Skip to main content Accessibility help
×
×
Home

The role of bioactives in energy metabolism and metabolic syndrome

  • A. Bordoni (a1), C. Boesch (a2), C. Malpuech-Brugère (a3), C. Orfila (a2) and L. Tomás-Cobos (a4)...

Abstract

Some food bioactives potentially exert anti-obesity effects. Anthocyanins (ACN), catechins, β-glucan (BG) and n-3 long chain PUFA (LCPUFA) are among the most promising candidates and have been considered as a strategy for the development of functional foods counteracting body weight gain. At present, clinical trials, reviews and meta-analyses addressing anti-obesity effects of various bioactives or bioactive-rich foods show contradictory results. Abdominal obesity is an important criterion for metabolic syndrome (MetS) diagnosis along with glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension. Food bioactives are supposed to exert beneficial effects on these parameters, therefore representing alternative therapy approaches for the treatment of MetS. This review summarises outcomes on MetS biomarkers in recent clinical trials supplementing ACN, catechins, BG and n-3 LCPUFA, focusing mainly on anti-obesity effects. Overall, it is clear that the level of evidence for the effectiveness varies not only among the different bioactives but also among the different putative health benefits suggested for the same bioactive. Limited evidence may be due to the low number of controlled intervention trials or to inconsistencies in trial design, i.e. duration, dose and/or the method of bioactive supplementation (extracts, supplements, rich or enriched food). At present, the question ‘Are bioactives effective in weight management and prevention of metabolic syndrome?’ remains inconclusive. Thus, a common effort to harmonise the study design of intervention trials focusing on the most promising bioactive molecules is urgently needed to strengthen the evidence of their potential in the treatment of obesity, MetS and related diseases.

