 69, 150–161.
88.de Vogel J, Jonker-Termont DS, van Lieshout EM et al. (2005) Green vegetables, red meat and colon cancer: chlorophyll prevents the cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects of haem in rat colon. Carcinogenesis 26, 387–393.
89.Norat T, Bingham S, Ferrari P et al. (2005) Meat, fish, and colorectal cancer risk: the European Prospective Investigation into cancer and nutrition. J Natl Cancer Inst 97, 906–916.
90.Raimondi S, Johansson H, Maisonneuve P et al. (2009) Review and meta-analysis on vitamin D receptor polymorphisms and cancer risk. Carcinogenesis 30, 1170–1180.
91.Yin L, Grandi N, Raum E et al. (2009) Meta-analysis: longitudinal studies of serum vitamin D and colorectal cancer risk. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 30, 113–125.
92.Huncharek M, Muscat J & Kupelnick B (2009) Colorectal cancer risk and dietary intake of calcium, vitamin D, and dairy products: a meta-analysis of 26,335 cases from 60 observational studies. Nutr Cancer 61, 47–69.
93.Wei MY, Garland CF, Gorham ED et al. (2008) Vitamin D and prevention of colorectal adenoma: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 17, 2958–2969.
94.Miller EA, Keku TO, Satia JA et al. (2005) Calcium, vitamin D, and apoptosis in the rectal epithelium. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14, 525–528.
95.Carroll C, Cooper K, Papaioannou D et al. (2010) Supplemental calcium in the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Ther 32, 789–803.
96.Beildeck ME, Islam M, Shah S et al. (2009) Control of TCF-4 expression by VDR and vitamin D in the mouse mammary gland and colorectal cancer cell lines. PLoS One 4, e7872.
97.Thorne J & Campbell MJ (2008) The vitamin D receptor in cancer. Proc Nutr Soc 67, 115–127.
98.Kure S, Nosho K, Baba Y et al. (2009) Vitamin D receptor expression is associated with PIK3CA and KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 18, 2765–2772.
99.Lund E & Kampman E (2008) Protective effects of fish consumption in relation to gastrointestinal health. In Improving Seafood for the Consumer, pp. 116–135 [Borresen T, editor]. Cambridge, UK: Woodhead.
100.Geelen A, Schouten JM, Kamphuis C et al. (2007) Fish consumption, n-3 fatty acids, and colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Epidemiol 166, 1116–1125.
101.Roynette CE, Calder PC, Dupertuis YM et al. (2004) n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and colon cancer prevention. Clin Nutr 23, 139–151.
102.Chapkin RS, Davidson LA, Ly L et al. (2007) Immunomodulatory effects of (n-3) fatty acids: putative link to inflammation and colon cancer. J Nutr 137, 1 Suppl., 200S–204S.
103.Latham P, Lund EK, Brown JC et al. (2001) Effects of cellular redox balance on induction of apoptosis by eicosapentaenoic acid in HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and rat colon in vivo. Gut 49, 97–105.
104.Sanders LM, Henderson CE, Hong MY et al. (2004) An increase in reactive oxygen species by dietary fish oil coupled with the attenuation of antioxidant defenses by dietary pectin enhances rat colonocyte apoptosis. J Nutr 134, 3233–3238.
105.Janakiram NB & Rao CV (2009) Role of lipoxins and resolvins as anti-inflammatory and proresolving mediators in colon cancer. Curr Mol Med 9, 565–579.
106.Calder PC (2009) Fatty acids and immune function: relevance to inflammatory bowel diseases. Int Rev Immunol 28, 506–534.
107.Das UN (2006) Essential fatty acids – a review. Curr Pharm Biotechnol 7, 467–482.
108.Siezen CL, van Leeuwen AI, Kram NR et al. (2005) Colorectal adenoma risk is modified by the interplay between polymorphisms in arachidonic acid pathway genes and fish consumption. Carcinogenesis 26, 449–457.