Copyright

Corresponding author

*Corresponding author: A. Bordoni, email alessandra.bordoni@unibo.it

References

Hide All
1.Eisenstein, J, Roberts, SB, Dallal, G et al. (2002) High-protein weight-loss diets: are they safe and do they work? A review of the experimental and epidemiologic data. Nutr Rev 60, 189200.
2.Sacks, FM, Bray, GA, Carey, VJ et al. (2009) Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates. N Engl J Med 360, 859873.
3.Bosy-Westphal, A & Muller, MJ (2015) Assessment of fat and lean mass by quantitative magnetic resonance: a future technology of body composition research? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 18, 446451.
4.Sakulnarmrat, K, Srzednicki, G & Konczak, I (2014) Composition and inhibitory activities towards digestive enzymes of polyphenolic-rich fractions of Davidson's plum and quandong. LWT – Food Sci Technol 57, 366375.
5.Torres-Fuentes, C, Schellekens, H, Dinan, TG et al. (2015) A natural solution for obesity: bioactives for the prevention and treatment of weight gain. A review. Nutr Neurosci 18, 4965.
6.Eckel, RH, Alberti, KG, Grundy, SM et al. (2010) The metabolic syndrome. Lancet 375, 181183.
7.Khoo, HE, Azlan, A, Tang, ST et al. (2017) Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins: colored pigments as food, pharmaceutical ingredients, and the potential health benefits. Food Nutr Res 61, 121.
8.Vendrame, S, Del Bo, C, Ciappellano, S et al. (2016) Berry fruit consumption and metabolic syndrome. Antioxidants (Basel) 5, e34.
9.Belwal, T, Nabavi, SF, Nabavi, SM et al. (2017) Dietary anthocyanins and insulin resistance: when food becomes a medicine. Nutrients 9, 1111.
10.Wu, T, Gao, Y, Guo, X et al. (2018) Blackberry and blueberry anthocyanin supplementation counteract high-fat-diet-induced obesity by alleviating oxidative stress and inflammation and accelerating energy expenditure. Oxid Med Cell Longev [Epublication 2018].
11.Solverson, PM, Rumpler, WV, Leger, JL et al. (2018) Blackberry feeding increases fat oxidation and improves insulin sensitivity in overweight and obese males. Nutrients 10 [Epublication August 2018].
12.Daneshzad, E, Shab-Bidar, S, Mohammadpour, Z et al. (2018) Effect of anthocyanin supplementation on cardio-metabolic biomarkers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Clin Nutr [Epublication ahead of print version].
13.Amiot, MJ, Riva, C & Vinet, A (2016) Effects of dietary polyphenols on metabolic syndrome features in humans: a systematic review. Obes Rev 17, 573586.
14.Broncel, M, Kozirog, M, Duchnowicz, P et al. (2010) Aronia melanocarpa extract reduces blood pressure, serum endothelin, lipid, and oxidative stress marker levels in patients with metabolic syndrome. Med Sci Monit 16, CR28CR34.
15.Lehtonen, HM, Suomela, JP, Tahvonen, R et al. (2011) Different berries and berry fractions have various but slightly positive effects on the associated variables of metabolic diseases on overweight and obese women. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 394401.
16.Moazen, S, Amani, R, Rad, AH et al. (2013) Effects of freeze-dried strawberry supplementation on metabolic biomarkers of atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes: a randomized double-blind controlled trial. Ann Nutr Metab 63, 256264.
17.Castro-Acosta, ML, Lenihan-Geels, GN, Corpe, CP et al. (2016) Berries and anthocyanins: promising functional food ingredients with postprandial glycaemia-lowering effects. Proc Nutr Soc 75, 342355.
18.Johnson, MH & de Mejia, EG (2016) Phenolic compounds from fermented berry beverages modulated gene and protein expression to increase insulin secretion from pancreatic beta-cells in vitro. J Agric Food Chem 64, 25692581.
19.Luna-Vital, DA & Gonzalez de Mejia, E (2018) Anthocyanins from purple corn activate free fatty acid-receptor 1 and glucokinase enhancing in vitro insulin secretion and hepatic glucose uptake. PLoS ONE 13, e0200449.
20.Rozanska, D & Regulska-Ilow, B (2018) The significance of anthocyanins in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Adv Clin Exp Med 27, 135142.
21.Matsukawa, T, Inaguma, T, Han, J et al. (2015) Cyanidin-3-glucoside derived from black soybeans ameliorate type 2 diabetes through the induction of differentiation of preadipocytes into smaller and insulin-sensitive adipocytes. J Nutr Biochem 26, 860867.
22.Scazzocchio, B, Vari, R, Filesi, C et al. (2011) Cyanidin-3-O-beta-glucoside and protocatechuic acid exert insulin-like effects by upregulating PPARgamma activity in human omental adipocytes. Diabetes 60, 22342244.
23.Castro-Acosta, ML, Smith, L, Miller, RJ et al. (2016) Drinks containing anthocyanin-rich blackcurrant extract decrease postprandial blood glucose, insulin and incretin concentrations. J Nutr Biochem 38, 154161.
24.Jennings, A, Welch, AA, Spector, T et al. (2014) Intakes of anthocyanins and flavones are associated with biomarkers of insulin resistance and inflammation in women. J Nutr, 144, 202208.
25.Soltani, R, Gorji, A, Asgary, S et al. (2015) Evaluation of the effects of Cornus mas L. Fruit extract on glycemic control and insulin level in type 2 diabetic adult patients: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med [Epublication October 2015].
26.Yang, L, Ling, W, Yang, Y et al. (2017) Role of purified anthocyanins in improving cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese men and women with prediabetes or early untreated diabetes-a randomized controlled trial. Nutrients 9 [Epublication October 2017].
27.Yang, L, Ling, W, Du, Z et al. (2017) Effects of anthocyanins on cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Adv Nutr 8, 684693.
28.Hassellund, SS, Flaa, A, Kjeldsen, SE et al. (2013) Effects of anthocyanins on cardiovascular risk factors and inflammation in pre-hypertensive men: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled crossover study. J Hum Hypertens 27, 100106.
29.Zhu, Y, Huang, X, Zhang, Y et al. (2014) Anthocyanin supplementation improves HDL-associated paraoxonase 1 activity and enhances cholesterol efflux capacity in subjects with hypercholesterolemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 99, 561569.
30.Alvarado, J, Schoenlau, F, Leschot, A et al. (2016) Delphinol(R) standardized maqui berry extract significantly lowers blood glucose and improves blood lipid profile in prediabetic individuals in three-month clinical trial. Panminerva Med 58, Suppl. 1, 16.
31.Wallace, TC, Slavin, M & Frankenfeld, CL (2016) Systematic review of anthocyanins and markers of cardiovascular disease. Nutrients 8 [Epublication January 2016].
32.Skates, E, Overall, J, DeZego, K et al. (2018) Berries containing anthocyanins with enhanced methylation profiles are more effective at ameliorating high fat diet-induced metabolic damage. Food Chem Toxicol 111, 445453.
33.Braicu, C, Ladomery, MR, Chedea, VS et al. (2013) The relationship between the structure and biological actions of green tea catechins. Food Chem 141, 32823289.
34.Mielgo-Ayuso, J, Barrenechea, L, Alcorta, P et al. (2014) Effects of dietary supplementation with epigallocatechin-3-gallate on weight loss, energy homeostasis, cardiometabolic risk factors and liver function in obese women: randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Br J Nutr 111, 12631271.
35.Bernatoniene, J & Kopustinskiene, DM (2018) The role of catechins in cellular responses to oxidative stress. Molecules 23, 965.
36.Suzuki, T, Pervin, M, Goto, S. et al. (2016) Beneficial effects of tea and the green tea catechin epigallocatechin-3-gallate on obesity. Molecules 21 [Epublication September 2016].
37.Tokede, OA, Gaziano, JM & Djousse, L (2011) Effects of cocoa products/dark chocolate on serum lipids: a meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr 65, 879886.
38.Hibi, M, Takase, H, Iwasaki, M et al. (2018) Efficacy of tea catechin-rich beverages to reduce abdominal adiposity and metabolic syndrome risks in obese and overweight subjects: a pooled analysis of 6 human trials. Nutr Res 55, 110.
39.Keske, MA, Ng, HL, Premilovac, D et al. (2015) Vascular and metabolic actions of the green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate. Curr Med Chem 22, 5969.
40.Hsu, CH, Liao, YL, Lin, SC et al. (2011) Does supplementation with green tea extract improve insulin resistance in obese type 2 diabetics? A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Altern Med Rev 16, 157163.
41.Jing, Y, Han, G, Hu, Y et al. (2009) Tea consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Gen Intern Med 24, 557562.
42.Shimada, K, Kawarabayashi, T, Tanaka, A et al. (2004) Oolong tea increases plasma adiponectin levels and low-density lipoprotein particle size in patients with coronary artery disease. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 65, 227234.
43.Hosoda, K, Wang, MF, Liao, ML et al. (2003) Antihyperglycemic effect of oolong tea in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 26, 17141718.
44.Fukino, Y, Shimbo, M, Aoki, N et al. (2005) Randomized controlled trial for an effect of green tea consumption on insulin resistance and inflammation markers. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol 51, 335342.
45.Hooper, L, Kay, C, Abdelhamid, A et al. (2012) Effects of chocolate, cocoa, and flavan-3-ols on cardiovascular health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. Am J Clin Nutr 95, 740751.
46.Hartley, L, Flowers, N, Holmes, J et al. (2013) Green and black tea for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, CD009934.
47.Desch, S, Schmidt, J, Kobler, D et al. (2010) Effect of cocoa products on blood pressure: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Hypertens 23, 97103.
48.Legeay, S, Rodier, M, Fillon, L et al. (2015) Epigallocatechin gallate: a review of its beneficial properties to prevent metabolic syndrome. Nutrients 7, 54435468.
49.Nieto, JA, Jaime, L, Arranz, E et al. (2017) Winemaking by-products as anti-inflammatory food ingredients. Food Agric Immunol 28, 15071518.
50.Osakabe, N (2013) Flavan 3-ols improve metabolic syndrome risk factors: evidence and mechanisms. J Clin Biochem Nutr 52, 186192.
51.Roubroeks, JP, Mastromauro, DI, Andersson, R et al. (2000) Molecular weight, structure, and shape of oat (1-->3),(1-->4)-beta-D-glucan fractions obtained by enzymatic degradation with lichenase . Biomacromolecules 1, 584591.