109.Oh da Y, Talukdar S, Bae EJ et al. (2010) GPR120 is an omega-3 fatty acid receptor mediating potent anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects. Cell 142, 687–698.
110.Doleman JF, Eady JJ, Elliott RM et al. (2010) Identification of the Eph receptor pathway as a novel target for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) modification of gene expression in human colon adenocarcinoma cells (HT-29). Nutr Metab (In the Press).
111.Fox TE, Van den Heuvel EG, Atherton CA et al. (2004) Bioavailability of selenium from fish, yeast and selenate: a comparative study in humans using stable isotopes. Eur J Clin Nutr 58, 343–349.
112.Yamori Y, Murakami S, Ikeda K et al. (2004) Fish and lifestyle-related disease prevention: experimental and epidemiological evidence for anti-atherogenic potential of taurine. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 31, Suppl. 2, S20–S23.
113.Clark LC, Combs GF Jr. Turnbull BW et al. (1996) Effects of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in patients with carcinoma of the skin. A randomized controlled trial. Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Study Group [see comments] [published erratum appears in JAMA 1997 May 21;277(19):1520]. JAMA 276, 1957–1963.
114.Jacobs ET, Jiang R, Alberts DS et al. (2004) Selenium and colorectal adenoma: results of a pooled analysis. J Natl Cancer Inst 96, 1669–1675.
115.Xiang N, Zhao R, Song G et al. (2008) Selenite reactivates silenced genes by modifying DNA methylation and histones in prostate cancer cells. Carcinogenesis 29, 2175–2181.
116.FSA_UK. McCance and Widdowson's Composition of Foods Integrated Dataset. HMSO.
117.Zhao R, Xiang N, Domann FE et al. (2009) Effects of selenite and genistein on G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. Nutr Cancer 61, 397–407.
118.Majsak-Newman G, Pot GK et al. (2009) Vitamin D levels in 70% of patients attending for colonoscopy in The UK and Netherlands are sub-optimal but consumption of salmon does not provide any significant improvement. Gut 58, A157.
119.Johnson IT (2004) New approaches to the role of diet in the prevention of cancers of the alimentary tract. Mutat Res 551, 9–28.
120.Wong JM, de Souza R, Kendall CW et al. (2006) Colonic health: fermentation and short chain fatty acids. J Clin Gastroenterol 40, 235–243.
121.Johnson IT (2004) Micronutrients and cancer. Proc Nutr Soc 63, 587–595.
122.The Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta Carotene Cancer Prevention Study Group (1994) The effect of vitamin E and beta carotene on the incidence of lung cancer and other cancers in male smokers. N Engl J Med 330, 1029–1035.
123.Omenn GS, Goodman GE, Thornquist MD et al. (1996) Effects of a combination of beta carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med 334, 1150–1155.
124.Johnson IT & Belshaw NJ (2008) Environment, diet and CpG island methylation: epigenetic signals in gastrointestinal neoplasia. Food Chem Toxicol 46, 1346–1359.
125.Hubner RA & Houlston RS (2009) Folate and colorectal cancer prevention. Br J Cancer 100, 233–239.
126.Mason JB, Dickstein A, Jacques PF et al. (2007) A temporal association between folic acid fortification and an increase in colorectal cancer rates may be illuminating important biological principles: a hypothesis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16, 1325–1329.
127.Van Guelpen B, Hultdin J, Johansson I et al. (2006) Low folate levels may protect against colorectal cancer. Gut 55, 1461–1466.
128.Lund E (2003) Non-nutritive bioactive constituents of plants: dietary sources and health benefits of glucosinolates. Int J Vitam Nutr Res 73, 135–143.
129.Lynn A, Collins A, Fuller Z et al. (2006) Cruciferous vegetables and colo-rectal cancer. Proc Nutr Soc 65, 135–144.