52.Wang, Q & Ellis, PR (2014) Oat beta-glucan: physico-chemical characteristics in relation to its blood-glucose and cholesterol-lowering properties. Br J Nutr 112, Suppl. 2, S4S13.
53.Tovar, J, Johansson, M & Bjorck, I (2016) A multifunctional diet improves cardiometabolic-related biomarkers independently of weight changes: an 8-week randomized controlled intervention in healthy overweight and obese subjects. Eur J Nutr 55, 22952306.
54.Beck, EJ, Tapsell, LC, Batterham, MJ et al. (2010) Oat beta-glucan supplementation does not enhance the effectiveness of an energy-restricted diet in overweight women. Br J Nutr 103, 12121222.
55.EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, N.a.A. (2011) Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to beta-glucans from oats and barley and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1236, 1299), increase in satiety leading to a reduction in energy intake (ID 851, 852), reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 821, 824), and “digestive function” (ID 850) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. EFSA J 9, 2207.
56.USDA (2018) USDA Code of Federal Regulations – Title 21 Food and Drugs ‘Chapter 1- Food and Drugs Administration, sub-chapter B – Food for human consumption’. [Online]. https://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=2d2aeedc9a8718efaefd92a31fecba16&mc=true&tpl=/ecfrbrowse/Title21/21CIsubchapB.tpl (accessed August 2018).
57.Tiwari, U & Cummins, E (2011) Meta-analysis of the effect of beta-glucan intake on blood cholesterol and glucose levels. Nutrition 27, 10081016.
58.Whitehead, A, Beck, EJ, Tosh, S et al. (2014) Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat beta-glucan: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr 100, 14131421.
59.Ibrugger, S, Kristensen, M, Poulsen, MW et al. (2013) Extracted oat and barley beta-glucans do not affect cholesterol metabolism in young healthy adults. J Nutr 143, 15791585.
60.Biorklund, M, van Rees, A, Mensink, RP et al. (2005) Changes in serum lipids and postprandial glucose and insulin concentrations after consumption of beverages with beta-glucans from oats or barley: a randomised dose-controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr 59, 12721281.
61.Kerckhoffs, DA, Hornstra, G & Mensink, RP (2003) Cholesterol-lowering effect of beta-glucan from oat bran in mildly hypercholesterolemic subjects may decrease when beta-glucan is incorporated into bread and cookies. Am J Clin Nutr 78, 221227.
62.Charlton, KE, Tapsell, LC, Batterham, MJ et al. (2012) Effect of 6 weeks’ consumption of beta-glucan-rich oat products on cholesterol levels in mildly hypercholesterolaemic overweight adults. Br J Nutr 107, 10371047.
63.Wolever, TMS, Tosh, SM, Gibbs, AL et al. (2010) Physicochemical properties of oat β-glucan influence its ability to reduce serum ldl cholesterol in humans: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Clin Nutr 92, 723732.
64.Grundy, MM & Fardet, A (2018) Processing of oat: the impact on oat's cholesterol lowering effect. Food Funct 9, 13281343.
65.Lovegrove, JA, Clohessy, A, Milon, H et al. (2000) Modest doses of beta-glucan do not reduce concentrations of potentially atherogenic lipoproteins. Am J Clin Nutr 72, 4955.
66.McKeown, NM, Meigs, JB, Liu, S et al. (2002) Whole-grain intake is favorably associated with metabolic risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the Framingham Offspring Study. Am J Clin Nutr 76, 390398.
67.Sahyoun, NR, Jacques, PF, Zhang, XL et al. (2006) Whole-grain intake is inversely associated with the metabolic syndrome and mortality in older adults. Am J Clin Nutr 83, 124131.
68.Tosh, SM (2013) Review of human studies investigating the post-prandial blood-glucose lowering ability of oat and barley food products. Eur J Clin Nutr 67, 310317.
69.He, LX, Zhao, J, Huang, YS et al. (2016) The difference between oats and beta-glucan extract intake in the management of hba1c, fasting glucose and insulin sensitivity: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Food Funct 7, 14131428.
70.Tessari, P & Lante, A (2017) A multifunctional bread rich in beta glucans and low in starch improves metabolic control in type 2 diabetes: a controlled trial. Nutrients 9, 297.
71.Margetts, BM, Beilin, LJ, Vandongen, R et al. (1987) A randomized controlled trial of the effect of dietary fibre on blood pressure. Clin Sci 72, 343350.
72.Evans, CE, Greenwood, DC, Threapleton, DE et al. (2015) Effects of dietary fibre type on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of healthy individuals. J Hypertens 33, 897911.
73.Behall, KM, Scholfield, DJ & Hallfrisch, J (2006) Whole-grain diets reduce blood pressure in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women. J Am Diet Assoc 106, 14451449.
74.Tovar, J, Nilsson, A, Johansson, M et al. (2014) Combining functional features of whole-grain barley and legumes for dietary reduction of cardiometabolic risk: a randomised cross-over intervention in mature women. Br J Nutr 111, 706714.
75.Mackie, A, Rigby, N, Harvey, P et al. (2016) Increasing dietary oat fibre decreases the permeability of intestinal mucus. J Funct Foods 26, 418427.
76.Gunness, P, Michiels, J, Vanhaecke, L et al. (2016) Reduction in circulating bile acid and restricted diffusion across the intestinal epithelium are associated with a decrease in blood cholesterol in the presence of oat beta-glucan. FASEB J 30, 42274238.
77.Thandapilly, SJ, Ndou, SP, Wang, Y et al. (2018) Barley beta-glucan increases fecal bile acid excretion and short chain fatty acid levels in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals. Food Funct 9, 30923096.
78.Parra, D, Ramel, A, Bandarra, N et al. (2008) A diet rich in long chain omega-3 fatty acids modulates satiety in overweight and obese volunteers during weight loss. Appetite 51, 676680.
79.Bordoni, A, Di Nunzio, M, Danesi, F et al. (2006) Polyunsaturated fatty acids: from diet to binding to ppars and other nuclear receptors. Genes Nutr 1, 95106.
80.Kalupahana, NS, Claycombe, KJ & Moustaid-Moussa, N (2011) (n-3) fatty acids alleviate adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance: mechanistic insights. Adv Nutr 2, 304316.
81.Lorente-Cebrian, S, Costa, AG, Navas-Carretero, S et al. (2013) Role of omega-3 fatty acids in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular diseases: a review of the evidence. J Physiol Biochem 69, 633651.
82.Martinez-Victoria, E & Yago, MD (2012) Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and body weight. Br J Nutr 107, Suppl. 2, S107-S116.
83.Oh, PC, Koh, KK, Sakuma, I et al. (2014) Omega-3 fatty acid therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation, however, did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. Int J Cardiol 176, 696702.
84.Hames, KC, Morgan-Bathke, M, Harteneck, DA et al. (2017) Very-long-chain omega-3 fatty acid supplements and adipose tissue functions: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr 105, 15521558.
85.Tardivo, AP, Nahas-Neto, J, Orsatti, CL et al. (2015) Effects of omega-3 on metabolic markers in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome. Climacteric 18, 290298.
86.Barbosa, MM, Melo, AL & Damasceno, NR (2017) The benefits of omega-3 supplementation depend on adiponectin basal level and adiponectin increase after the supplementation: a randomized clinical trial. Nutrition 34, 713.
87.Lopez-Huertas, E (2012) The effect of epa and dha on metabolic syndrome patients: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr 107, Suppl. 2, S185A194.
88.Yubero-Serrano, EM, Delgado-Lista, J, Tierney, AC et al. (2015) Insulin resistance determines a differential response to changes in dietary fat modification on metabolic syndrome risk factors: the LIPGENE study. Am J Clin Nutr 102, 15091517.
89.Lavie, CJ, Milani, RV, Mehra, MR et al. (2009) Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and cardiovascular diseases. J Am Coll Cardiol 54, 585594.
90.Venturini, D, Simao, AN, Urbano, MR et al. (2015) Effects of extra virgin olive oil and fish oil on lipid profile and oxidative stress in patients with metabolic syndrome. Nutrition 31, 834840.
91.Lee, TC, Ivester, P, Hester, AG et al. (2014) The impact of polyunsaturated fatty acid-based dietary supplements on disease biomarkers in a metabolic syndrome/diabetes population. Lipids Health Dis 13, 196.
92.Liu, X, Kris-Etherton, PM, West, SG et al. (2016) Effects of canola and high-oleic-acid canola oils on abdominal fat mass in individuals with central obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring) 24, 22612268.
93.Ortega, JF, Morales-Palomo, F, Fernandez-Elias, V et al. (2016) Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and oleate enhances exercise training effects in patients with metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring) 24, 17041711.
94.Bondia-Pons, I, Poho, P, Bozzetto, L et al. (2014) Isoenergetic diets differing in their n-3 fatty acid and polyphenol content reflect different plasma and HDL-fraction lipidomic profiles in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Mol Nutr Food Res 58, 18731882.
95.Ramprasath, VR, Thandapilly, SJ, Yang, S et al. (2015) Effect of consuming novel foods consisting high oleic canola oil, barley beta-glucan, and dha on cardiovascular disease risk in humans: the confidence (canola oil and fibre with dha enhanced) study – protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials 16, 489.
96.PATHWAY-27 Consortium (2013) PATHWAY-27 Website. [Online]. http://www.pathway27.eu/ (accessed August 2018).
97.PATHWAY-27 Consortium. Scientific guidelines for the substantiation of health benefits from a (bioactive-enriched) food. http://www.pathway27.eu/
Recommend this journal

Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this journal to your organisation's collection.

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
  • ISSN: 0029-6651
  • EISSN: 1475-2719
  • URL: /core/journals/proceedings-of-the-nutrition-society
Please enter your name
Please enter a valid email address
Who would you like to send this to? *
×

Keywords

Metrics

Full text views

Total number of HTML views: 0
Total number of PDF views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

Abstract views

Total abstract views: 0 *
Loading metrics...

* Views captured on Cambridge Core between <date>. This data will be updated every 24 hours.

Usage data cannot currently be displayed