130.Smith TK, Lund EK, Clarke RG et al. (2005) Effects of Brussels sprout juice on the cell cycle and adhesion of human colorectal carcinoma cells (HT29) in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 53, 3895–3901.
131.Smith TK, Lund EK, Parker ML et al. (2004) Allyl-isothiocyanate causes mitotic block, loss of cell adhesion and disrupted cytoskeletal structure in HT29 cells. Carcinogenesis 25, 1409–1415.
132.Nian H, Delage B, Ho E et al. (2009) Modulation of histone deacetylase activity by dietary isothiocyanates and allyl sulfides: studies with sulforaphane and garlic organosulfur compounds. Environ Mol Mutagen 50, 213–221.
133.Myzak MC, Dashwood WM, Orner GA et al. (2006) Sulforaphane inhibits histone deacetylase in vivo and suppresses tumorigenesis in Apc-minus mice. FASEB J 20, 506–508.
134.Wang LG & Chiao JW (2010) Prostate cancer chemopreventive activity of phenethyl isothiocyanate through epigenetic regulation (review). Int J Oncol 37, 533–539.
135.Kim YH, Kwon HS, Kim DH et al. (2009) 3,3′-diindolylmethane attenuates colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis in mice. Inflamm Bowel Dis 15, 1164–1173.
136.Tijhuis MJ, Wark PA, Aarts JM et al. (2005) GSTP1 and GSTA1 polymorphisms interact with cruciferous vegetable intake in colorectal adenoma risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 14, 2943–2951.
137.Kramer F, Johnson IT, Doleman JF et al. (2009) A comparison of the effects of soya isoflavonoids and fish oil on cell proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of oestrogen receptors alpha and beta in the mammary gland and colon of the rat. Br J Nutr 102, 29–36.
138.Yan L, Spitznagel EL & Bosland MC (2010) Soy consumption and colorectal cancer risk in humans: a meta-analysis. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 19, 148–158.
139.Boehm K, Borrelli F, Ernst E et al. (2009) Green tea (Camellia sinensis) for the prevention of cancer. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD005004.
140.Javid SH, Moran AE, Carothers AM et al. (2005) Modulation of tumor formation and intestinal cell migration by estrogens in the Apc(Min/+) mouse model of colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis 26, 587–595.
141.Rajamanickam S & Agarwal R (2008) Natural products and colon cancer: current status and future prospects. Drug Dev Res 69, 460–471.
142.Fang M, Chen D & Yang CS (2007) Dietary polyphenols may affect DNA methylation. J Nutr 137,1 Suppl., 223S–228S.
143.Li Y & Tollefsbol TO (2010) Impact on DNA methylation in cancer prevention and therapy by bioactive dietary components. Curr Med Chem 17, 2141–2151.
144.Moiseeva EP, Almeida GM, Jones GD et al. (2007) Extended treatment with physiologic concentrations of dietary phytochemicals results in altered gene expression, reduced growth, and apoptosis of cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther 6, 3071–3079.
145.Xiao CW, Mei J & Wood CM (2008) Effect of soy proteins and isoflavones on lipid metabolism and involved gene expression. Front Biosci 13, 2660–2673.
146.Schatzkin A, Mouw T, Park Y et al. (2007) Dietary fiber and whole-grain consumption in relation to colorectal cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr 85, 1353–1360.
147.Nomura AM, Wilkens LR, Murphy SP et al. (2008) Association of vegetable, fruit, and grain intakes with colorectal cancer: the Multiethnic Cohort Study. Am J Clin Nutr 88, 730–737.
148.Egeberg R, Olsen A, Loft S, Christensen J et al. (2010) Intake of wholegrain products and risk of colorectal cancers in the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. Br J Cancer 103, 730–734.
149.Haas P, Machado MJ, Anton AA et al. (2009) Effectiveness of whole grain consumption in the prevention of colorectal cancer: Meta-analysis of cohort studies. Int J Food Sci Nutr Mar 21: 1–13. Epublication ahead of print.